Zymosan Particles (zymosan + particle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Changes in murine bone marrow macrophages and erythroid burst-forming cells following the intravenous injection of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP)

A. L. Giuliani
Abstract: In order to explore the effect on bone marrow macrophages of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP), mice were injected intravenously with a preparation of such liposomes at a dose known to deplete spleen and liver macrophages. Two days later, the macrophages in the marrow of the femoral bones were quantified by flow cytometry using a macrophage-specific monoclonal antibody (F4/80), and their ultrastructure and phagocytic activity towards zymosan particles was assessed. To determine the effect on erythropoiesis of liposome-encapsulated Cl2MDP-induced changes in bone marrow macrophages, red blood cell parameters and the formation of erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E)-derived colonies in vitro were evaluated. In mice injected with liposome-encapsulated Cl2MDP, there was a 54% and 67% decrease in the total number of bone marrow macrophages as compared to uninjected controls and mice treated with empty liposomes, respectively. Moreover, residual macrophages showed an abnormal ultrastructure, with reduced numbers of crystalloid inclusions and increased numbers of large myelin figures. However, the phagocytic activity of these cells was unimpaired or slightly enhanced. In mice injected with liposome-encapsulated Cl2MDP there was an approximately 60% decrease in the percentage and total number of circulating reticulocytes and a 54% reduction in the BFU-E number, demonstrating deregulation of erythropoiesis under conditions of macrophage loss and impairment. The results suggest that mice treated with liposome-encapsulated Cl2MDP are a model for studying the role of macrophages in erythropoiesis. [source]

Receptor-mediated phagocytosis of rat macrophages is regulated differentially for opsonized particles and non-opsonized particles containing ,-glucan

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
Jonathan S. Reichner
Summary Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytic capacities are differentially regulated by resting and wound-derived macrophages. Furthermore, the phagocytosis of non-opsonized zymosan and ,-glucan particles was quantified to determine whether cells differentially regulate non-opsonic lectinophagocytosis in accordance with the carbohydrate composition of the ligand. In that regard, wound macrophages exhibited profound differential regulation in lectinophagocytosis with a seven-fold increase in phagocytosis of ,-glucan particles following overnight culture but with a relatively modest increase in internalization of mannan-containing zymosan. Cultured peritoneal macrophages increased uptake of both particles similarly. Upon activation with interferon-,/lipopolysaccharide (IFN-,/LPS), wound macrophages selectively suppressed ,-glucan ingestion, while phagocytosis of zymosan particles was unaffected. Lectinophagocytosis was decreased in activated peritoneal macrophages regardless of particle composition and was due in part to a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism which was without a role in regulation of wound macrophage lectinophagocytosis. Overnight culture of wound macrophages suppressed their capacity for opsonic-dependent phagocytosis independently of activation, whereas suppression of phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages was activation-dependent. Regulation of all three phagocytic pathways was achieved distinctly by peritoneal and wound-derived macrophages, with changes found in the percentage of resident peritoneal macrophages capable of phagocytosis, whereas the phagocytic capacity of wound macrophages was primarily affected by the number of particles ingested by individual cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the differential regulation of phagocytic pathways encompasses the nature of the phagocytic particle, the site from which macrophages are obtained, their response to activating agents and the mechanism through which the cell population alters its phagocytic potential. [source]

Calcium dynamics of hemocytes of the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of digenetic trematodes and selected bioactive compounds

Lynn A. Hertel
Abstract. Two fluorescent calcium indicators, Calcium Green AM (CG) and Fura Red AM (FR), were used in conjunction with confocal microscopy to monitor hemocyte calcium dynamics following exposure to digenetic trematode larvae or relevant bioactive compounds. Changes in intracellular calcium levels, as measured by fluctuations in the CG/FR ratio, were correlated with hemocyte morphological changes. Hemocytes exposed to culture medium remained spread and had few calcium transients. However, following exposure to sporocysts, sporocyst secretory-excretory products, or small rediae of Echinostoma paraensei in culture medium, significantly more hemocytes both rounded up and exhibited calcium transients, though some hemocytes showed one response or the other but not both. Hemocytes did not respond significantly to large rediae, to sporocysts of another digenean (Schistosoma mansoni), or to bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Exposure to either zymosan particles or mannose BSA provoked responses similar to those seen with sporocysts of E. paraensei Caffeine caused rounding but no calcium transients, and phorbol myristate acetate provoked calcium transients but no rounding. The results show that sporocysts and small rediae of E. paraensei have pronounced effects on hemocyte rounding and calcium dynamics, and that these two events can occur independently of one another. This suggests that parasites may influence hemocytes in at least two separate ways. [source]

Effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract on the chemiluminescence kinetics of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and on their glycolytic and phagocytic activity

Bruno Zappacosta
Abstract Water-soluble extracts of cigarette smoke are easily formed in some body compartments, such as saliva or fluid lining alveolar spaces, and can act on both cellular and extracellular compartments. In this paper we have analysed the effect of aqueous smoke extract on some metabolic and functional aspects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In particular, the following cellular aspects were studied: chemiluminescence, glycolysis, membrane fluidity and microscopic interaction with zymosan particles. While chemiluminescence and glycolytic activity are highly inhibited, no effect of smoke extract on membrane fluidity was observed. Moreover, the response of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was significantly delayed, while that of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was anticipated. Furthermore, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils pretreated with aqueous smoke extract was also significantly hindered. All these results might indicate that the finely tuned activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is somehow hampered by the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke in a way which makes these cells less effective against bacteria and more noxious towards surrounding tissues. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]