Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Kinds of ZnO

  • doped zno
  • pure zno

  • Terms modified by ZnO

  • zno Nanorod
  • zno Nanowire
  • zno content
  • zno crystal
  • zno epilayer
  • zno epitaxial film
  • zno film
  • zno grain
  • zno layer
  • zno nanocrystal
  • zno nanoparticle
  • zno nanorod
  • zno nanostructure
  • zno nanotube
  • zno nanowire
  • zno particle
  • zno powder
  • zno single crystal
  • zno structure
  • zno substrate
  • zno surface
  • zno thin film

  • Selected Abstracts

    Preparation, structure and photoluminescence properties of SiO2,coated ZnS nanowires

    Changhyun Jin
    Abstract It is essential to passivate one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with insulating materials to avoid crosstalking as well as to protect them from contamination and oxidation. The structure and influence of thermal annealing on the photoluminescence properties of ZnS-core/SiO2 -shell nanowires synthesized by the thermal evaporation of ZnS powders followed by the sputter deposition of SiO2 were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the cores and shells of the core-shell nanowires were single crystal zinc blende-type ZnO and amorphous SiO2, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed that the core-shell nanowires had a green emission band centered at around 525 nm with a shoulder at around 385 nm. The PL emission of the core-shell nanowires was enhanced in intensity by annealing in an oxidative atmosphere and further enhanced by subsequently annealing in a reducing atmosphere. Also the origin of the enhancement of the green emission by annealing is discussed based on the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis results. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Synthesis of highly-ordered hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Y. F. Zhu
    Abstract In order to improve the performance of ZnO-based solar cells, highly-ordered hierarchical ZnO nanostructures were design and fabricated. The hierarchical nanostructures were grown on FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) glass substrates via a facile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical route. The morphology and structure of the obtained products has been confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The performance investigation of the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) demonstrates that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructure-based solar cell shows a higher short-circuit current density compared with the ZnO nanowire counterpart. The enhanced current density may be due to the fact that the surface area of the hierarchical nanostructures is increased. These results indicate that hierarchical ZnO nanostructures are more suitable for the application as photoelectrode of DSSCs. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Transformation of a zinc inclusion complex to wurtzite ZnS microflowers under solvothermal conditions

    Liwei Mi
    Abstract Wurtzite zinc sulfide (ZnS) microflowers were synthesized successfully by a convenient solvothermal route in ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylenediamine (EN) using thiourea and zinc inclusion complex as starting materials. The inclusion complex {[Zn(bipy)2(H2O)2](4-Cl-3-NH2 -C6H3SO3)2(bipy) (H2O)2}n was achieved by the reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and 4-Cl-3-NH2 -C6H3SO3 with the bridging ligand bipy under moderate conditions, in which bipy is 4,4,-bipyridine and 4-Cl-3-NH2C6H3SO3NH is 4-Chloro-3-aminobenzene sulfonic acid. The phase purity of bulk products was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and element analysis. The factors that might affect the purity of the ZnS product during the synthesis were discussed in detail. It was found that the products were significantly affected by the mixed solvents and the starting materials. X-ray single crystal diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the products. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Low temperature hydrothermal growth and optical properties of ZnO nanorods

    J. H. Yang
    Abstract Well-faceted hexagonal ZnO nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method at relative low temperature (90°C) without any catalysts or templates. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown in an aqueous solution that contained Zinc chloride (ZnCl2, Aldrich, purity 98%) and ammonia (25%). Most of the ZnO nanorods show the perfect hexagonal cross section and well-faceted top and side surfaces. The diameter of ZnO nanorods decreased with the reaction time prolonging. The samples have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement. XRD pattern confirmed that the as-prepared ZnO was the single-phase wurtzite structure formation. SEM results showed that the samples were rod textures. The surface-related optical properties have been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and Raman spectrum. Photoluminescence measurements showed each spectrum consists of a weak band ultraviolet (UV) band and a relatively broad visible light emission peak for the samples grown at different time. It has been found that the green emission in Raman measurement may be related to surface states. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Optical investigations on the existence of phase transition in ZnO:Li thin films prepared by DC sputtering method

    A. Abu EL-Fadl
    Abstract We investigated the effect of temperature on the absorption spectra of Zn0.8Li0.2O thin films (ZnO:Li), deposited at 573 K, in the wavelength range 190-800 nm. The films were deposited on sapphire, MgO or quartz substrates by DC sputtering method. The results show a shift of the optical energy gap (Eg), with direct allowed transition type near the fundamental edge, to lower wavelengths as the temperature increases. The temperature rate of Eg changes considerably showing an anomaly around 320 K depending on type of substrate. The founded results indicated that replacement of Zn ions with Li ions induces a ferroelectric phase in the ZnO wurtzite-type semiconductor. The exponential dependence of the absorption coefficient on the incident photon energy suggests the validity of the Urbach rule. (© 2007 WILEY -VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Growth and characterisation of Zn:LiNbO3/Mg:LiNbO3 multilayer thin films grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    H. J. Lee
    Abstract 1, 3 and 5 mol% ZnO doped LiNbO3 film and 2 mol% MgO doped LiNbO3 multilayer films were grown on the LiNbO3 (001) substrate by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method with a Li2O-V2O5 system. We examined the optical transmission spectra of the Zn:LiNbO3 by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR). The crystallinity and the lattice mismatch between the Zn:LiNbO3 film and Mg:LiNbO3 film was confirmed by x-ray rocking curve (XRC) and observed the ZnO and MgO distribution in the cross-section of the multilayer thin films by electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the surface morphology of the films was observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Growth of ZnO crystals by vapour transport: Some ways to act on physical properties

    R. Tena-Zaera
    Abstract Nowadays, the growth of ZnO by vapor transport in silica ampoules is generally made in presence of graphite. As it has been already shown, this means that the growth process is carried out in presence of a Zn excess. In order to control that and act, as a consequence, on the physical properties of crystals we have performed a systematic study of the growth process in a wide range of Zn excess compositions using well defined experimental conditions. As a preliminary characterization, optical absorption and electrical properties have been analyzed at room temperature. The results show how some physical properties of as-grown ZnO crystals can be changed in a controlled way by an adequate combination of different growth conditions such as graphite covering of inner ampoule walls, thermal difference between source material and crystallization zone and additional gas (composition and pressure). In this frame some post-growth annealing processes can be avoided reducing the time and cost of processes. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Preparation of undoped and indium doped ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition method

    B. Kotlyarchuk
    Abstract An original modification of the standard Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) method for preparing both undoped and indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films at low substrate temperature is proposed. This preparation method does not demand any further post-deposition annealing treatment of the grown films. The developed method allows to grow thin films at low substrate temperature that prevents them from the considerable loss of their intrinsic electrical and optical properties. The influence of deposition parameters on the electrical and optical parameters of the undoped and the indium doped ZnO thin films is also analysed. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Particle size of powders under hydrothermal conditions

    Wen-Jun Li
    Abstract Various non-oxide (CuI, AgI, AgCl, PbS, CuS and ZnS) and oxide (ZnO, TiO2, SnO2, CeO2 and ZrO2) powders were prepared under hydrothermal conditions to investigate the effects of temperature, pH and precursors on the particle size of powders. It was found that the particle sizes of PbS, CuS and ZnS powders were much smaller than that of CuI, AgI and AgCl powders prepared under the same conditions. The particle sizes of TiO2, SnO2, CeO2 and ZrO2 powders are much smaller than that of ZnO powders prepared under the same conditions. It is concluded that the solution conditions have a certain effect on the particle size of powders under the hydrothermal conditions. The particle size of powders increased with the rising of temperature. Additional factors affecting the particle size were uncovered through studying the nucleation mechanism. The particle size was mainly related to the Madelung constant and the electric charge number of ions. Powders with smaller particle size resulted from systems that possessed the larger Madelung constant and ionic charge number. (© 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Vertical-type organic device using thin-film ZnO transparent electrode

    Hiroyuki Iechi
    Abstract We propose a double heterojunction organic light-emitting diode (OLED) using a zinc oxide (ZnO) film, which works as a transparent and electron injection layer. The crystal structure of the ZnO films as a function of Ar/O2 flow ratio and the basic characteristics of the OLED depending on the ZnO sputtering conditions are investigated. Excellent characteristics of the novel OLED were obtained, as high as 470 cd/m2 at 22 V and 7.6 mA/cm2. The results obtained here demonstrate that the vertical organic light-emitting transistor (OLET) using a ZnO layer as an electron injection layer is promising as a key element for flexible sheet displays. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electr Eng Jpn, 158(2): 49,55, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/eej.20151 [source]

    Electrocatalysis and Amperometric Detection of the Reduced Form of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide at Toluidine Blue/Zinc Oxide Coated Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 18 2007
    Ashok Kumar
    Abstract Thin toluidine blue (TBO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) hybrid films have been grown on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and indium tin oxide coated (SnO2) glass electrodes by using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed spherical and beads-like shape of highly oriented TBO/ZnO hybrid films. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results declared that the films composed mainly of Zn and O. Moreover, TBO/ZnO hybrid films modified electrode is electrochemically active, dye molecules were not easily leached out from the ZnO matrix and the hybrid films can be considered for potential applications as sensor for amperometric determination of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) at 0.0,V. A linear correlation between electrocatalytic current and NADH concentration was found to be in the range between 25,,M and 100,,M in phosphate buffer. In addition, we observed that dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid are not interference in amperometric detection of NADH in this proposed method. In addition, TBO/ZnO hybrid film modified electrode was highly stable and its response to the NADH also remained relentless. [source]

    Fabrication and evaluation of complementary logic circuits using zinc oxide and pentacene thin film transistor

    Hiroyuki Iechi
    Abstract We fabricated hybrid complementary inverters with n-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors as the n-type inorganic material and p-channel organic transistors using pentacene as the p-type organic material. The complementary inverter exhibited a large voltage gain of 10 to 12 and a cutoff frequency of 0.5 kHz. ZnO thin film transistors show n-type semiconducting properties having field-effect mobility of 2.1×10,3 cm2/Vs. On the other hand, pentacene thin film transistors show p-type semiconducting properties having field-effect mobility of 3.2×10,2 cm2/Vs. We describe basic charge transfer characteristics of ZnO thin films. The results obtained here demonstrate that it is important for the transistor using ZnO to be injected charge from electrode to semiconducting material effectively. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(9): 36,42, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10085 [source]

    Facile and Reproducible Synthesis of Nanostructured Colloidal ZnO Nanoparticles from Zinc Acetylacetonate: Effect of Experimental Parameters and Mechanistic Investigations

    Alessia Famengo
    Abstract A facile and reproducible route to nanostructured colloidal ZnO nanoparticles was developed by controlled hydrolysis and condensation of zinc acetylacetonate in alkaline conditions. By reaction of an ethanolic solution of Zn(acac)2 with NaOH in a 1:2 molar ratio, after reflux, ZnO spherical nanoparticles were obtained that displayed a homogeneous size distribution; particle diameters ranged from 6 to 10 nm, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The same reaction was carried out also in water, glycerol and 1,2-propanediol, to investigate the effect of the solvent viscosity and dielectric constant on the final features of the obtained material. Irrespective of the nature of the solvent, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the formation ofhexagonal ZnO, whereas the presence of residual unreacted Zn(acac)2 could be ruled out. Indeed, different particle sizes and very different morphologies were obtained. Also the reflux step was shown to be a key factor in avoiding the fast precipitation of a floc and achieving a pure compound, which was isolated and thoroughly characterised. The composition of the obtained ZnO was determined by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), showing the formation of pure ZnO. IR spectroscopy evidenced the presence of adsorbed organic ligands on the colloid surfaces. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) revealed the presence of medium- to high-strength acidic sites on the ZnO surface. To gain a deeper insight into the formation mechanisms of these nanostructures, time-resolved UV/Vis and XAS studies were performed on the ethanol solution used for the synthesis of the oxide and also on the solid specimen, obtained after the refluxing step. No remarkable changes could be evidenced in the solution after the addition of an understoichiometric amount of NaOH, but the growth of the ZnO nanoparticles could be followed by UV/Vis spectra. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Synthesis of Zinc Glycerolate Microstacks from a ZnO Nanorod Sacrificial Template

    Róbert Rémiás
    Abstract We synthesized zinc glycerolate (ZnGly) microstacks bytreating ZnO with glycerol at 100 °C under reflux. We observed that the morphology of the ZnO source has a pronounced effect on the appearance of the ZnGly product. In the absence of structure-directing effects the product ZnGly is obtained as a random heap of hexagonal prisms with an average diameter and thickness of ca. 2.5 ,m and ca. 350 nm, respectively. However, bundles of nanorod-shaped ZnO obtained by the thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate nanorods could readily be transformed into 2,4 ,m long zinc glycerolate microstacks in which 6,12 hexagonal prisms are aligned face-to-face. We present evidence that the ZnGly plates in the microstacks are bound together by forces strong enough to withstand mechanical deformation exercised by a contacting AFM tip. The ZnGly microstacks appear to emerge from the ZnO nanorod bundles in an approx. 1:1 ratio in the reactive template synthesis.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Facile Gram-Scale Growth of Single-Crystalline Nanotetrapod-Assembled ZnO Through a Rapid Process

    Jianye Li
    Abstract From a rapid combustion and catalyst-free method, puresingle-crystalline nanotetrapod-assembled bulk nano-ZnO was grown on a gram-scale for the first time. The gram-scale bulk nano-ZnO is synthesized from ZnO powder with great reliability and repeatability, and also a high conversion efficiency. All four arms of the nanotetrapods are cone shaped and grow in the [001] direction. The photoluminescence properties of the nanotetrapod-assembled ZnO were studied and a mechanism was suggested for the growth of the bulk nanotetrapod-assembled ZnO. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    X-Ray absorption fine structure analysis of the local environment of zinc in dentine treated with zinc compounds

    Tsutomu Takatsuka
    It has been reported that zinc oxide (ZnO) inhibits dentine demineralization. By using the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique, our aims in this study were to provide information about the local environment of zinc atoms in dentine that had been treated with zinc compounds. We measured the Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of dentine specimens treated with zinc chloride or ZnO. In XAFS analyses, the spectra of dentine specimens treated with ZnO (D-ZO) or with zinc chloride (D-ZC) were similar and obviously different from the reference ZnO spectrum. This suggests that most of the zinc atoms detected in D-ZO are not derived from particles of ZnO. The spectra of D-ZO and D-ZC were similar to the spectrum of the synthetic, zinc-containing hydroxyapatite, but were not similar to that of zinc in ZnCl2 -treated collagen. The results of this study suggest that most of the zinc atoms detected were attached to hydroxyapatite and not to collagen. [source]

    Electro-Optical Materials: Electrically Addressable Hybrid Architectures of Zinc Oxide Nanowires Grown on Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (Adv. Funct.

    Hybrid assemblies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are presented by A. J. Hart et al. on page 2470. The foreground shows a transmission electron micrograph of an individual hybrid bundle where the ZnO nanowires extend radially from the surface of the CNTs. The background shows a scanning electron micrograph of the sidewall of a ZnO/CNT hybrid forest. Color was added using Adobe Photoshop. [source]

    Simultaneous Optimization of Luminance and Color Chromaticity of Phosphors Using a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm

    Asish Kumar Sharma
    Abstract Acquiring materials that simultaneously meet two or more conflicting requirements is very difficult. For instance, a situation wherein the color chromaticity and photoluminescence (PL) intensity of phosphors conflict with one another is a frequent problem. Therefore, identification of a good phosphor that simultaneously exhibits both desirable PL intensity and color chromaticity is a challenge. A high-throughput synthesis and characterization strategy that was reinforced by a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA)-based optimization process was employed to simultaneously optimize both the PL intensity and color chromaticity of a MgO,ZnO,SrO,CaO,BaO,Al2O3,Ga2O3,MnO system. NSGA operations, such as Pareto sorting and niche sharing, and the ensuing high-throughput synthesis and characterization resulted in identification of promising green phosphors, i.e., Mn2+ -doped AB2O4 (A,=,alkali earth, B,=,Al and Ga) spinel solid solutions, for use in either plasma display panels or cold cathode fluorescent lamps. [source]

    A General Approach for Fabricating Arc-Shaped Composite Nanowire Arrays by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Yue Shen
    Abstract Here, a new method is demonstrated that uses sideways pulsed laser deposition to deliberately bend nanowires into a desired shape after growth and fabricate arc-shaped composite nanowire arrays of a wide range of nanomaterials. The starting nanowires can be ZnO, but the materials to be deposited can be metallic, semiconductor, or ceramic depending on the application. This method provides a general approach for rational fabrication of a wide range of side-by-side or "core,shell" nanowire arrays with controllable degree of bending and internal strain. Considering the ZnO is a piezoelectric and semiconductive material, its electrical properties change when deformed. This technique has potential applications in tunable electronics, optoelectronics, and piezotronics. [source]

    Blue Luminescence of ZnO Nanoparticles Based on Non-Equilibrium Processes: Defect Origins and Emission Controls

    Haibo Zeng
    Abstract High concentrations of defects are introduced into nanoscale ZnO through non-equilibrium processes and resultant blue emissions are comprehensively analyzed, focusing on defect origins and broad controls. Some ZnO nanoparticles exhibit very strong blue emissions, the intensity of which first increase and then decrease with annealing. These visible emissions exhibit strong and interesting excitation dependences: 1) the optimal excitation energy for blue emissions is near the bandgap energy, but the effective excitation can obviously be lower, even 420,nm (2.95,eV,<,Eg,=,3.26,eV); in contrast, green emissions can be excited only by energies larger than the bandgap energy; and, 2) there are several fixed emitting wavelengths at 415, 440, 455 and 488,nm in the blue wave band, which exhibit considerable stability in different excitation and annealing conditions. Mechanisms for blue emissions from ZnO are proposed with interstitial-zinc-related defect levels as initial states. EPR spectra reveal the predominance of interstitial zinc in as-prepared samples, and the evolutions of coexisting interstitial zinc and oxygen vacancies with annealing. Furthermore, good controllability of visible emissions is achieved, including the co-emission of blue and green emissions and peak adjustment from blue to yellow. [source]

    Increased Interface Strength in Carbon Fiber Composites through a ZnO Nanowire Interphase

    Yirong Lin
    Abstract One of the most important factors in the design of a fiber reinforced composite is the quality of the fiber/matrix interface. Recently carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide whiskers have been used to enhance the interfacial properties of composites; however, the high growth temperature degrade the fiber strength and significantly reduce the composite's in-plane properties. Here, a novel method for enhancing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength that does not degrade the mechanical properties of the fiber is demonstrated. The composite is fabricated using low-temperature solution-based growth of ZnO nanowires on the surface of the reinforcing fiber. Experimental testing shows the growth does not adversely affect fiber strength, interfacial shear strength can be significantly increased by 113%, and the lamina shear strength and modulus can be increased by 37.8% and 38.8%, respectively. This novel interface could also provide embedded functionality through the piezoelectric and semiconductive properties of ZnO. [source]

    Fabrication and Optical Characteristics of Position-Controlled ZnO Nanotubes and ZnO/Zn0.8Mg0.2O Coaxial Nanotube Quantum Structure Arrays

    Jinkyoung Yoo
    Abstract The position-controlled growth and structural and optical characteristics of ZnO nanotubes and their coaxial heterostructures are reported. To control both the shape and position of ZnO nanotubes, hole-patterned SiO2 growth-mask layers on Si(111) substrates with GaN/AlN intermediate layers using conventional lithography are prepared. ZnO nanotubes are grown only on the hole patterns at 600,°C by catalyst-free metal,organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Furthermore, the position-controlled nanotube growth method allows the fabrication of artificial arrays of ZnO-based coaxial nanotube single-quantum-well structures (SQWs) on Si substrates. In situ heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO and Zn0.8Mg0.2O layers along the circumference of the ZnO nanotube enable an artificial formation of quantum-well arrays in a designed fashion. The structural and optical characteristics of the ZnO nanotubes and SQW arrays are also investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. [source]

    Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Nanocrystalline ZnO Due to Increased ROS-Mediated Cell Injury

    Guy Applerot
    Abstract An innovative study aimed at understanding the influence of the particle size of ZnO (from the microscale down to the nanoscale) on its antibacterial effect is reported herein. The antibacterial activity of ZnO has been found to be due to a reaction of the ZnO surface with water. Electron-spin resonance measurements reveal that aqueous suspensions of small nanoparticles of ZnO produce increased levels of reactive oxygen species, namely hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, a remarkable enhancement of the oxidative stress, beyond the level yielded by the ZnO itself, is detected following the antibacterial treatment. Likewise, an exposure of bacteria to the small ZnO nanoparticles results in an increased cellular internalization of the nanoparticles and bacterial cell damage. An examination of the antibacterial effect is performed on two bacterial species: Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive). The nanocrystalline particles of ZnO are synthesized using ultrasonic irradiation, and the particle sizes are controlled using different solvents during the sonication process. Taken as a whole, it is apparent that the unique properties (i.e., small size and corresponding large specific surface area) of small nanometer-scale ZnO particles impose several effects that govern its antibacterial action. These effects are size dependent and do not exist in the range of microscale particles. [source]

    Thin-Film Transistors: Transparent Photo-Stable Complementary Inverter with an Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrid Dielectric Layer (Adv. Funct.

    On page 726, Minsuk Oh and co-workers describe the fabrication of a transparent complementary thin-film transistor inverter with a ZnO top gate and bottom gate of pentacene channels. Twelve nanometer-thin organic,inorganic hybrid dielectric layers with high capacitance are adopted to allow the ZnO and pentacene transistors to operate under only 3 V, and the inverter action appears very stable even under a few mW of white light. This discovery could herald the arrival of a new type of transparent logic device. [source]

    Electrodeposition of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Thin Films

    Tsukasa Yoshida
    Abstract Electrodeposition of inorganic compound thin films in the presence of certain organic molecules results in self-assembly of various hybrid thin films with new properties. Examples of new discoveries by the authors are reviewed, taking cathodic formation of a ZnO/dye hybrid as the leading example. Hybridization of eosinY leads to the formation of highly oriented porous crystalline ZnO as the consequence of dye loading. The hybrid formation is a highly complicated process involving complex chemistry of many molecular and ionic constituents. However, electrochemical analyses of the relevant phenomena indicate the possibility of reaching a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism, giving us the chance to further develop them into industrial technologies. The porous crystals are ideal for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. As the process also permits the use of non-heat-resistant substrates, the technology can be applied for the development of colorful and light-weight plastic solar cells. [source]

    Solvothermal Synthesis, Cathodoluminescence, and Field-Emission Properties of Pure and N-Doped ZnO Nanobullets

    Ujjal K. Gautam
    Abstract Homogenous crystallization in solution, in the absence of external influences, is expected to lead to growth that is symmetric at least in two opposite facets. Such was not the case when we attempted to synthesize ZnO nanostructures by employing a solvothermal technique. The reaction product, instead, consisted of bullet-shaped tiny single crystals with an abrupt hexagonal base and a sharp tip. A careful analysis of the product and the intermediate states of the synthesis reveals that one of the reaction intermediates with sheet-like morphology acts as a self-sacrificing template and induces such unexpected and novel growth. The synthesis was further extended to dope the nanobullets with nitrogen as previous studies showed this can induce p-type behavior in ZnO, which is technologically complementary to the naturally occurring n-type ZnO. Herein, a soft-chemical approach is used for the first time for this purpose, which is otherwise accomplished with high-temperature techniques. Cathodoluminesce (CL) investigations reveal stable optical behavior within a pure nanobullet. On the other hand, the CL spectra derived from the surfaces and the cores of the doped samples are different, pointing at a N-rich core. Finally, even though N-doped ZnO is known to have high electrical conductivity, the study now demonstrates that the field-emission properties of ZnO can also be greatly enhanced by means of N doping. [source]

    Fabrication of radial ZnO nanowire clusters and radial ZnO/PVDF composites with enhanced dielectric properties,

    Guangsheng Wang
    Abstract Using an improved microemulsion process novel ZnO nanostructures can be prepared on a large scale. These radial ZnO nanowires grow on hexagonal prism tips and form nanowire clusters. A detailed study of variations in dielectric properties dependent on frequency and temperature shows that composites of radial ZnO and PVDF have significantly higher dielectric constants and exhibit better thermal stability than bulk ZnO/PVDF composites as well as showing a low percolation threshold. Already a low content of radial ZnO increases the dielectric constant of the polymer matrix significantly to a value above 100. [source]

    Solution-Deposited Zinc Oxide and Zinc Oxide/Pentacene Bilayer Transistors: High Mobility n-Channel, Ambipolar, and Nonvolatile Devices,

    Bhola Nath Pal
    Abstract A solution processed n-channel zinc oxide (ZnO) field effect transistor (FET) was fabricated by simple dip coating and subsequent heat treatment of a zinc acetate film. The field effect mobility of electrons depends on ZnO grain size, controlled by changing the number of coatings and zinc acetate solution concentration. The highest electron mobility achieved by this method is 7.2,cm2 V,1 s,1 with On/Off ratio of 70. This electron mobility is higher than for the most recently reported solution processed ZnO transistor. We also fabricated bilayer transistors where the first layer is ZnO, and the second layer is pentacene, a p-channel organic which is deposited by thermal evaporation. By changing the ZnO grain size (or thickness) this type of bilayer transistor shows p-channel, ambipolar and n-channel behavior. For the ambipolar transistor, well balanced electron and hole mobilities are 7.6,×,10,3 and 6.3,×,10,3,cm2 V,1 s,1 respectively. When the ZnO layer is very thin, the transistor shows p-channel behavior with very high reversible hysteresis. The nonvolatile tuning function of this transistor was investigated. [source]

    ZnO Hierarchical Micro/Nanoarchitectures: Solvothermal Synthesis and Structurally Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance,

    Fang Lu
    Abstract A novel ZnO hierarchical micro/nanoarchitecture is fabricated by a facile solvothermal approach in an aqueous solution of ethylenediamine (EDA). This complex architecture is of a core/shell structure, composed of dense nanosheet-built networks that stand on a hexagonal-pyramid-like microcrystal (core part). The ZnO hexagonal micropyramid has external surfaces that consist of a basal plane (000) and lateral planes {011}. The nanosheets are a uniform thickness of about 10,nm and have a single-crystal structure with sheet-planar surfaces as {20} planes. These nanosheets interlace and overlap each other with an angle of 60° or 120°, and assemble into a discernible net- or grid-like morphology (about 100,nm in grid-size) on the micropyramid, which shows a high specific surface area (185.6,m2,g,1). Such a ZnO micro/nanoarchitecture is new in the family of ZnO nanostructures. Its formation depends on the concentration of the EDA solution as well as on the type of zinc source. A two-step sequential growth model is proposed based on observations from a time-dependent morphology evolution process. Importantly, such structured ZnO has shown a strong structure-induced enhancement of photocatalytic performance and has exhibited a much better photocatalytic property and durability for the photodegradation of methyl orange than that of other nanostructured ZnO, such as the powders of nanoparticles, nanosheets, and nanoneedles. This is mainly attributed to its higher surface-to-volume ratio and stability against aggregation. This work not only gives insight into understanding the hierarchical growth behaviour of complex ZnO micro/nanoarchitectures in a solution-phase synthetic system, but also provides an efficient route to enhance the photocatalytic performance of ZnO, which could also be extended to other catalysts, such as the inherently excellent TiO2, if they are of the same hierarchical micro/nanoarchitecture with an open and porous nanostructured surface layer. [source]

    Hierarchical Shelled ZnO Structures Made of Bunched Nanowire Arrays,

    P. Jiang
    Abstract The size- and morphology-controlled growth of ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays is potentially of interest for the design of advanced catalysts and nanodevices. By adjusting the reaction temperature, shelled structures of ZnO made of bunched ZnO NW arrays are prepared, grown out of metallic Zn microspheres through a wet-chemical route in a closed Teflon reactor. In this process, ZnO NWs are nucleated and subsequently grown into NWs on the surfaces of the microspheres as well as in strong alkali solution under the condition of the pre-existence of zincate (ZnO22,) ions. At a higher temperature (200,°C), three different types of bunched ZnO NW or sub-micrometer rodlike (SMR) aggregates are observed. At room temperature, however, the bunched ZnO NW arrays are found only to occur on the Zn microsphere surface, while double-pyramid-shaped or rhombus-shaped ZnO particles are formed in solution. The ZnO NWs exhibit an ultrathin structure with a length of ca.,,500,nm and a diameter of ca.,10,nm. The phenomenon may be well understood by the temperature-dependent growth process involved in different nucleation sources. A growth mechanism has been proposed in which the degree of ZnO22,saturation in the reaction solution plays a key role in controlling the nucleation and growth of the ZnO NWs or SMRs as well as in oxidizing the metallic Zn microspheres. Based on this consideration, ultrathin ZnO NW cluster arrays on the Zn microspheres are successfully obtained. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements of the ultrathin ZnO NW cluster arrays have also been performed. [source]