Birth Control (birth + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Birth Control

  • birth control pill

  • Selected Abstracts


    Fixing Men: Sex, Birth Control, and AIDS in Mexico by Matthew C. Gutmann

    AMERICAN ETHNOLOGIST, Issue 2 2010
    MATTHEW DUDGEON
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Bridewealth and Birth Control: Low Fertility in the Indonesian Archipelago, 1500,1900

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
    Peter Boomgaard
    Before the onset of the present demographic transition, population growth in Indonesia had reached unprecedentedly high levels. This article demonstrates that such high levels were a recent phenomenon. Prior to 1900 rates of natural population increase were low to very low in most areas in Indonesia. This runs counter to expectations based on Hajnal's "Eastern marriage pattern," which could imply high growth levels in extended family areas, such as most Indonesian regions outside Java in the past. Usually, the low population growth rates in Southeast Asia are attributed to high mortality owing to high levels of violent conflict. It is argued that other factors contributing to such high levels of mortality should receive more attention. In this article it is also argued that low fertility rates, too, played a role in generating low rates of natural increase. The article discusses the influence of marriage patterns, household structure, methods of birth control, adoption, and slavery on fertility. [source]


    That Many of Us Should Not Parent

    HYPATIA, Issue 4 2006
    Lisa Cassidy
    In liberal societies (where birth control is generally accepted and available), many people decide whether or not they wish to become parents. One key question in making this decision is, What kind of parent will I be? Parenting competence can be ranked from excellent to competent to poor. Cassidy argues that those who can foresee being poor parents, or even merely competent ones, should opt not to parent. [source]


    Any friend of the movement: Networking for birth control, 1920,1940 and Beyond the reproductive body: The politics of women's health and work in early Victorian England

    NURSING INQUIRY, Issue 4 2006
    Hera Cook
    [source]


    Parent-Child Relations Among Minor Females Attending U.S. Family Planning Clinics

    PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Issue 4 2005
    Rachel K. Jones
    CONTEXT: Relatively little is known about parent-child relations among minor females who use family planning clinics. Such information could inform the debate on parental involvement legislation and help clinics develop effective strategies to promote positive parental engagement. METHODS: Self-administered surveys were completed in 2003,2004 by 1,526 women younger than 18 attending 79 U.S. family planning clinics, providing measures of parent-child relations, perceived parental attitudes toward sex and birth control, and parental knowledge of the clinic visit. Associations between relationships with parents and parental knowledge of clinic visits were examined using t tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: Many adolescents had talked to parents about sexual issues (50,80%, depending on the topic) and reported high levels of connectedness with parents (68%). A substantial minority (19%) perceived that parents disapprove of their both having sex and using birth control. The majority (60%) reported that a parent knew of their clinic visit; such reports were most common among those who had high levels of connectedness to parents and communication with parents about sexual issues, and those who did not perceive parents to disapprove of sex and birth control. Adolescents aged 15 and younger were more likely than 17-year-olds to indicate that a parent knew they were at the clinic and to report that a parent suggested the clinic. CONCLUSIONS Overall, minors attending family planning clinics have good relations with parents. The youngest adolescents may be at family planning clinics specifically because parents are involved in their reproductive health decisions. [source]


    On Postponement and Birth Intervals

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Ian M. TimŠus
    Much of the literature on fertility transition presumes that birth control is practiced either to limit family size or to space births. This article argues that women also use birth control to postpone pregnancy. Postponement is not synonymous with spacing. It arises when women delay their next birth for indefinite periods for reasons unrelated to the age of their youngest child, but without deciding not to have any more children. Postponement has a distinctive impact on the shape of birth-interval distributions that differs from the impacts of family size limitation, birth spacing, or a mixture of the two behaviors. Some populations, such as that in South Africa, have developed fertility regimes characterized by birth intervals far longer than can be accounted for by birth spacing. Postponement of further childbearing that eventually becomes permanent may be an important driver of the transition to lower fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. [source]


    Bridewealth and Birth Control: Low Fertility in the Indonesian Archipelago, 1500,1900

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
    Peter Boomgaard
    Before the onset of the present demographic transition, population growth in Indonesia had reached unprecedentedly high levels. This article demonstrates that such high levels were a recent phenomenon. Prior to 1900 rates of natural population increase were low to very low in most areas in Indonesia. This runs counter to expectations based on Hajnal's "Eastern marriage pattern," which could imply high growth levels in extended family areas, such as most Indonesian regions outside Java in the past. Usually, the low population growth rates in Southeast Asia are attributed to high mortality owing to high levels of violent conflict. It is argued that other factors contributing to such high levels of mortality should receive more attention. In this article it is also argued that low fertility rates, too, played a role in generating low rates of natural increase. The article discusses the influence of marriage patterns, household structure, methods of birth control, adoption, and slavery on fertility. [source]


    Uncertain Aims and Tacit Negotiation: Birth Control Practices in Britain, 1925,50

    POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, Issue 2 2000
    Kate Fisher
    Evidence from oral history interviews is used to suggest the need to reevaluate our understanding of the dynamics of fertility decisions and behavior in the first half of the twentieth century. Those interviewed stressed their vague and haphazard approach to contraceptive use, in sharp contrast to the dominant depiction in studies of fertility decline that emphasize the degree to which individuals made deliberate and calculated choices about family size based on an assessment of the costs and benefits of childrearing. Details of individual contraceptive strategies elucidate the complexities of birth control behavior: couples, lacking explicit aims for family limitation, adopted diverse methods of birth control, using them for different reasons, at different times, with varying degrees of determination and confidence and frequently with very little direct discussion or planning. Explicit articulation of aims was not a necessary prerequisite of the spread of birth control; accepted gender roles meant that responsibilities and obligations emerged gradually and tacitly. As a result, nevertheless, low fertility was effectively achieved. [source]


    The Basic Goods Theory and Revisionism: A Methodological Comparison on the Use of Reason and Experience as Sources of Moral Knowledge

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 4 2001
    Todd A. Salzman
    In Roman Catholic moral theology there is an ongoing debate between the proportionalist or revisionist school and the traditionalist school that has developed what is referred to as the ,New Natural Law Theory' or ,Basic Goods Theory' (BGT). The stakes in this debate have been raised with Pope John Paul II's encyclical Veritatis Splendor (1993) on fundamental moral theology that condemned ,proportionalism' or ,teleologism' as an ethical theory while utilizing many of the ideas, concepts, and terminology of the BGT, thereby implicitly endorsing that ethical theory. While absolute norms and intrinsically evil acts have frequently been the focus of debate between these two schools, what is it that divides them fundamentally, on the level of ethical method? It is the role and function of reason and experience as two sources of moral knowledge, in part, that distinguish these two versions of natural law on the most basic level. While the BGT has a strict hierarchy of the sources of moral knowledge that posits the hierarchical magisterium as the definitive interpreter of reason and experience, revisionists posit a more dialogical relationship between reason, experience, and the magisterium. On certain ethical issues (e.g., artificial birth control), the experience of the faithful as well as the rational arguments developed by revisionist Catholic moral theologians challenge some of the normative claims of the magisterium. This paper investigates the methodological use of reason and experience in each theory's interpretation of natural law and how and why these two sources of moral knowledge lead to fundamentally divergent normative claims on particular ethical issues. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Immunocontraceptive Effect of DNA Vaccine Targeting Fertilin , in Male Mice

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Zhongyi Sun
    Citation Sun Z, Jin F, Li Y, Zhang J. Immunocontraceptive effect of DNA vaccine targeting fertilin , in male mice. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 282,290 Problem, In previous study, two eukaryotic expression plasmids pSG.SS.YL-F,.ECD and pSG.SS.C3d3.YL-F,.ECD were successfully constructed and transfected in HEK293 cells. Now, we want to evaluate the immunocontraceptive effect of these two DNA vaccines that target the extracellular domain (F,.ECD) of sperm antigen fertilin , subunit in Kunming male mice. Method of study, DNA vaccines pSG.SS.YL-F,.ECD and pSG.SS.C3d3.YL-F,.ECD were injected into Kunming male mice three times at 0, 4, and 8 weeks, respectively. An antifertility effect was observed. Serum antibody and cytokines were also detected. Results, Both vaccines significantly decreased both the pregnancy rate and the number of newborns. The serum levels of IL-2 and INF-, significantly decreased, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 significantly increased. Compared with pSG.SS.YL-F,.ECD, pSG.SS.C3d3.YL-F,.ECD was more effective in birth control, and its specific F, -IgG antibody titer in serum was significantly higher and longer. Conclusion, The results indicate that both pSG.SS.YL-F,.ECD and pSG.SS.C3d3.YL-F,.ECD DNA vaccines are effective in birth control of mice. The immunocontraceptive effect of F,.ECD DNA vaccine in male mice is improved with the addition of immuno-adjuvant C3d3. [source]


    Risky Parental Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Activity at First Coitus

    THE MILBANK QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2002
    Esther I. Wilder
    In comparison with other industrialized countries, the United States has exceptionally high rates of adolescent pregnancy and abortion. In 1999, nearly half of high-school students reported having had sexual intercourse, and 6 percent said they had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant (CDC 2000). American adolescents are especially unlikely to use birth control, and those who do practice contraception tend to rely on inefficient methods (Forrest 1990). Sexual behavior at first intercourse is of particular interest because early entry into sexual activity is associated with contraceptive nonuse and a heightened risk of pregnancy (Abma and Sonenstein 2001; Koenig and Zelnik 1982; Zabin, Kantner, and Zelnik 1979). Moreover, the timing of first intercourse may be a useful marker for risky sexual behavior and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (Greenberg, Magder, and Aral 1992). For example, age at first intercourse is inversely associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners (McGuire et al. 1992). Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used to examine the impact of parents' behavior on adolescents' sexual experience and contraceptive use. All else being equal, adolescents whose parents engage in risky behaviors are especially likely to be sexually active and to have had sex before age 15. These findings are only partly attributable to the link between parents' risky behaviors (smoking, drinking, driving without seatbelts) and adolescents' risky behaviors (smoking, drinking, delinquent activity, association with substance-using peers). Although parental behaviors are effective predictors of adolescents' sexual activity, they are not effective predictors of contraceptive use or of method choice at first coitus. Overall, parents with low levels of self-efficacy seem to be especially likely to have children at risk of engaging in problem behaviors. [source]


    Re: Case report of failed tubal occlusion using Essure pbc (permanent birth control) hysteroscopic sterilisation procedure

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Rafael F. Valle
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Office ultrasound should be the first-line investigation for confirmation of correct ESSURE placement

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Gareth WESTON
    Abstract Background:, Hysteroscopic options for permanent birth control (PBC), such as the ESSURE device, are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation. The success of the technique hinges upon correct device placement within the intramural portion of the fallopian tube. Objective:, To determine the utility of office ultrasound for confirming correct ESSURE PBC device placement at the 3-month check in a general gynaecology practice. Study population:, The first 99 patients in a single centre following ESSURE PBC device placement. Type of study:, Prospective cohort study. Methods:, Clinical data was reviewed from patient records, both from the time of the initial procedure and from the follow-up at 3 months. All women underwent an ultrasound at the 3-month check. Results:, The ESSURE PBC devices were placed successfully in 84.8% of cases. Of those cases with apparently successful placement, office ultrasound alone confirmed correct device placement at the 3-month check in 94% of cases. Further imaging was needed in only 6% of cases. Discussion:, Office ultrasound performed by the general gynaecologist at the 3-month check is more convenient for the patient, and is sufficient to confirm ESSURE PBC device placement in the vast majority of cases. We propose that the protocol for ESSURE PBC device follow-up should be altered to replace X-ray with ultrasound as the first-line investigation. [source]