Y Old (y + old)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diaphragmatic hernia in horses: 44 cases (1986,2006)

Samantha K. Hart BVMS (Hons)
Abstract Objectives , To present a case series of horses diagnosed with diaphragmatic hernia, and to determine the significance of (1) historical information, examination findings, and laboratory data; and (2) exploratory laparotomy or necropsy findings on short- and long-term outcome. Setting , University Referral Hospital. Design , Retrospective study. Animals , Forty-four horses/foals admitted between 1986 and 2006 with a diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia made either at exploratory laparotomy or necropsy. Interventions , None. Measurements and Main Results , Information from the medical records included history, clinical examination findings at presentation, and findings of exploratory laparotomy or necropsy. Logistic regression or the Fisher exact test was used to determine factors associated with survival. Outcome was defined as survival to discharge (short-term survival), and long-term survival was defined as horses alive at least 1-year post surgery. Of the 44 horses, 18 died or were euthanized before surgery. Twenty-six were taken to surgery, 17 were euthanized. Nine horses recovered from anesthesia, 7 of which survived to hospital discharge. Of these, 5 were alive at long-term follow-up. Survival was significantly associated with the age of the horse (,2 y old) at presentation, presence of normal peritoneal fluid at presentation, amount of compromised viscera at surgery (<50% small intestine), and the size (<10 cm) and location (ventral) of the diaphragmatic tear. Conclusion , This study confirms that size and location of the lesion do play a significant role in prognosis. And, although the prognosis for horses with diaphragmatic hernia is poor, if horses have operable lesions there is a fair prognosis for long-term survival. [source]

Evaluation of a technical revegetation action performed on foredunes at Devesa de la Albufera, Valencia, Spain

F. J. Escaray
Abstract We have evaluated the level of restoration achieved by a technical revegetation action carried out on reconstructed foredunes at the Devesa de la Albufera and compared this level with that achieved by spontaneous succession. Foredunes 1, 3, 6 and 20,y old since revegetated (1, 3, 6 and 20,y, respectively) were considered as spatially separated stages representing a successional trend in the development of the restored plant community. Lower and similar levels of diversity (richness and H´ and Pielou´s indexes) and coverage, respectively, were found on dunes corresponding to the oldest stage of technical revegetation compared with that of the reference site. Diversity and coverage parameters increased during the first 6,y of the technical succession and decreased after 20,y of revegetation. Moreover, that increase was quite obvious as early as 3,y after the onset of revegetation. Results also showed that the Devesa de la Albufera has its own capacity for revegetation. According to the Jaccard and Sørensen indexes, these dunes were more similar to the reference than those from the 20,y old site. Beyond the current functionality of the revegetated sites, it is concluded that the natural and aesthetic values may be restored at the Valencian Devesa de la Albufera. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Audiovisual Speech Perception in Elderly Cochlear Implant Recipients,

Marcia J. Hay-McCutcheon PhD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: This study examined the speech perception skills of a younger and older group of cochlear implant recipients to determine the benefit that auditory and visual information provides for speech understanding. Study Design: Retrospective review. Methods: Pre- and postimplantation speech perception scores from the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant (CNC), the Hearing In Noise sentence Test (HINT), and the City University of New York (CUNY) tests were analyzed for 34 postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant recipients. Half were elderly (i.e., >65 y old) and other half were middle aged (i.e., 39,53 y old). The CNC and HINT tests were administered using auditory-only presentation; the CUNY test was administered using auditory-only, vision-only, and audiovisual presentation conditions Results: No differences were observed between the two age groups on the CNC and HINT tests. For a subset of individuals tested with the CUNY sentences, we found that the preimplantation speechreading scores of the younger group correlated negatively with auditory-only postimplant performance. Additionally, older individuals demonstrated a greater reliance on the integration of auditory and visual information to understand sentences than did the younger group Conclusions: On average, the auditory-only speech perception performance of older cochlear implant recipients was similar to the performance of younger adults. However, variability in speech perception abilities was observed within and between both age groups. Differences in speechreading skills between the younger and older individuals suggest that visual speech information is processed in a different manner for elderly individuals than it is for younger adult cochlear implant recipients. [source]

Allgrove syndrome with features of familial dysautonomia: A novel mutation in the AAAS gene

Essam A. Ismail
Abstract Allgrove syndrome (or triple-A syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by alacrima, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid in the majority of cases) and autonomic/neurological abnormalities. This disease is now known to be caused by mutation in the AAAS gene located on chromosome 12q13. Diagnosis should be readily available when the full-blown features are there, but it becomes less apparent when presentation is atypical or in the evolving process. We present a brother and sister (12 and 19 y old, respectively) born to consanguineous parents of Palestinian origin with Allgrove syndrome. The index patient was erroneously diagnosed to be a case of familial dysautonomia before the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was made at the age of 7.5 y, while his elder sister had only alacrima from birth and developed achalasia at the age of 15 y. She started to develop early evidence of adrenal disease at the age of 19 y. Both of them had neuroautonomic dysfunction. The diagnosis of Allgrove syndrome was confirmed in these two patients by studying the gene mutation in the family. The sequencing of the AAAS gene in the two patients identified a novel homozygous mutation within intron 5 (IVS5+1(G),A). Both parents as well as all three other children were heterozygous for the same mutation. Conclusion: These two cases illustrate the heterogenous nature and the intrafamilial phenotypic variability of Allgrove syndrome. [source]

Home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food is of benefit to malnourished, HIV-infected Malawian children

MJ Ndekha
Abstract Aim: To determine if home-based nutritional therapy will benefit a significant fraction of malnourished, HIV-infected Malawian children, and to determine if ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is more effective in home-based nutritional therapy than traditional foods. Methods: 93 HIV-positive children >1 y old discharged from the nutrition unit in Blantyre, Malawi were systematically allocated to one of three dietary regimens: RUTF, RUTF supplement or blended maize/soy flour. RUTF and maize/soy flour provided 730 kJ·kg,1·d,1, while the RUTF supplement provided a fixed amount of energy, 2100 kJ/d. These children did not receive antiretroviral chemotherapy. Children were followed fortnightly. Children completed the study when they reached 100% weight-for-height, relapsed or died. Outcomes were compared using regression modeling to account for differences in the severity of malnutrition between the dietary groups. Results: 52/93 (56%) of all children reached 100% weight-for-height. Regression modeling found that the children receiving RUTF gained weight more rapidly and were more likely to reach 100% weight-for-height than the other two dietary groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: More than half of malnourished, HIV-infected children not receiving antiretroviral chemotherapy benefit from home-based nutritional rehabilitation. Home-based therapy RUTF is associated with more rapid weight gain and a higher likelihood of reaching 100% weight-for-height. [source]

Knowledge of and attitude towards circumcision of adult Korean males by age

S-J Oh
Aim: Circumcision is widely practised in Korea, but little is known regarding the public's attitude towards circumcision. This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and the general opinion of Korean adult males towards circumcision. Methods: Fifteen hundred self-completion questionnaires were distributed to adult males in five decadal age groups ranging from 10 to 59 y old. Questions concerning opinions regarding the necessity, reasons, potential benefits and disadvantages of circumcision, as well as the role of peer pressure upon the decision to circumcise were included. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed statistically. Results: The achieved response rate was 62.7%. 73.1% believed that circumcision is necessary, while 7.1% believed it is not necessary. The principal reason for circumcision was to improve penile hygiene (77.9%). 68.7% did not prefer neonatal circumcision regardless of the respondent's age. The major reason was fear of pain (36.9%). Peer pressure was one of the most influential factors when deciding upon circumcision: 60.8% believed that they might be ridiculed by their peer group unless circumcised, and the younger the age of the respondent, the more frequently this opinion was held (p > 0.05). 62.7% thought that circumcision would prevent genital tract infection of the sexual partner. Respondents with older age tended to emphasize improved sexual potency (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that common beliefs of adult males about circumcision in Korea are relatively homogeneous. Tailored education about circumcision is needed. [source]

Waist circumference percentiles for 7- to 15-year-old Australian children

Joey C. Eisenmann
Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study was to develop age- and sex-specific reference values for waist circumference using data obtained from Australian children and adolescents. Methods: Subjects were 8439 7-to-15 y olds (4277 males and 4162 females) who participated in the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey. Waist circumference (WC) was measured in the standing position at the level of the umbilicus to the nearest 0.1 cm using a constant tension tape. Descriptive statistics for each whole-year age group (e.g., 10.0,10.99 y, etc.) within sex were calculated. Construction of the smoothed centile curves was performed using the LMS method. Results: Mean WC increases in both males and females, with the values being similar between males and females prior to age 11 y, after which values are slightly higher in males. The range of values varied by age and sex groups but approximated 30,60 cm. Smoothed percentile curves and percentile values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles are presented for boys and girls. WC increases with age in boys and girls, and boys have higher values than girls at nearly every age-specific percentile. Conclusions: These data can be added to the existing international reference values for WC of children and adolescents which should be used to create international cut-off points similar to those for the body mass index (BMI). Future studies should consider the immediate and long-term consequences of an elevated WC in children and also examine the interaction of BMI and WC on chronic disease risk factors. [source]