Year-long Study (year-long + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Readmissions: a primary care examination of reasons for readmission of older people and possible readmission risk factors

Dip N, Linda Dobrzanska MSc, PG Cert HCE
Aim., To identify the reasons that may have contributed to the emergency readmission of older people to a medical unit, within 28 days of hospital discharge. Background., The current UK Government has initiatives in place to monitor quality and service delivery of NHS organizations. This is achieved by setting, delivering and monitoring standards, one of which is ,emergency readmission to hospital within 28 days of discharge (all ages), as a percentage of live discharges'. Design/method., A year-long study examined reasons for unplanned readmission of patients (aged 77 and over) within 28 days of hospital discharge. The population was patients, registered with North Bradford PCT General Practitioners, readmitted to one of five care of older people wards in two local acute trust NHS hospitals. Patient records were scrutinized and data related to demography, diagnosis and readmission were collected using a structured extraction tool. Data analysis was undertaken using descriptive statistics and identification of differences and correlations within the data. Results., A pilot study indicated patients readmitted from home vs. other sources and patients discharged to home vs. other sources had a significantly shorter stay on readmission. The main study showed other significant findings. Patients who lived in care were readmitted sooner than those who lived at home: those discharged home vs. other sources and agreeing to increased social service provision had longer stays on readmission. Shorter length of stay on index admission (up to 72 hours) was associated with increased likelihood of earlier readmission. Conclusions., A framework of factors was identified and could be used to target resources to meet patients' needs more flexibly. Relevance to clinical practice., It is possible that the process of targeting resources to ,at-risk' patients might enable services to be delivered in a more cost-efficient and cost-effective way. [source]

Goal Striving Within Agentic and Communal Roles: Separate but Functionally Similar Pathways to Enhanced Well-Being

Kennon M. Sheldon
ABSTRACT Do agency and communion strivings provide functionally similar but predictively independent pathways to enhanced well-being? We tested this idea via a year-long study of 493 diverse community adults. Our process model, based on self-determination and motive disposition theories, fit the data well. First, the need for achievement predicted initial autonomous motivation for agentic (work and school) role-goals and the need for intimacy predicted felt autonomy for communal (relationship and parenting) goals. For both agentic and communal goals, autonomous motivation predicted corresponding initial expectancies that predicted later goal attainment. Finally, each type of attainment predicted improved adjustment or role-satisfaction over the year. Besides being similar across agency and communion, the model was also similar across race and gender, except that the beneficial effects of communal goal attainment were stronger for high need for intimacy women and Blacks. Implications for agency/communion theories, motivation theories, and theories of well-being are discussed. [source]

Reflective practice and its role in mental health nurses' practice development: a year-long study

The study reported in this paper lasted over a year, and identifies a conceptual framework of nursing practice based upon a relationship-building process. It also identifies six characteristics of nursing roles inherent within the practice of mental health nurses on a Nursing Development Unit. The paper presents a structure and process of reflection for nursing practice as illustrated by the work of a group of nurses working in a NDU. The purpose of the study was to help them better understand their work with patients. The findings from the study are used to explore how the nurses described and implemented individualized, patient-focused care. This care was based upon the ability of the nurse to communicate well and to build a relationship with a patient, bound within a context of change. [source]

The literacy curriculum and use of an Integrated Learning System

Larry Miller
This article describes one aspect of a year-long study of primary level teachers' and children's (Grades 1-3; children aged 6-9 years) use of the language arts component of SuccessMaker, an Integrated Learning System (ILS). Using information gathered from teacher surveys and classroom observation, we documented areas where the curricula embedded in the ILS were congruent with teachers' normal curricula and pedagogical practices. However, we also found numerous instances of incongruity. To illustrate our findings we use the case of phonics instruction to reveal discrepancies between normal practice and computer-based learning. The differences in content, presentation sequence and instructional practices raise issues about the appropriate relationship between computer-based instruction and teachers' normal practices. [source]

What Does Africa Have to Do with Being African American?

A Microethnographic Analysis of a Middle School Inquiry Unit on Africa
In the United States, "race" and "black identity" are becoming more complex with the increasing numbers of individuals who identify as "black and foreignborn." Emanating from a year-long study in an urban middle school classroom and a microethnographic investigation of a two-week unit on Africa, this article employs a Pan-African framework to examine how schools and the broader society serve as sites where black identity is contested. The article concludes with implications for education, society, and the study of race and black identity in classroom life. [source]

A comparison of current and historical fish assemblages in a Caribbean island estuary: conservation value of historical data

K. L. Smith
Abstract 1.Historical data are often one of the only resources available for documenting and assessing causes of environmental change, particularly in developing regions where funding for ecological studies is limited. In this paper, previously unpublished data from a year-long study (1977) of the fish community of the Espiritu Santo estuary are presented. This dataset is among the oldest and most extensive surveys of a Caribbean island estuarine fish community. 2.A comparison of these historical data with data collected in June and July 2004 using identical sampling methods allowed description of potential long-term changes in the fish community, identification of vulnerable species, and assessment of potential drivers of change. 3.Results strongly suggest a decline in species richness and abundance in the Espiritu Santo estuarine fish community, with greater declines in freshwater-tolerant than marine or euryhaline species. Declines in freshwater inflow to the estuary, due to large-scale upstream water abstractions for municipal use, have increased since the initial 1977 survey. 4.This is the first study to examine long-term change in the fish community of a tropical island estuary. Additional research and conservation efforts are needed to understand mechanisms of change and to protect Caribbean island estuarine fish communities. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]