Binding Site Upstream (binding + site_upstream)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Regulation of anaerobic arginine catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis by a protein of the Crp/Fnr family

Abdelouahid Maghnouj
Abstract Arginine anaerobic catabolism occurs in Bacillus licheniformis through the arginine deiminase pathway, encoded by the gene cluster arcABDC. We report here the involvement of a new protein, ArcR, in the regulation of the pathway. ArcR is a protein of the Crp/Fnr family encoded by a gene located 109 bp downstream from arcC. It binds to a palindromic sequence, very similar to an Escherichia coli Crp binding site, located upstream from arcA. Residues in the C-terminal domain of Crp that form the DNA binding motif, in particular residues Arg-180 and Glu-181 that make specific bonds with DNA, are conserved in ArcR, suggesting that the complexes formed with DNA by Crp and ArcR are similar. Moreover, the pattern of DNase I hypersensitivity sites induced by the binding of ArcR suggests that ArcR bends the DNA in the same way as Crp. From the absence of anaerobic induction following inactivation of arcR and from the existence of a binding site upstream of the arcA transcription start point, it can be inferred that ArcR is an activator of the arginine deiminase pathway. [source]

Reduced levels of miR-34a in neuroblastoma are not caused by mutations in the TP53 binding site,

Galina Feinberg-Gorenshtein
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children below the age of 5 years. miR-34a, located in chromosome band 1p36, has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in NB. In addition, it has been shown that miR-34a is activated by TP53 by binding to a TP53 binding site upstream to the mature miR-34a. We studied NB tumors from 57 patients for miR-34a expression levels, 1p status, mutations in the TP53 coding region and mutations of the TP53 binding site. Reduced expression levels of miR-34a were identified in tumors harboring 1p36.3 Loss (P = 0.028). No mutations were identified in the coding region of TP53, or in the TP53 binding site. Thus, mutations in the binding site are not an additional mechanism for the inactivation of miR-34a in NB. Other regulatory mechanisms controlling miR-34a expression and its relationship to TP53 should be further explored. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The cia operon of Streptococcus mutans encodes a unique component required for calcium-mediated autoregulation

Xuesong He
Summary Streptococcus mutans is a primary pathogen for dental caries in humans. CiaR and CiaH of S. mutans comprise a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) involved in regulating various virulent factors. However, the signal that triggers the CiaRH response remains unknown. In this study, we show that calcium is a signal for regulation of the ciaRH operon, and that a double-glycine-containing small peptide encoded within the ciaRH operon (renamed ciaX) mediates this regulation. CiaX contains a serine + aspartate (SD) domain that is shared by calcium-binding proteins. A markerless in-frame deletion of ciaX reduced ciaRH operon expression and diminished the calcium repression of operon transcription. Point mutations of the SD domain resulted in the same phenotype as the in-frame deletion, indicating that the SD domain is required for CiaX function. Further characterization of ciaX demonstrated that it is involved in calcium-mediated biofilm formation. Furthermore, inactivation of ciaR or ciaH led to the same phenotype as the in-frame deletion of ciaX, suggesting that all three genes are involved in the same regulatory pathway. Sequence analysis and real-time RT-PCR identified a putative CiaR binding site upstream of ciaX. We conclude that the ciaXRH operon is a three-component, self-regulatory system modulating cellular functions in response to calcium. [source]

Submicromolar hydrogen peroxide disrupts the ability of Fur protein to control free-iron levels in Escherichia coli

Shery Varghese
Summary In aerobic environments, mutants of Escherichia coli that lack peroxidase and catalase activities (Hpx,) accumulate submicromolar concentrations of intracellular H2O2. We observed that in defined medium these strains constitutively expressed members of the Fur regulon. Iron-import proteins, which Fur normally represses, were fully induced. H2O2 may antagonize Fur function by oxidizing the Fur:Fe2+ complex and inactivating its repressor function. This is a potential problem, as in iron-rich environments excessive iron uptake would endanger H2O2 -stressed cells by accelerating hydroxyl-radical production through the Fenton reaction. However, the OxyR H2O2 -response system restored Fur repression in iron-replete Luria,Bertani medium by upregulating the synthesis of Fur protein. Indeed, when the OxyR binding site upstream of fur was disrupted, Hpx, mutants failed to repress transporter synthesis, and they exhibited high levels of intracellular free iron. Mutagenesis and bacteriostasis resulted. These defects were eliminated by mutations or chelators that slowed iron import, confirming that dysregulation of iron uptake was the root problem. Thus, aerobic organisms must grapple with a conundrum: how to monitor iron levels in oxidizing environments that might perturb the valence of the analyte. The induction of Fur synthesis by the OxyR response comprises one evolutionary solution to that problem. [source]

Real-time observation of Wnt ,-catenin signaling in the chick embryo

Anne C. Rios
Abstract A critical mediator of cell,cell signaling events during embryogenesis is the highly conserved Wnt family of secreted proteins. Reporter constructs containing multimerized TCF DNA binding sites have been used to detect Wnt ,-catenin dependent activity during animal development. In this report, we have constructed and compared several TCF green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs. They contained 3, 8, or 12 TCF binding sites upstream of a minimal promoter driving native or destabilized enhanced GFP (EGFP). We have used the electroporation of somites in the chick embryo as a paradigm to test them in vivo. We have verified that they all respond to Wnt signaling in vivo. We have then assessed their efficiency at reflecting the activity of the Wnt pathway. Using destabilized EGFP reporter constructs, we show that somite cells dynamically regulate Wnt/,-catenin,dependent signaling, a finding that was confirmed by performing time-lapse video confocal observation of electroporated embryos. Developmental Dynamics 239:346,353, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]