Year Survival (year + survival)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increased survival and breeding performance of double breeders in little penguins Eudyptula minor, New Zealand: evidence for individual bird quality?

Edda Johannesen
The little penguin Eudyptula minor is unique among penguin species in being able to fledge chicks from two clutches in one breeding season. Pairs laying two clutches in a given season make a higher reproductive investment, and may be rewarded by a higher reproductive success as they may raise twice as many chicks as pairs laying one clutch. The higher effort made by pairs laying two clutches could correlate negatively with survival, future reproductive performance or offspring survival, indicating a cost of reproduction. Conversely, a positive relationship between the number of clutches produced in a given breeding season and survival, future reproductive performance or offspring survival would indicate that birds laying two clutches belonged to a category of birds with higher fitness, compared to birds laying only one clutch in the season. In this study we used a long-term data set taken from an increasing population of little penguins in Otago, SE New Zealand. We modelled the relationship between the number of clutches laid in a breeding season and survival probability, reproductive performance in the next breeding season and first year survival of offspring using capture-recapture modelling. Birds laying two clutches produced 1.7 times more fledglings during a breeding season than pairs laying one clutch. We found that birds laying two clutches had a higher probability of breeding in the following breeding season, a higher probability of laying two clutches in the following breeding season and a higher survival probability. There was no overall difference in post-fledging survival between the young of birds producing one clutch and the young of birds producing two clutches. However, the survival of young of single clutch breeders declined with laying date, whereas the young of double clutch breeders had the same survival rate irrespective of laying date. For a subset of data with birds of known age, we found evidence that the probability of laying two clutches increased with age. However, there were also indications for differences among birds in the tendency to lay two clutches that could not be attributed to age. We tentatively interpret our results as evidence of quality difference among little penguin breeders. [source]

Drivers of megaherbivore demographic fluctuations: inference from elephants

M. J. Trimble
Abstract Environmentally induced variation in survival and fecundity generates demographic fluctuations that affect population growth rate. However, a general pattern of the comparative influence of variation in fecundity and juvenile survival on elephant population dynamics has not been investigated at a broad scale. We evaluated the relative importance of conception, gestation, first year survival and subsequent survivorship for controlling demographic variation by exploring the relationship between past environmental conditions determined by integrated normalized difference vegetation index (INDVI) and the shape of age distributions at 17 sites across Africa. We showed that, generally, INDVI during gestation best explained anomalies in age structure. However, in areas with low mean annual rainfall, INDVI during the first year of life was critical. The results challenge Eberhardt's paradigm for population analysis that suggests that populations respond to limited resource availability through a sequential decrease in juvenile survival, reproductive rate and adult survival. Contrastingly, elephants appear to respond first through a reduction in reproductive rate. We conclude that this discrepancy is likely due to the evolutionary significance of extremely large body size , an adaptation that increases survival rate but decreases reproductive potential. Other megaherbivores may respond similarly to resource limitation due to similarities in population dynamics. Knowing how vital rates vary with changing environmental conditions will permit better forecasts of the trajectories of megaherbivore populations. [source]

A model to predict survival at one month, one year, and five years after liver transplantation based on pretransplant clinical characteristics

Paul J. Thuluvath MD
Reliable models that could predict outcome of liver transplantation (LT) may guide physicians to advise their patients of immediate and late survival chances and may help them to optimize organ use. The objective of this study was to develop user-friendly models to predict short and long-term mortality after LT in adults based on pre-LT recipient characteristics. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) transplant registry (n = 38,876) from 1987 to 2001 was used to develop and validate the model. Two thirds of patients were randomized to develop the model (the modeling group), and the remaining third was randomized to cross-validate (the cross-validation group) it. Three separate models, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, were created and validated to predict survival at 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years. Using the total severity scores of patients in the modeling group, a predictive model then was created, and the predicted probability of death as a function of total score then was compared in the cross-validation group. The independent variables that were found to be very significant for 1 month and 1 year survival were age, body mass index (BMI), UNOS status 1, etiology, serum bilirubin (for 1 month and 1 year only), creatinine, and race (only for 5 years). The actual deaths in the cross-validation group followed very closely the predicted survival graph. The chi-squared goodness-of-fit test confirmed that the model could predict mortality reliably at 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years. We have developed and validated user-friendly models that could reliably predict short-term and long-term survival after LT. [source]

Overexpression of serine,threonine receptor kinase-associated protein in colorectal cancers

Chang Jae Kim
Transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) regulates many cellular processes, including cellular proliferation and differentiation. Disruption of the TGF-, signaling pathway can lead to cancer. Serine,threonine receptor kinase-associated protein (STRAP), an inhibitor of TGF-, signaling, is an important regulator of cell proliferation. Here, in order to investigate the roles of STRAP in colorectal carcinogenesis, the expression of the STRAP protein was investigated in 59 colonic adenomas and 123 colorectal cancers by immunohistochemistry. Upregulation of STRAP protein was observed in 30 (50.8%) of 59 adenomas and 87 (70.7%) of 123 cancers, respectively. Statistically, overexpression of STRAP protein was not associated with clinicopathological parameters and 5 year survival (P > 0.05). Interestingly, significant association was observed between STRAP and Ki-67 positivity (P < 0.05), suggesting that STRAP contributes to an increased proliferate potential of tumor cells. These results indicate that upregulation of STRAP might play a role in tumor development as an early event for colorectal cancers. [source]

Outcome Analysis of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck and Hepatitis C Virus,

Jason Hunt MD
Abstract Objective/Hypothesis: Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global problem with over 170 million people infected. Recently, we have noticed that a large number of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have also been diagnosed with HCV. A review of the literature reveals little information concerning this patient population. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of SCCHN patients who have been exposed to HCV with na´ve SCCHN patients. Study Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: A retrospective chart review from June 1991 through December 2002 was performed to identify patients diagnosed with SCCHN who were screened for HCV. Patients were stratified into two groups (HCV positive and HCV negative). Data were recorded on patients for status of disease at last clinic visit, pretreatment serum albumin and hematocrit levels, and RNA quantities of HCV. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test to compare serum albumin and hematocrit levels. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to compare outcomes. The log-rank test was used to determine significance. Cox regression was used to examine the association of prognostic predictor variables with overall survival and disease-free survival. Results: There was no difference noted in 5 year survival between hepatitis C positive and hepatitis C negative groups in overall outcomes (66.7% vs. 67.9%, P = 1.000) or 5 year disease-free survival (90.5% vs. 80.8%, P = .514). The two groups, HCV positive versus HCV negative, also had similar serum albumin levels (3.62 g/dL vs. 3.72 g/dL, P = .37) as well as serum hematocrit levels (42.9% vs. 41.0%, P = .12). Serum levels of hepatitis C RNA were obtained in seven patients, with only one being undetectable. The only prognostic predictor variable that was significantly associated with overall survival was age. None of the predictor variables were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Conclusion: Co-infection with HCV, although prevalent in the Veterans Administration Hospital population, did not affect patient outcome as defined by disease-free survival. Patients who were seropositive for HCV had comparable serum albumin levels as well as serum hematocrit when compared with HCV negative patients. [source]

Craniofacial Resection for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck,

Douglas D. Backous MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: We reviewed our experience with craniofacial resection for advanced, nonmelanoma skin cancer of the head and neck to determine prognostic factors, local control rate, disease free survival, morbidity, and mortality. Study Design: Retrospective review of consecutive patients treated at a tertiary referral center from 1982 to 1993. Methods: Charts of patients having craniofacial resection for aggressive nonmelanoma cutaneous malignancies were reviewed and living patients followed for 10 additional years. Demographics, histology, previous interventions, treatment, surgical pathology, reconstructions, and complications were examined. The product-limit method was used to calculate survival functions, and the log-rank test was used to compare survival distributions. Results: Thirty-five patients, mean age 66.7 years, received treatment at our facility. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 191 (mean 47.4) months. Histology included 20 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 15 basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Sixty percent had craniofacial resection alone, and 28.6% also had postoperative radiotherapy. There were two perioperative deaths, and 37.1% suffered early and 14.3% late surgical complications. Two- and five- year survival was significantly better (P = .02) with BCC (92% and 76%) than with SCC (54% and 24%). Long-term disease-specific survival was 20%, and 11.4% of our subjects were living with disease. Intracranial extension (P = .02), perineural invasion (P = .049), and prior radiotherapy significantly decreased 5-year survival. Conclusions: Acceptable mortality and morbidity is possible using craniofacial resection to treat advanced nonmelanoma skin cancer. Although disease-specific survival remains poor, positive trends were noted in local control beginning at 2 years of follow-up. Because patients often have few remaining options for cure, craniofacial resection is justified when technically feasible. [source]


M. O'keefe
Introduction Post-operative survival after surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is influenced by factors such as stage of disease and co-morbidities. We sought to assess the performance of 2 models in predicting 1 year survival after resected NSCLC. Methods The Colinet Simplified Co-Morbidity Score (SCS) (1) and a prognostic model by Birim (2) were retrospectively applied to a cohort of patients with surgically resected NSCLC. End-point was 1 year survival obtained from clinical follow-up and data-linkage with the Cancer Council of Victoria. Results 216 patients were treated from Feb 1999 to Dec 2005. 52 patients were excluded due to missing data, leaving 164 patients for analysis. Mean patient age was 66.4 ▒ 10.3. Pathological stage was 1 in 61%, 2 in19% and 3 in 17%. Observed 1 year survival was 78.7%. SCS was predictive of 1 year survival: mean SCS 9.24 for survivors and 11.03 for non-survivors (p = 0.001 by t-test). Patient's with low SCS (0-9) had a higher 1-year survival than those with high SCS (>9); 87.2% vs 69.2% (p = 0.005 by chi-square test). SCS discriminated fairly for 1 year survival (area under ROC curve 0.66). The predicted survival using the Birim model (74.2%) was similar to the observed survival (p = 0.43). The model predicted survival well in both low (predicted 83% vs observed 88%, p = 0.51) and high (66 vs 70%, p = 0.74) risk groups. Birim model discriminated well for 1 year survival (area under ROC curve 0.70). Conclusion SCS and the Birim model can both be used to estimate 1-year survival. They may aid the clinician in deciding who should be considered for surgical resection. [source]

Surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases

M. A. Memon
Background Liver metastases are a major cause of death in patients with colorectal carcinoma. The only curative option available at present is surgery. This review article discusses the current state of evidence for the effectiveness of liver resection for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods Medline, Embase, Current Contents and Science Citation Index databases were used to search English language articles published on the subject of liver resection for colorectal metastases in the last 20 years. Results Liver resection has a five year survival of 16,49% and 10 year survival of 17,33% with an operative mortality rate of 0,9%. Two factors appear to be clearly associated with poorer outcome , involved resection margins and the presence of extrahepatic disease (including hilar and coeliac axis lymph nodes) at the time of liver resection. None of the other factors related to the patients, their primary tumour or the metastases themselves have been conclusively shown to adversely effect long-term survival. Conclusions Liver resection is a feasible, safe and effective procedure which carries an acceptable morbidity and mortality and does have a major impact on the survival of these patients. The decision on resectability of colorectal metastases should be decided by the ability to leave at least 2,3 segments of liver free from metastases with uninvolved resection margins, together with the general fitness of the patient to undergo a major surgical procedure. [source]


Kook Lae Lee
Background/aims, Colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is uncommon tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of primary and metastatic colorectal SRCC. Methods, We retrospectively examined the records of patients who had undergone surgery for colon cancer and was diagnosed pathologically as colorectal SRCC from 1988 to 2000. Results, Among 1812 patients with colorectal cancer examined, the number of patients with SRCC was 28 (1.5%); eight patients (28.6%) were metastatic and 20 patients (71.4%) were primary. Male to female ratio was 19:9 and mean age was 44.2 (primary, 42.5; metastatic, 48.3). Mean age of primary SRCC of rectosigmoid area was lower than that of ascending colon (37.4 vs. 54.5). The topographic incidences of primary SRCC were nine patients in rectum; five patients in sigmoid colon; six patients in ascending colon. Metastatic SRCC's were mostly found in splenic flexure and rectosigmoid area. Biopsy positive rate at first was 13 of 18 in primary SRCC, and 3 of 5 in metastatic SRCC. Five cases (55.6%) of primary rectal SRCC showed linitis plastica type. The stage of primary SRCC showed a preponderance of Astler,Coller C2 lesions; 3 (15%) were in B2, 1 (5%) was in C1, 14 (70%) were in C2, 2 (10%) were in D. One and two years survival of primary SRCC were 62.7 and 45.7%, respectively. Conclusions, Colorectal SRCC is rare among colon cancer and common in young age group especially which is primary or occurs in rectosigmoid area. The primary SRCC's were mostly found in advanced stage, and the prognosis might be poor. [source]

Transforming growth factor ,1 (TGF,1) expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients as related to prognosis

Angela F. Logullo
Abstract Background:, Transforming growth factor ,1 (TGF,1) is a negative growth regulator in keratinocytes, and in vitro studies lead to the concept that loss of TGF,1 responsiveness is a critical step in epithelial carcinogenesis. Objective:, To investigate the prognostic relevance of TGF,1 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and methods:, TGF,1 distribution was determined by immunohistochemistry in oral cavity/oropharynx (n = 79), larynx (n = 36) and hypopharynx (n = 25) tumors and in matched normal adjacent mucosa. TGF,-type I and II receptors were determined in 20 cases of differentiated oral cavity/hypopharynx tumors. Cases were considered positive if displaying reactivity in >10% of the cells. Results:, TGF,1-positive expression was found in 47.2% of larynx, 36.7% of oral cavity/oropharynx and in 24% of the hypopharynx tumors. Reactivity in >60% of the cells was displayed only by 11.4% of HNSCC. All normal controls were positive. TGF,1-positive expression did not correlate with clinico pathological parameters. An association with differentiation was verified only in oral cavity/oropharynx tumors (P , 0.001). TGF,1 was also not related to 5 years survival (Kaplan,Meier). Strong and diffuse expression of TGF,-RII was identified in 19/20 cases regardless of TGF,1 immunoreactivity. Out of 17 TGF,1-positive oral cavity/oropharynx tumors, only nine expressed TGF,-RI suggesting a disruption of the TGF,1 pathway. We conclude that TGF,1 protein immunostaining is not a useful biomarker in assessment of prognosis in HNSCC. [source]

Five years survival in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and melatonin: a randomized trial

P. Lissoni
Abstract: Numerous experimental data have documented the oncostatic properties of melatonin. In addition to its potential direct antitumor activity, melatonin has proved to modulate the effects of cancer chemotherapy, by enhancing its therapeutic efficacy and reducing its toxicity. The increase in chemotherapeutic efficacy by melatonin may depend on two main mechanisms, namely prevention of chemotherapy-induced lymphocyte damage and its antioxidant effect, which has been proved to amplify cytotoxic actions of the chemotherapeutic agents against cancer cells. However, the clinical results available at present with melatonin and chemotherapy in the treatment of human neoplasms are generally limited to the evaluation of 1-year survival in patients with very advanced disease. Thus, the present study was performed to assess the 5-year survival results in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients obtained with a chemotherapeutic regimen consisting of cisplatin and etoposide, with or without the concomitant administration of melatonin (20 mg/day orally in the evening). The study included 100 consecutive patients who were randomized to receive chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy and melatonin. Both the overall tumor regression rate and the 5-year survival results were significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with melatonin. In particular, no patient treated with chemotherapy alone was alive after 2 years, whereas a 5-year survival was achieved in three of 49 (6%) patients treated with chemotherapy and melatonin. Moreover, chemotherapy was better tolerated in patients treated with melatonin. This study confirms, in a considerable number of patients and for a long follow-up period, the possibility to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in terms of both survival and quality of life by a concomitant administration of melatonin. This suggests a new biochemotherapeutic strategy in the treatment of human neoplasms. [source]


A. H. Imisairi
Objective This paper reviews the diagnostic, therapeutic strategies and outcomes of ADCC in 3 Institutions between Newcastle and Sheffield in United Kingdom and Putrajaya, Malaysia. Patients and Methods A 10-year retrospective analysis of proven cases of ADCC was collected from January 1997 to December 2006. The patients' demographic data, clinical manifestation, site and size of the tumour were analysed. The record of metastasis, and therapeutic modality and outcomes were evaluated. Results A total of 22 cases of ADCC were documented in United Kingdom with 11 cases in each respective center. 16 cases were reviewed from Putrajaya. There was no gender preponderance and age significance. Cushing's Syndrome was the most common clinical manifestation (36.4%) in United Kingdom and (37.5%) in Putrajaya. The mean size of the ADCC was 9.3 cm (5,15 cm) in Newcastle and 9.8 cm (6,15 cm) in Sheffield as compared to 15.7 cm (5,25 cm) in Putrajaya. There were 12(75%) of patients in Putrajaya were diagnosed with Stage IV disease upon presentation whilst only 3(27.3%) and 5(45.4%) patients had metastasis noted in Newcastle and Sheffield respectively. Of note, 7(63.3%) patients in Sheffield were offered radical adrenalectomy. Our data revealed that the 2 years survival of patients who had radical approach in Sheffield has the highest rate of survival of 8(72.7%) as compared to 5(45.4%) in Newcastle and 2(12.5%) in Putrajaya. Conclusions Surgical removal remains the only form of curative therapy and hope of prolonged survival. The poorer prognosis of patients in Putrajaya may be attributed to the advanced stage of the disease. [source]