Xylostella L. (xylostella + l)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Xylostella L.

  • plutella xylostella l.

  • Selected Abstracts

    Occurrence of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and its parasitoids in Ethiopia: influence of geographical region and agronomic traits

    G. Ayalew
    Abstract:, Surveys were carried out in 2001 in brassica-producing areas of Ethiopia to determine the geographic distribution and severity of diamondback moth (DBM) and occurrence of indigenous parasitoids. Principal component analysis was used to analyse the importance of nine parameters , DBM density, parasitism by different parasitoid species (Oomyzus sokolowskii, Diadegma spp., Apanteles sp. and overall parasitism), cropping systems, pesticide use, frequency of pesticide application and altitude. A total of 194 brassica fields in 13 different areas were visited. Principal component analysis showed that the first two of the nine principal components (largely DBM density and pesticide use) accounted for 70% of the variation in the data set. Higher DBM numbers were associated with pesticide usage and higher overall parasitism with intercropping. Eight parasitoid species were recorded of which three species were important both in distribution and level of parasitism. These include Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hym., Eulophidae), Diadegma spp. (Hym., Ichneumonidae) and Apanteles sp. (Hym., Braconidae). Overall parasitism ranged from 3.6% to 79.5% with big differences between areas. Apanteles sp. and Diadegma spp. were largely confined to the south-western part of Ethiopia where insecticide use is minimal. Oomyzus sokolowskii is mainly distributed in areas of the Rift Valley and northern Ethiopia with relatively heavy insecticide use. This study indicated a huge impact of repeated insecticide treatment and agronomic practices on DBM severity and its parasitoids. [source]

    The role of pre- and post- alighting detection mechanisms in the responses to patch size by specialist herbivores

    OIKOS, Issue 3 2005
    Tibor Bukovinszky
    Experimental data on the relationship between plant patch size and population density of herbivores within fields often deviates from predictions of the theory of island biogeography and the resource concentration hypothesis. Here we argue that basic features of foraging behaviour can explain different responses of specialist herbivores to habitat heterogeneity. In a combination of field and simulation studies, we applied basic knowledge on the foraging strategies of three specialist herbivores: the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae L.) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.), to explain differences in their responses to small scale fragmentation of their habitat. In our field study, populations of the three species responded to different sizes of host plant patches (9 plants and 100 plants) in different ways. Densities of winged cabbage aphids were independent of patch size. Egg-densities of the cabbage butterfly were higher in small than in large patches. Densities of diamondback moth adults were higher in large patches than in small patches. When patches in a background of barley were compared with those in grass, densities of the cabbage aphid and the diamondback moth were reduced, but not cabbage butterfly densities. To explore the role of foraging behaviour of herbivores on their response to patch size, a spatially explicit individual-based simulation framework was used. The sensory abilities of the insects to detect and respond to contact, olfactory or visual cues were varied. Species with a post-alighting host recognition behaviour (cabbage aphid) could only use contact cues from host plants encountered after landing. In contrast, species capable with a pre-alighting recognition behaviour, based on visual (cabbage butterfly) or olfactory (diamondback moth) cues, were able to recognise a preferred host plant whilst in flight. These three searching modalities were studied by varying the in flight detection abilities, the displacement speed and the arrestment response to host plants by individuals. Simulated patch size , density relationships were similar to those observed in the field. The importance of pre- and post- alighting detection in the responses of herbivores to spatial heterogeneity of the habitat is discussed. [source]

    Insecticide susceptibility of surviving Cotesia plutellae (Hym: Braconidae) and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hym: Aphidiidae) as affected by sublethal insecticide dosages on host insects

    Yong Wen Lin
    Abstract The effects of sublethal dosages of insecticides applied to Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach (Homoptera: Aphidiidae) on the insecticide susceptibility of the surviving endoparasitoids, Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae), were studied in Shangjie, Minhou, China. The susceptibility to methamidophos and the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to methamidophos and dichlorvos in the adults of host insects were substantially lower than those in the two parasitoids. The host insects were treated with sublethal dosages of methamidophos in P. xylostella and of methamidophos and avermectin in L. erysimi. The cocoon formation in the two parasitoids decreased significantly, from 35.0% (control) to 13.0% (with methamidophos treatment) for C. plutellae; from 20.6% (control) to 9.0% (with methamidophos treatment) and from 24.3% (control) to 16.7% (with avermectin treatment) for D. rapae. The susceptibility to methamidophos of the resultant emerging adults of the two parasitoids was found to be significantly lower than that of the control when the parasitoids were left in contact with the same dosages of methamidophos. The average AChE activity inhibition by methamidophos and dichlorvos in 34,60 adults of the two parasitoids that emerged from the treatments (15.1% and 31.8% respectively for C. plutellae, and 21.1% and 26.9% for D. rapae) was also significantly lower than those of the controls (55.4% and 48.3% respectively for C. plutellae, and 42.9% and 51.7% for D. rapae). The bimolecular rate constant (ki) values of AChE to methamidophos and dichlorvos in the adults of parasitoids without the insecticide treatment were 1.78 and 1.56 times as high as those that emerged from the host insects treated with methamidophos for C. plutellae, and 1.91 and 1.66 times as high as those in the case of D. rapae. It is suggested that there is a difference in AChE sensitivity to insecticides between the resultant emerging parasitoids with and without insecticide pretreatment. Furthermore, the introduction of the insecticides to the host insects could be an important factor in the insecticide resistance development of the endoparasitoids. The natural selectivity would favour the parasitoids that had developed an insensitivity to the insecticide(s). Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Biochemical mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidopterata: Yponomeutidae), in the Sydney region, Australia

    Vincent Y Eziah
    Abstract Following the detection of resistant diamondback moth (DBM) populations to synthetic pyrethroid, organophosphorus and indoxacarb insecticides in the Sydney Basin, a study of the major biochemical mechanisms was conducted to determine the type of resistance in these populations. The activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases increased two- to sixfold when compared with the susceptible strain. Up to a 1.9-fold increase in esterase activity in resistant strains compared with the susceptible strain was observed. In vitro inhibition studies showed that profenofos, methamidophos and chlorpyrifos strongly inhibited the esterases while permethrin and esfenvalerate resulted in less than 30% inhibition. Qualitative analysis of the esterases using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed four bands in both the susceptible and resistant individuals with more intense staining in the resistant individuals. The development of these bands was inhibited by methamidophos and chlorpyrifos pretreatment of the protein extract while permethrin and esfenvalerate did not exhibit this effect. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly higher in two field populations compared with the remaining populations. Overall, the study showed that the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in the DBM populations in the area studied were due to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, esterase and GSTs, and possibly other non-metabolic mechanisms that were not investigated in the present study. [source]

    Susceptibility of four field populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) to six insecticides in the Sydney region, New South Wales, Australia

    Vincent Y Eziah
    Abstract Concerns about the failure of insecticides to control the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella in the Sydney region of New South Wales, Australia, necessitated the current investigation to establish the susceptibility of four field populations of the DBM to six insecticides. These include two each of organophosphates (OPs), and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as well as two new products with different modes of action, spinosad and indoxacarb, currently recommended for DBM control in the region. Topical application of the insecticides to the third-instar larvae showed high resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin and esfenvalerate) of 35.0- to 490.0-fold. Resistance to the OPs (methamidophos and chlorpyrifos) and indoxacarb ranged from 12.1- to 36.2-fold and from 11.4- to 34.6-fold, respectively. However, the field populations were susceptible to spinosad (resistance factors only two- to threefold compared with the susceptible strain). A 2 h pre-treatment of the esfenvalerate-resistant strain with the synergists piperonyl butoxide and diethyl maleate increased the toxicity of esfenvalerate by 30.0- and 1.9-fold, respectively, suggesting the involvement of esterases and/or monooxygenases as the key mechanism(s) of insecticide resistance with glutathione S-transferases playing a minor role. [source]