Birth Cohort Study (birth + cohort_study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Birth Cohort Study

  • prospective birth cohort study

  • Selected Abstracts

    Prenatal growth, postnatal growth and trait anxiety in late adulthood , the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    J. Lahti
    Lahti J, Räikkönen K, Pesonen A-K, Heinonen K, Kajantie E, Forsén T, Osmond C, Barker DJP, Eriksson JG. Prenatal growth, postnatal growth and trait anxiety in late adulthood , the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Objective:, Trait anxiety may predispose to anxiety disorders and cardiovascular events. We tested whether prenatal growth or postnatal growth from birth to 11 years of age and in adulthood predict trait anxiety in late adulthood. Method:, Women (n = 951) and men (n = 753) reported trait anxiety using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Scale at an average age of 63.4 years and growth was estimated from records. Results:, Higher trait anxiety was predicted by smaller body size at birth, in infancy and in adulthood. Moreover, faster growth particularly from seven to 11 years of age and slower growth between 11 and 63 years predicted higher trait anxiety. Conclusion:, We found a pattern of pre- and postnatal growth that predisposed to higher trait anxiety in late adulthood. This pattern resembles that found to increase the risk of cardiovascular events and, thus, points to a shared common origin in a suboptimal prenatal and childhood developmental milieu. [source]

    Timing of infection and development of wheeze, eczema, and atopic sensitization during the first 2 yr of life: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    Monique Mommers
    Mommers M, Thijs C, Stelma F, Penders J, Reimerink J, van Ree R, Koopmans M. Timing of infection and development of wheeze, eczema, and atopic sensitization during the first 2 yr of life: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 983,989. © 2010 The John Wiley & Sons A/S To investigate if infections in pregnancy and very early in life present a risk for wheezing, eczema, or atopic sensitization in later infancy. A total of 2319 children enrolled before birth in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study were followed during their first 2 yr of life using repeated questionnaires. Information was obtained on common colds, fever, and diarrhea with fever as well as on wheeze and eczema at ages 3 and 7 months and 1 and 2 yr, respectively. Blood samples were collected from 786 children at age 2 yr for specific immunoglobulin E analyses. Children with a common cold [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.03 95% CI 1.21,3.41] or fever episode (aOR 1.81 95% CI 1.10,2.96) in the first 3 months of life had a higher risk of new onset wheeze in the second year of life compared to children who had not. For children with diarrhea with fever in the first 3 months of life, the aOR for new onset wheeze in the second year of life was 3.94 (95% CI 1.36,11.40) compared to children without diarrhea. Infections becoming clinically manifest during the first 3 months of life may be a general marker for a wheezy phenotype. [source]

    The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2004
    Leon Feinstein
    This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on this change, and the extent to which this change influenced adult outcomes. The analyses were conducted on 11,200 individuals from the UK Birth Cohort Study who were born in 1970 and who were resurveyed at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, and 30. Substantial discontinuities emerged during middle childhood, with strong SES influences. Changes in middle childhood strongly affected adult outcomes, often outweighing the effects of cognitive development before age 5. [source]

    Parental mental health, education, age at childbirth and child development from six to 18 months

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2009
    For-Wey Lung
    Abstract Aim: To investigate the effect six-month parental mental health has on children's six and 18-month development. Parental covariates of age and education were also analysed. Methods: Through a national random selection, 21 648 babies were selected. Parental self perceived overall mental health was measured using 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and children's development using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) instrument which measures gross motor, fine motor, language and social dimensions of children's development. Results: Both multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling showed that when the covariates of parental education and age at childbirth were added, the effect parental mental health has on children's development decreases. Additionally, maternal mental health had a more persistent and pervasive effect than paternal mental health. Father's mental health at six months had a delayed effect, in that its influence was seen only with children's development at 18 months. Of the three factors of parental mental health, education and age at childbirth, parental education had the most pervasive and persistent effect on children's development. Conclusion: Although parental mental health has an effect on children's development, parental education and age at childbirth are vital confounding factors, which should be considered in future studies. Clinical health care providers should provide childcare resources and instructions to younger, less educated and parents with mental symptoms. [source]

    Migration, family structure and children's well-being: a multi-level analysis of the second generation of the 1958 Birth Cohort Study

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 4 2002
    Georgia Verropoulou
    The relationship between moving home, family structure and children's well-being, is examined in the National Child Development Study (NCDS) Second-Generation. Well-being is measured as attainment in maths and reading, and on two behavioural assessments. Multivariate multi-level modelling allows for heterogeneity both within and between families. We find little to no association between moving home and children's well-being. Associations between family living arrangements and children's development appear to be mediated by human, financial and social capital, but not, on average, worsened by geographical mobility. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Do parents with an atopic family history adopt a ,prudent' lifestyle for their infant? (KOALA Study)

    I. Kummeling
    Summary Background Atopic parents may adopt lifestyle characteristics that allegedly protect against atopic disease. If this is true, infants from atopic parents will be characterized by low-risk behaviour. Consequently, aetiologic studies on lifestyle factors and allergic disease in childhood may be biased by confounding by indication. Objective We explored whether the prevalence of ,prudent' lifestyle characteristics differs between atopic and non-atopic families. Methods Information about a family history of atopic manifestations and lifestyle characteristics was collected by repeated questionnaires in the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study in 2469 infants from families with divergent lifestyle practices (conventional vs. alternative). Results In conventional lifestyle families, infants were less often exposed to environmental tobacco smoke when parents were atopic than when they were non-atopic (10.0% vs. 14.7%, P=0.001). In alternative lifestyle families, exposure to smoking was very rare in both groups (1.7% vs. 2.6%). Pets were less often present in families with than without parental atopy (38.8% vs. 51.1%, P=0.008 for conventional lifestyle families; 43.0% vs. 48.4%, P=0.014 for alternative lifestyle families). Infants with atopic siblings had less often been vaccinated according to the standard scheme than infants with non-atopic siblings in conventional lifestyle families (76.6% vs. 85.5%, P<0.001). In alternative lifestyle families, the difference was in the same direction but not statistically significant (30.1% vs. 40.5%, P=0.143). Antibiotic use, breastfeeding and consumption of organic foods were unrelated to a family history of atopic manifestations. Conclusion Some ,prudent' lifestyle characteristics differed between atopic and non-atopic families, depending on whether atopic manifestations were present in parents or older siblings. This has important consequences for the validity in epidemiological studies on the aetiology of allergy in children. Confounding by indication because of a family history of atopic manifestations can best be controlled for by considering atopy in parents and siblings as separate confounders. [source]

    Substance use and periodontal disease among Australian Aboriginal young adults

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Lisa M. Jamieson
    ABSTRACT Aim To investigate the effects of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol and petrol sniffing on periodontal disease among Australian Aboriginal young adults. Design Cross-sectional nested within a long-standing prospective longitudinal study. Setting Aboriginal communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Participants Members of the Aboriginal Birth Cohort study who were recruited from birth between January 1987 and March 1990 at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Northern Territory, Australia. Data were from wave III, when the mean age of participants was 18 years. Measurements Clinical dental examination and self-report questionnaire. Findings Of 425 participants with complete data, 26.6% had moderate/severe periodontal disease. There was elevated risk of periodontal disease associated with tobacco [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.06,2.40], marijuana (PR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.05,1.97) and petrol sniffing (PR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.08,3.11), but not alcohol (PR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.67,1.27). Stratified analysis showed that the effect of marijuana persisted among tobacco users (PR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.03,2.11). It was not possible to isolate an independent effect of petrol sniffing because all petrol sniffers used both marijuana and tobacco, although among smokers of both substances, petrol sniffing was associated with an 11.8% increased prevalence of periodontal disease. Conclusions This is the first time that substance use has been linked with periodontal disease in a young Australian Aboriginal adult population, and the first time that petrol sniffing has been linked with periodontal disease in any population. The role of substance use in periodontal disease among this, and other, marginalized groups warrants further investigation. [source]

    HbA1c levels in non-diabetic Dutch children aged 8,9 years: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    H. Jansen
    Abstract Aim, Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is considered the best index of glycaemic control in established diabetes. It may also be useful in the diagnosis of diabetes and as a screening tool. Little is known about the distribution of HbA1c in healthy children and its predictors. The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of HbA1c in non-diabetic Dutch children aged 8,9 years and to investigate potential associations of HbA1c in this group. Methods HbA1c was measured in 788 non-diabetic children aged 8,9 years participating in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Data on parents and children were collected prospectively by questionnaires. Weight, height and waist and hip circumference of the children were measured when blood samples were taken. Results, Mean (sd) HbA1c was 4.9 ± 0.33%, range 3.5,6.0%. HbA1c was significantly higher in boys (4.9 ± 0.31 vs. 4.9 ± 0.33%) and in children of mothers with gestational diabetes (5.0 ± 0.37 vs. 4.9 ± 0.32%). We found a significant inverse association between HbA1c and haemoglobin (regression coefficient: ,0.169 (95% CI ,0.221 to ,0.118), P < 0.001). HbA1c was not significantly associated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, parental diabetes or maternal body mass index. Conclusions, We found no significant relation between known risk factors for Type 2 diabetes and HbA1c at age 8,9 years. Moreover, there was a significant inverse association between haemoglobin and HbA1c. These results suggest that HbA1c may not only reflect the preceding blood glucose levels, but seems to be determined by other factors as well. [source]

    Early weaning and alcohol disorders in offspring: biological effect, mediating factors or residual confounding?

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Rosa Alati
    ABSTRACT Aims This study explores associations between early weaning and alcohol use disorders in youth and mechanisms by which these associations may operate. Design We used data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes, an Australian birth cohort study based in Brisbane. Setting and participants: This study is based on a subsample of 2370 participants for whom complete data were available at age 21 years. Length and method of breastfeeding were assessed at 6 months. Measurements Alcohol use disorders were assessed at age 21 using the life-time version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview,computerized version (CIDI-Auto). We adjusted for maternal age, marital status, education, alcohol, tobacco use, anxiety, depression and maternal attitudes towards the baby. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) and Intellect Quotient (IQ) were measured with the Child Behaviour Checklist (5 years) and the Ravens SM (14 years), respectively. Findings Those who had been weaned within 2 weeks of being born and breastfed at regular intervals were at increased risk of meeting criteria for alcohol use disorders at age 21 [odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.07, 2.72]. Conclusion This study confirms a small but robust association between early weaning and increased risk of alcohol use disorders. [source]

    Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
    Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]

    Drinking patterns in mid-adolescence and psychosocial outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2004
    J. Elisabeth Wells
    ABSTRACT Aims To describe the pattern of drinking at age 16 and to relate this to outcomes at 16,21 years and 21,25 years across a number of psychosocial domains. Design A prospective birth cohort study with annual follow-up until age 16 then at 18, 21 and 25 years. Setting Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants Of 1265 subjects, 953 were interviewed at age 16. Measurements Multiple measures of family background were collected from birth to 16 years. Alcohol consumption was measured in terms of frequency, usual or last quantity drunk and most drunk per occasion. Problems were also recorded. Questions about psychiatric symptoms enabled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) criteria to be applied. Detailed reports on educational outcomes, employment, sexual behaviours and offending were collected. Findings Four latent classes were required to describe drinking at age 16, but these appeared to lie along a single dimension which strongly predicted outcomes at ages 16,21 and 21,25 across all domains (alcohol-related, substance dependence, mental health, education, sexual relationships and offending). After controlling for background and correlates only a small number of outcomes were still related consistently to drinking at age 16 over both periods: most alcohol-related outcomes, the number of sexual partners and the extent of violent offending. Conclusions Drinking at age 16 is a clear indicator of future life-course over most domains in late adolescence and early adulthood. Many of these associations are due to other covariates. Outcomes specific to drinking at age 16 are alcohol outcomes, number of sexual partners and violence. [source]

    Money, Marriage, and Children: Testing the Financial Expectations and Family Formation Theory

    Christina M. Gibson-Davis
    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (N = 2,954), a birth cohort study, this work examines how gains in earnings and income are associated with marriage and subsequent childbearing for low-income couples. Using change models, results indicate that positive changes in earnings, controlling for baseline levels of earnings, were associated with greater odds of marriage. Cohabiting couples who became poor were associated with a 37% decrease in marriage likelihood. Neither earnings nor income was affiliated with additional fertility. Results are consistent with the Financial Expectations and Family Formation theory, which posits that positive economic circumstances are necessary for marriage, but are not associated with subsequent childbearing. [source]

    Maternal smoking increases risk of allergic sensitization and wheezing only in children with allergic predisposition: longitudinal analysis from birth to 10 years

    ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
    T. Keil
    Background:, The role of passive smoking for allergies and asthma in children above the age of 3 years remains unclear and possible interactive effects with parental allergies have not been formally evaluated in long-term studies. To examine the interaction of passive smoking and an allergic predisposition regarding allergic sensitization, allergic airway symptoms and respiratory infections during the first 10 years of life. Methods:, In a prospective multicenter birth cohort study with 1314 recruited children in Germany, we assessed serum immunoglobulin E against common allergens at seven time points, and parental smoking and respiratory symptoms annually by using questionnaires. Longitudinal analyses were performed using generalized estimating equation models (stratified by parental allergy status). Results:, During the first 10 years, 18% of the children were exposed to regular maternal smoking since pregnancy, 43% to irregular maternal or only paternal smoking. Among children with two allergic parents, a mother who smoked regularly significantly increased the odds for allergic sensitization (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.3,18.2) and wheezing (adjusted OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7,19.0) in her child compared with children who were never exposed. For those with only one allergic parent, the odds were doubled and also statistically significant, whereas in children without allergic parents maternal smoking had no effects. There was no association of maternal smoking with allergic rhinitis or respiratory infections. Conclusions:, Our results suggest that regular maternal smoking is a strong risk factor for allergic sensitization and asthma symptoms during the first 10 years of life, but only in children with allergic parents. [source]

    Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and asthma, allergic symptoms and sensitization in young children , the PIAMA study

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2006
    S. M. Willers
    Background:, Several studies reported inconsistent associations between using gas for cooking and respiratory symptoms or lung function in children. Kitchen ventilation characteristics may modify the relationship between gas cooking and respiratory health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kitchen ventilation (while cooking) on the relationship between gas cooking, combustion product dispersal, and respiratory and allergic outcomes in children. Methods:, Data on respiratory and allergic symptoms and diagnoses were collected by yearly questionnaires in a population of over 3000 children participating in a birth cohort study on development of allergy and asthma. At 4 years of age, a sub-sample of 647 children provided blood samples for antibody testing. Data on gas cooking and kitchen ventilation were collected when the children were 5 years old. Based on these data a model was constructed to determine the chance of accumulation of combustion products (CACP) in the kitchen. Results:, No relationship was found between gas cooking and any of the respiratory or allergy outcomes except nasal symptoms. The overall results did not change when the ,CACP' was used as exposure variable instead, while the association for nasal symptoms decreased to borderline significance. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that gas cooking per se is associated with nasal symptoms in young children and not with the other respiratory symptoms that were investigated. Taking kitchen ventilation characteristics into account did not lead to different conclusions in this population where, according to the classification system, the majority of households using gas for cooking have insufficient kitchen ventilation. [source]

    The costing and funding of longitudinal birth cohort studies

    Alan Doyle
    Key to the success of any longitudinal birth cohort study is the availability of appropriate and long-term levels of funding. The ease or difficulty of obtaining necessary funds to carry out data collection, preparation and documentation efficiently will determine the quality of data and the ease with which it is made available for collaborators. Various strategies for acquiring funding are outlined. [source]

    Cord blood lipid profile and associated factors: baseline data of a birth cohort study

    Roya Kelishadi
    Summary The cord blood lipid profile may be associated with lifelong changes in the metabolic functions of the individual. The aim of the present study was for the first time in Iran to assess the cord blood lipid profile of neonates, as well as some of its environmental influencing factors. The subjects were 442 (218 boys and 224 girls) normal vaginal delivery newborns. Overall, 14.4% of neonates were preterm and the rest were full-term. In total, 9.2% (n = 35) of the full-term newborns were small-for-gestational-age (SGA), of which 16 had a ponderal index (PI) below the 10th percentile (SGA I) and 19 had a PI above the 10th percentile (SGA II), 5.5% (n = 21) were large-for-gestational-age (LGA), and the remainder were appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA). Before becoming pregnant, 6.9% of mothers were underweight, 49.3% had normal body mass index (BMI), 39.4% were overweight and 4.4% were obese. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in girls were significantly higher than in boys (80.3 ± 33.3 and 31.1 ± 9.9 vs. 73.3 ± 23.1 and 28.8 ± 8.7 mg/dL, respectively, P < 0.05). The mean apolipoprotein A (apoA) of neonates with underweight mothers was significantly lower, and the mean apoB level of those with overweight mothers was significantly higher than other neonates. The mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C and apoA of the LGA newborns were significantly lower, and their apoB was significantly higher compared with AGA and SGA neonates. The SGA I neonates had significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and apoA, as well as higher triglycerides, lipoprotein a and apoB than the SGA II group. The mean cord blood triglycerides of full-term neonates was significantly higher than preterm neonates (69.4 ± 11.9 vs. 61.4 ± 12.7 mg/dL, respectively, P = 0.04). A preconception maternal BMI of ,25 kg/m2 correlated significantly with the cord triglycerides (OR = 1.3, [95% CI 1.07, 1.5]) and with apoB (OR = 1.4, [95% CI 1.1, 1.5]). The BMI <18 of mothers before pregnancy correlated with low HDL-C (OR = 1.3, [95% CI 1.04, 1.7]). Birthweight correlated with high cord triglyceride level (SGA: OR = 1.4, [95% CI 1.1, 1.7]; LGA: OR = 1.6, [95% CI 1.3, 1.7] compared with AGA). These associations remained significant even after adjusting for the preconception BMI of mothers. Our findings reflect the possible interaction of environmental factors and fetal growth and the in utero lipid metabolism. Long-term longitudinal studies in different ethnicities would help to elucidate the relationship. [source]

    Maternal, paternal and environmental tobacco smoking and breast feeding

    Gabriel M. Leung
    Summary The effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on breast-feeding patterns are poorly understood, while those of parental smoking on breast-feeding initiation vs. duration have not been clearly delineated. We conducted a prospective, population-based birth cohort study to examine the independent effects of maternal, paternal and ETS on breast-feeding initiation and duration. A total of 6747 Hong Kong Chinese infants were recruited and followed up in 1997,8. We obtained detailed household smoking history and recorded breast-feeding patterns in three follow-up interviews over 9 months. We found that both maternal and paternal smoking were associated with not initiating breast feeding (odds ratio [OR] for ever maternal smoking = 2.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63, 3.86; OR for ever paternal smoking = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.39). Exposure to ETS in utero and post partum were also related to not starting breast feeding (ORETS in utero = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.99,1.24; ORETS post partum = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.36). These effects, however, did not persist for breast-feeding duration of , 4 months. Cox proportional hazards modelling confirmed the lack of association between any form of smoking and breast-feeding duration. Our findings suggest that smoking of any kind, during or after pregnancy, is a strong risk indicator for not initiating breast feeding. Smoking as a risk indicator for underlying socio-economic, demographic and psychosocial factors is probably responsible for most of the observed adverse effects, although we cannot rule out direct contributions from pathophysiological mechanisms. Public health strategies directed at these underlying factors should be vigorously pursued to reduce the adverse effects of tobacco on breast feeding and infant health in general. [source]

    The relationships among immunoglobulin levels, allergic sensitization, and viral respiratory illnesses in early childhood

    Michael E. Possin
    Possin ME, Morgan S, DaSilva DF, Tisler C, Pappas TE, Roberg KA, Anderson E, Evans MD, Gangnon R, Lemanske RF, Gern JE. The relationships among immunoglobulin levels, allergic sensitization, and viral respiratory illnesses in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 990,996. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S IgE plays an essential role in type I allergy, however, there is less information about the relationship between other immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) and atopic phenotypes in early childhood. We hypothesized that levels of circulating IgA in early childhood would be inversely related to the number of respiratory infections and the risk of becoming sensitized to allergens. Immunoglobulin levels were analyzed (ELISA) in plasma samples (IgG, IgA), and in nasal secretions (IgA) from children participating in a high-risk birth cohort study. Samples were available from 264 children at age 2 yr and 257 children at age 4 yr, and results were compared to rates of respiratory illnesses, allergic sensitization, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma. Children who were sensitized to allergens had higher rather than lower levels of circulating IgA. A subgroup analysis showed that IgA levels were increased in relationship to foods sensitization (58 vs. 50 mg/dl, p = 0.003) but not aeroallergen sensitization (52 vs. 53 mg/dl, p = 0.11). IgA levels in the plasma correlated with levels of IgE levels (rs =0.19, p = 0.003). Levels of IgE, but not IgG or IgA, were positively correlated with rates of respiratory illnesses, AD, and the risk of developing asthma. Finally, there were no significant relationships between IgA in nasal secretions and infectious outcomes. In conclusion, low-normal concentrations of plasma IgA are associated with a reduced prevalence of allergic sensitization in infancy. Further, levels of IgA and IgG in plasma within the range of normal, and IgA in nasal secretions, do not appear to influence the risk of subsequent respiratory illnesses. Further studies to define relationships between IgA and allergic sensitization are likely to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in infancy. [source]

    Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze.

    Prospective birth cohort study in 4-year olds
    Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Maugeri U, Mrozek-Budzyn D, Mroz E, Klimaszewska-Rembiasz M, Flak E, Edwards S, Spengler J, Jacek R, Sowa A. Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze. Prospective birth cohort study in 4-year olds. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e723,e732. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S The main goal of the study was to determine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured by PAH-DNA adducts in umbilical cord blood and early wheeze. The level of PAH-DNA adducts in the cord blood is assumed to reflect the cumulative dose of PAHs absorbed by the foetus over the prenatal period. The effect of prenatal PAH exposure on respiratory health measured by the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the number of wheezing days in the subsequent 4 yr follow-up was adjusted for potential confounding factors such as personal prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gender of child, maternal characteristics (age, education and atopy), parity and mould/dampness in the home. The study sample includes 339 newborns of non-smoking mothers 18,35 yr of age and free from chronic diseases, who were recruited from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The number of wheezing days during the first 2 yr of life was positively associated with prenatal level of PAH-DNA adducts (IRR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.52,1.88), prenatal particulate matter (PM2.5) level dichotomized by the median (IRR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.25,1.51), maternal atopy (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.29,1.58), mouldy/damp house (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.27,1.61). The level of maternal education and maternal age at delivery was inversely associated with the IRRs for wheeze. The significant association between frequency of wheeze and the level of prenatal environmental hazards (PAHs and PM2.5) was not observed at ages 3 or 4 yrs. Although the frequency of wheezing at ages 3 or 4 was no longer associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs and PM2.5, its occurrence depended on the presence of wheezing in the first 2 yr of life, which nearly tripled the risk of wheezing in later life. In conclusion, the findings may suggest that driving force for early wheezing (<24 months of age) is different to those leading to later onset of wheeze. As we reported no synergistic effects between prenatal PAH (measured by PAH-DNA adducts) and PM2.5 exposures on early wheeze, this suggests the two exposures may exert independent effects via different biological mechanism on wheeze. [source]

    Mannose-binding lectin cord blood levels and respiratory symptoms during infancy: a prospective birth cohort study

    Luregn Jan Schlapbach
    Respiratory infections cause considerable morbidity during infancy. The impact of innate immunity mechanisms, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL), on respiratory symptoms remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether cord blood MBL levels are associated with respiratory symptoms during infancy and to determine the relative contribution of MBL when compared with known risk factors. This is a prospective birth cohort study including 185 healthy term infants. MBL was measured in cord blood and categorized into tertiles. Frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms were assessed weekly until age one. Association with MBL levels was analysed using multivariable random effects Poisson regression. We observed a trend towards an increased incidence rate of severe respiratory symptoms in infants in the low MBL tertile when compared with infants in the middle MBL tertile [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95,2.66; p = 0.076]. Surprisingly, infants in the high MBL tertile suffered significantly more from severe and total respiratory symptoms than infants in the middle MBL tertile (IRR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.20,3.25; p = 0.008). This association was pronounced in infants of parents with asthma (IRR = 3.64; 95% CI: 1.47,9.02; p = 0.005). The relative risk associated with high MBL was similar to the risk associated with well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking or childcare. In conclusion the association between low MBL levels and increased susceptibility to common respiratory infections during infancy was weaker than that previously reported. Instead, high cord blood MBL levels may represent a so far unrecognized risk factor for respiratory morbidity in infants of asthmatic parents. [source]

    Relation between stressful life events, neuropeptides and cytokines: results from the LISA birth cohort study

    Gunda Herberth
    Stressful life events evidently have an impact on development of allergic diseases, but the mechanism linking stress to pathological changes of immune system function is still not fully understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between stressful life events, neuropeptide and cytokine concentrations in children. Within the LISAplus (Life style-Immune system-Allergy) study, blood samples from children of 6 yr of age were analysed for concentration of the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP) and the Th1/Th2 cytokines interferon-, (IFN-,) and interleukin (IL)-4. Life events such as severe disease or death of a family member, unemployment or divorce of the parents were assessed with a questionnaire filled in by the parents. For 234 children, blood analysis and questionnaire data regarding life events were available. Children with separated/divorced parents showed high VIP levels and high concentrations of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 in their blood. Severe diseases and death of a family member were neither associated with neuropeptide levels nor with cytokine concentrations. Unemployment of the parents was associated with decreased IFN-, concentrations in children's blood but not with neuropeptide levels, whereas children experiencing concomitant severe disease and death of a family member had reduced SP blood levels. The neuropeptide VIP might be a mediator between stressful life events and immune regulation contributing to the Th2 shifted immune response in children with separated/divorced parents. Unemployment of the parents was associated with immune regulation in children on the basis of a still unknown mechanism whereas reduced SP levels seem to have no effect on immune regulation. [source]

    The BAMSE Project: presentation of a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study

    Magnus Wickman
    The aims of this prospective and longitudinal project are to establish crucial risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases in childhood, and to study factors of importance for prognosis at already established allergic disease. Socio-economic factors, such as inequality in health, are also to be addressed. The project started in February 1994. To reach sufficient power, 4,000 children had to be included. In November 1996, this number was reached (4,093). Inclusion in the study was made at 3,4 months of age. At that time, and before induction of allergic disease/asthma of the child, a questionnaire focused on exposure, genetics and socio-economic factors was answered. Settled dust was sampled for later analysis of furred animal and mite allergens. When the children were aged both 1 and 2 years, their parents were asked to fill in new questionnaires focusing on respiratory and allergic (skin, gastrointestinal) symptoms, but also key variables of exposure. Cases with asthma are identified and, for every case, two matched controls drawn. During the following winter, the homes of cases and controls were investigated and the temperature, indoor humidity, air change rate and NO2 measured. Two hundred cases (5%) were expected to be identified during the first 2 years of the children's lives. Some 479 homes have now been investigated and 97.7% of the original 4,093 children still remain in the cohort. The 2-year symptom follow-up ended in November 1998. The 4-year follow-up started on 1 September 1998 and was planned to be finished in June 2000. Questionnaires (allergic and respiratory symptoms, key variables of exposure at home and day care) are sent out to all 4,093 families. All children are invited for examination, lung function tests (PEF, flow-volume, MVV and oxygen clearance) and physical performance. Blood is taken from all children (20 ml). Allergy screening is performed and specific IgE examined. Blood cells will be frozen to allow for later DNA extraction. In subsets (children with any allergic and/or respiratory manifestation and controls), markers of inflammation in blood and urine will be examined, as well as eosinophils in nasal smear. Interviews are carried out to assess the severity of asthma, type/periodicity of health care given, asthma medication and parental sick leave when appropriate. As a separate project, financed by the EU, outdoor pollution as risk factors for asthma and allergies are to be studied within the BAMSE cohort. A follow-up of 8,9 years is underway. [source]

    Life course weight gain and C-reactive protein levels in young adults: Findings from a Brazilian birth cohort,

    Aydin Nazmi
    Rapid weight gain in childhood is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases in adults. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a mediator of atherosclerosis and chronically elevated levels predict cardiovascular outcomes. The effects of life course weight gain on CRP levels are not clear. The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study (n = 5,914) has prospectively collected weight and health data at several follow-ups since birth. The most recent was in 2004,05, when 77.4% of the cohort was traced and CRP levels were measured in 89% of those interviewed (n = 3827). Geometric mean (SE) C-reactive protein levels were 0.89 mg/l (0.03) and 1.66 mg/l (0.04) in men and women, respectively. In analyses adjusted for confounding variables, weight gain in infancy showed a weak negative association among males, but from the second year onwards, weight gain was positively associated with CRP levels. In females, weight gain was associated with higher CRP at every period tested. The strongest associations were observed in the most recent (18,23 years) period; CRP ratios (95% CI) per z score increase in weight gain were 1.78 (1.57,2.00) and 1.52 (1.30,1.78) for men and women, respectively. Males who were stunted at 2 years and centrally obese at 23 years had the highest CRP levels (P = 0.002 for interaction). In summary, rapid weight gain throughout life predicted higher CRP levels. Public health efforts need to tackle chronic under-nutrition in infancy, together with rapid weight gain in later childhood and adolescence, especially in countries undergoing the nutritional transition. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits

    Philippe Grandjean MD
    Abstract Background Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation of exposure limits. Methods In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral outcome variables at age 7 years. With at least three exposure parameters available, factor analysis and structural equation modeling could be applied to determine the total imprecision of each biomarker. The estimated imprecision was then applied to adjust benchmark dose calculations and the derived exposure limits. Results The exposure biomarkers correlated well with one another, but the cord blood mercury concentration showed the best associations with neurobehavioral deficits. Factor analysis and structural equation models showed a total imprecision of the cord-blood parameter of 25,30%, and almost twice as much for maternal hair. These imprecisions led to inflated benchmark dose levels. Adjusted calculations resulted in an exposure limit 50% below the level recommended by the U.S. National Research Council. Conclusions The biomarker imprecisions of 25,50% much exceeded normal laboratory variability. Such imprecision causes underestimation of dose-related toxicity and therefore must be considered in the data analysis and when deriving exposure limits. Future studies should ideally include at least three exposure parameters to allow independent assessment of total imprecision. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:712,719, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Political attitudes, social participation and social mobility: a longitudinal analysis1

    Lindsay Paterson
    Abstract It is often suggested that the political attitudes and social participation which have underpinned the welfare-state democracies have depended on large amounts of upward social mobility. The demographic heterogeneity of the service class, according to this view, induced in them a willingness to lead a common political project seeking to establish a common social citizenship. As the amount of upward mobility stagnates or even begins to fall, it has then further been claimed that there might emerge a degree of ideological closure in the service class that might erode their commitment to civic values. The 1958 British birth cohort study is used to investigate this question. Longitudinal data are invaluable here because they allow us to distinguish between two hypotheses: that upward mobility as such has induced in the service class certain attitudes and propensities to participate, or that the more important influence is the early socialization through which upwardly mobile people went. The conclusion of the analysis is that, although the civic values of the service class have not depended on upward mobility, this is much more true of cognitively able people than of others, and so is dependent on the somewhat meritocratic basis of selection into the salariat. [source]

    Are common symptoms in childhood associated with chronic widespread body pain in adulthood?: Results from the 1958 british birth cohort study

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 5 2007
    Gareth T. Jones
    Objective Studies have shown that common symptoms in childhood predict the onset of chronic widespread pain in the short term. However, it is unknown whether this association persists into adulthood. The aim of the current study was to examine, prospectively, whether children with common symptoms experience an increased risk of chronic widespread pain as adults. Methods Information on vomiting/bilious attacks, abdominal pain, and headaches/migraine was collected on 10,453 7-year-old children, by maternal report. Similar data were gathered when the children were ages 11 years and 16 years. Body pain at age 45 years was assessed by postal questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to examine chronic widespread pain in relation to childhood symptom reporting. Results Of the 10,453 subjects on whom data were obtained when they were children, 7,470 participated at age 45 years (71.5%). Children with multiple symptoms at age 7 years experienced a 50% increased risk of chronic widespread pain (relative risk 1.5 [95% confidence interval 1.03, 2.3]). This relationship persisted after adjustment for sex, recent psychological distress, and childhood and current socioeconomic status, and after excluding children with major illnesses that might have explained early symptom reporting. A similar relationship with symptoms at ages 11 and 16 years was observed, although this was not associated with additional risk compared with that found with the presence of symptoms at age 7 years. However, despite a modest increase in risk, the presence of multiple symptoms at early ages was uncommon (<1.5%), and therefore, the associated population attributable risk was low (<1%). Conclusion Multiple common symptoms in childhood are associated with an increased risk of chronic widespread pain in adulthood. However, the magnitude of this increased risk is modest, and reports of multiple symptoms in childhood are uncommon. Thus the "early pain pathway" phenomenon is applicable only to a small proportion of individuals with chronic widespread pain. [source]

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts nicotine disorder (dependence or withdrawal) in young adults , a birth cohort study

    Frances V. O'Callaghan
    Abstract Objective: To investigate whether maternal smoking during pregnancy predicts offspring nicotine disorder (dependence or withdrawal) at 21 years. Method: Participants comprised a prospective birth cohort involving 7,223 singleton children whose mothers were enrolled between 1981 and 1983 at the first antenatal visit to the Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland. The present sub-cohort consisted of 2,571 youth who completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-computerised version (CIDI-Auto) that assesses nicotine dependence and withdrawal according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria at the 21-year follow-up. Results: 12.8% of offspring met criteria for nicotine dependence and 8.5% met criteria for withdrawal. 16.6% met criteria for either dependence or withdrawal. Smoking during pregnancy resulted in offspring being more likely to have dependence or withdrawal at 21 years than offspring of mothers who never smoked (age adjusted odds ratio 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.96). Conclusions: Findings emphasise the long-term adverse effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, including nicotine dependence in young adult offspring. Implications: Public health approaches should strengthen arguments for mothers to cease smoking during pregnancy in view of the long-term health implications for offspring, and reinforce measures to help smokers among pregnant women and women of childbearing age to stop. [source]

    Is adiposity across life associated with subsequent hysterectomy risk?

    Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study
    Objective, To examine the associations between adiposity at time points from early life onwards and subsequent hysterectomy risk. Design, Prospective birth cohort study. Setting, England, Scotland and Wales. Population, Women from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development study, with complete data on hysterectomy status (n= 1790). Methods, Survival analysis methods were used to examine the associations between body mass index at time points across life and subsequent hysterectomy rates. Main outcome measure, Self-reported hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy. Results, From 20 years onwards, those women who were classified as underweight had lower hysterectomy rates, and from 36 years onwards, those women who were overweight had higher hysterectomy rates than those who were normal weight. Women who were obese in adolescence and early adulthood had lower rates of hysterectomy than those who were normal weight, although numbers categorised as obese at these ages were small. Women who were obese in later adulthood had higher subsequent rates of hysterectomy. Greater increases in weight between ages 36 and 53 years were associated with higher rates of hysterectomy in later adulthood. These results were not explained by parity, age at menarche or socio-economic position. Conclusions, These results suggest that variation in hysterectomy rates may be partially explained by variation in adiposity, and so with the recent changes in levels of overweight and obesity in populations, there may be increasing demand for gynaecological treatments in the future. [source]

    Explaining differences in birthweight between ethnic populations.

    The Generation R Study
    Objective, To examine whether differences in birthweight of various ethnic groups residing in the Netherlands can be explained by determinants of birthweight. Design, Population-based birth cohort study. Setting, Data of pregnant women and their partners in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population, We examined data of 6044 pregnant women with a Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, Capeverdean, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole, Surinamese-Hindustani and Surinamese-other ethnic background. Methods, Regression analyses were used to assess the impact of biomedical, socio-demographic and lifestyle-related determinants on birthweight differences. Main outcome measure, Birthweight was established immediately after delivery in grams. Results, Compared with mean birthweight of offspring of Dutch women (3485 g, SD 555), the mean birthweight was lower in all non-Dutch populations, except in Moroccans. Differences ranged from an 88-g lower birthweight in offspring of the Turkish women to a 424-g lower birthweight in offspring of Surinamese-Hindustani women. Differences in gestational age, maternal and paternal height largely explained the lower birthweight in the Turkish, Antillean, Surinamese-Creole and Surinamese-other populations. Differences in birthweight between the Dutch and the Capeverdean and Surinamese-Hindustani populations could only partly be explained by the studied determinants. Conclusions, These results confirm significant differences in birthweight between ethnic populations that can only partly be understood from established determinants of birthweight. The part that is understood points to the importance of determinants that cannot easily be modified, such as parental height. Further study is necessary to obtain a fuller understanding. [source]

    Breastfeeding duration and exclusivity associated with infants' health and growth: data from a prospective cohort study in Bavaria, Germany

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2009
    Barbara Rebhan
    Abstract Aim: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and infant health and to describe growth in the first 9 months. Methods: Mothers delivering a baby in April 2005 were recruited throughout Bavaria, Germany, for a prospective birth cohort study. These mothers reported breastfeeding data, health and growth data of 1901 infants assessed by a physician in questionnaires on day 2,6, and in months 2, 4, 6 and 9. Subjects were healthy term infants with a birth weight ,2500 g. We compared 475 infants breastfed exclusively for ,6 months (group A), 870 infants breastfed fully/exclusively ,4 months, but not exclusively ,6 months (group B) and 619 infants not breastfed/breastfed <4 months (group C). Results: In multivariate analysis ,6 months of exclusive breastfeeding reduced significantly the risk for ,1 episode of gastrointestinal infection(s) during months 1,9 compared to no/<4 months breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44,0.82). The application of the World Health Organization (WHO) , child growth standards showed lower weight-for-length z-scores in first days of life in group C versus groups A and B, whereas in months 6/7 group C showed the highest scores. Conclusion: Differences in child growth depending on breastfeeding duration should be investigated further. Concerning health outcomes our findings support the recommendation for ,6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. [source]