Xylem Sap (xylem + sap)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Xylem Sap

  • xylem sap flow

  • Selected Abstracts


    Kinetics and Mechanism of Ni(II) Chelation in Model and Real Solutions of Xylem Sap of Quercus ilex

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2007
    Margarida, Maria Correia, Santos
    Abstract The kinetics of formation and dissociation of Ni(II) complexes with oxalic and citric acids was studied by cyclic voltammetry in model solutions of xylem sap of Q. ilex (the dominant tree growing on serpentine soils of Northeast Portugal) using representative concentrations, pH and ionic strength. The role of magnesium on complex formation was analyzed from solutions where Mg is present at concentration levels found in the xylem sap of Q. ilex growing on both nonserpentine and serpentine soils. Kinetics studies were also done in diluted solutions of real xylem sap samples, spiked with increasing amounts of magnesium. The values obtained for the apparent rate constants were those anticipated by the proposed model. To test the validity of the methodology and mechanisms, formation rate constants, kf (M,1 s,1) of Ni(II) complexes with citrate and oxalate were evaluated that compare with the values from Eigen mechanism. [source]


    Nitrogen and phosphorus availability limit N2 fixation in bean

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2000
    E. O. LEIDI
    Availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) might significantly affect N2 fixation in legumes. The interaction of N and P was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), considering their effects on nodulation and N2 fixation, nitrate reductase activity, and the composition of N compounds in xylem sap. The effect of N on the uptake of P by plants was estimated by analysing rhizospheric pH and P concentration in xylem sap and in plant shoots. Inoculated bean plants were grown in pots containing perlite/vermiculite in two experiments with different amounts of P and N. In a third experiment, bean plants were grown on two soil types or on river sand supplied with different concentrations of N. At harvest, shoot growth, number of nodules and mass, and nitrogenase activity were determined. Xylem sap was collected for the determination of ureides, amino acids, nitrate and phosphate concentration. At low nitrate concentration (1 mM), increasing amounts of P promoted both nodule formation and N2 fixation, measured as ureide content in the xylem sap. However, at high nitrate concentration (10 mM), nodulation and N2 fixation did not improve with increased P supply. Glutamine and aspartate were the main organic N compounds transported in the xylem sap of plants grown in low nitrate, whereas asparagine was the dominant N compound in xylem sap from plants grown in high nitrate. Nitrate reductase activity in roots was higher than in shoots of plants grown with low P and high N. In both soils and in the sand experiment, increased application of N decreased nodule mass and number, nitrogenase activity and xylem ureides but increased the concentration of asparagine in xylem sap. Increasing P nutrition improved symbiotic N2 fixation in bean only at low N concentrations. It did not alleviate the inhibitory effect of high nitrate concentration on N2 fixation. A decrease in plant P uptake was observed, as indicated by a lower concentration of P in the xylem sap and shoots, correlating with the amount of N supplied. Simultaneously with the specific inhibition of N2 fixation, high nitrate concentrations might decrease P availability, thus inhibiting even further the symbiotic association because of the high P requirement for nodulation and N2 fixation. [source]


    Kinetics and Mechanism of Ni(II) Chelation in Model and Real Solutions of Xylem Sap of Quercus ilex

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2007
    Margarida, Maria Correia, Santos
    Abstract The kinetics of formation and dissociation of Ni(II) complexes with oxalic and citric acids was studied by cyclic voltammetry in model solutions of xylem sap of Q. ilex (the dominant tree growing on serpentine soils of Northeast Portugal) using representative concentrations, pH and ionic strength. The role of magnesium on complex formation was analyzed from solutions where Mg is present at concentration levels found in the xylem sap of Q. ilex growing on both nonserpentine and serpentine soils. Kinetics studies were also done in diluted solutions of real xylem sap samples, spiked with increasing amounts of magnesium. The values obtained for the apparent rate constants were those anticipated by the proposed model. To test the validity of the methodology and mechanisms, formation rate constants, kf (M,1 s,1) of Ni(II) complexes with citrate and oxalate were evaluated that compare with the values from Eigen mechanism. [source]


    Defoliation alters water uptake by deep and shallow roots of Prosopis velutina (Velvet Mesquite)

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    K. A. Snyder
    Summary 1Prosopis velutina Woot. (Velvet Mesquite) at a site with limited groundwater availability derived a greater percentage of water from shallow soil at the onset of the summer rainy season than did trees at a site with greater availability of groundwater. Predawn leaf water potentials (,pd) were not a strong indicator of shallow water use for this species with roots in multiple soil layers. 2We experimentally defoliated P. velutina plants to determine if reduced-canopy photosynthesis would alter vertical patterns of root activity. After natural rain events, hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap indicated that defoliated P. velutina took up a greater percentage of its water from shallow soils than did undefoliated plants. 3Irrigation with deuterium-labelled water further demonstrated that undefoliated plants were able to use shallow soil water. Defoliation appeared to affect the ability of trees to use deep-water sources. 4Reduced carbon assimilation limited water uptake from deep soil layers. These data highlight that there are internal physiological controls on carbon allocation that may limit water uptake from different soil layers. During periods of high vapour pressure deficit or soil drought, when leaf gas exchange and carbon assimilation decline, this may create positive feedbacks where plants are unable to forage for deep water due to carbon limitations. [source]


    Sodium-induced calcium deficiency in sugar beet during substitution of potassium by sodium

    JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    Abdul Wakeel
    Abstract Functions of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) are closely associated. In some crops, Na+ is able to prevent or reduce considerably the occurrence of K+ deficiency. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a natrophilic crop, and positive effects of Na+ applications on yield were observed when K+ was sufficiently supplied. However, it is not known which specific function of K+ can limit the growth of sugar beet when K+ is substituted by an equivalent amount of Na+. Therefore, K+ substitution by Na+ was investigated for sugar beet in hydroponics. Surprisingly, no K+ -deficiency symptoms were observed. However, calcium (Ca2+) concentrations in the leaves were significantly decreased. Moreover, Ca2+ uptake and translocation through xylem sap were reduced in Na+ -treated plants. It is concluded that Ca2+ uptake by roots and its translocation via xylem sap primarily limit the possibility of K+ substitution by Na+ in sugar beet nutrition. [source]


    Nitrogen and phosphorus availability limit N2 fixation in bean

    NEW PHYTOLOGIST, Issue 2 2000
    E. O. LEIDI
    Availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) might significantly affect N2 fixation in legumes. The interaction of N and P was studied in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), considering their effects on nodulation and N2 fixation, nitrate reductase activity, and the composition of N compounds in xylem sap. The effect of N on the uptake of P by plants was estimated by analysing rhizospheric pH and P concentration in xylem sap and in plant shoots. Inoculated bean plants were grown in pots containing perlite/vermiculite in two experiments with different amounts of P and N. In a third experiment, bean plants were grown on two soil types or on river sand supplied with different concentrations of N. At harvest, shoot growth, number of nodules and mass, and nitrogenase activity were determined. Xylem sap was collected for the determination of ureides, amino acids, nitrate and phosphate concentration. At low nitrate concentration (1 mM), increasing amounts of P promoted both nodule formation and N2 fixation, measured as ureide content in the xylem sap. However, at high nitrate concentration (10 mM), nodulation and N2 fixation did not improve with increased P supply. Glutamine and aspartate were the main organic N compounds transported in the xylem sap of plants grown in low nitrate, whereas asparagine was the dominant N compound in xylem sap from plants grown in high nitrate. Nitrate reductase activity in roots was higher than in shoots of plants grown with low P and high N. In both soils and in the sand experiment, increased application of N decreased nodule mass and number, nitrogenase activity and xylem ureides but increased the concentration of asparagine in xylem sap. Increasing P nutrition improved symbiotic N2 fixation in bean only at low N concentrations. It did not alleviate the inhibitory effect of high nitrate concentration on N2 fixation. A decrease in plant P uptake was observed, as indicated by a lower concentration of P in the xylem sap and shoots, correlating with the amount of N supplied. Simultaneously with the specific inhibition of N2 fixation, high nitrate concentrations might decrease P availability, thus inhibiting even further the symbiotic association because of the high P requirement for nodulation and N2 fixation. [source]


    Determination of nickel, calcium and magnesium in xylem sap by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a microsampling technique

    PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 5 2009
    Sheila Alves
    Abstract Introduction Knowledge of xylem sap chemical composition is important to the understanding of translocation, detoxification and tolerance mechanisms. However, the small amount of sample available often hampers its characterisation. Hence, low volume consumption techniques are needed for xylem sap analysis. Objective To develop a microsampling technique for the determination of elements in xylem sap from different plants by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Methodology The microsampling device was optimised in terms of sample volume and integration time. The analytical characteristics of the microsampling technique (µ -FAAS) were established and compared with those of FAAS with traditional continuous nebulisation. The method was validated by means of an independent technique. Results Ca, Mg and Ni were determined in a 50 µL aliquot of xylem sap solution/element that was introduced directly into the flame via the microsampling accessory. Good precision was obtained with relative standard deviations of 1.1, 0.6 and 2.3% for Ca, Mg and Ni, respectively. Matrix effects resulting from the physical characteristics of the samples and possible chemical interferences caused by phosphate and/or sulphate were ruled out. Conclusion A simple, rapid and reproducible microsampling technique coupled to FAAS was developed and successfully applied in the determination of Ca, Mg and Ni in xylem sap. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Water Sources and Water-Use Efficiency in Mediterranean Coastal Dune Vegetation

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    G. A. Alessio
    Abstract: In coastal environments plants have to cope with various water sources: rainwater, water table, seawater, and mixtures. These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios). Xylem water reflects the isotopic compositions of the water sources. Additionally, water-use efficiency (WUE) can be assessed with carbon isotope discrimination (,) analyses. Gas exchange, , of leaf dry matter, and isotopic composition (,18O) of xylem water were measured from June to August 2001 in herbaceous perennials of mobile dunes (Ammophila littoralis, Elymus farctus) and sclerophyllous shrubs and climbers (Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Phillyrea angustifolia, Qercus ilex, Juniperus oxycedrus, Smilax aspera) of consolidated dunes. Assimilation rates were rather low and did not show clear seasonal patterns, possibly due to limited precipitation and generally low values of stomatal conductance. The lowest values were shown in S. aspera. Different physiological patterns were found, on the basis of ,18O and , analyses. Values of ,18O of xylem water of phanerophytes were remarkably constant and matched those of the water table, indicating dependence on a reliable water source; values of , were relatively high, indicating low intrinsic WUE, with the exception of J. oxycedrus. Surprisingly, very high ,18O values were found for the xylem water from S. aspera in August. This suggests retrodiffusion of leaf water to xylem sap in the stem or direct uptake of water by leaves or stems, owing to dew or fog occurrence. Low , values indicated high WUE in S. aspera. Contrasting strategies were shown by the species of mobile dunes: E. farctus relied on superficial water and exhibited low WUE, accordingly to its therophyte-like vegetative cycle; on the contrary, A. littoralis used deeper water sources, showing higher WUE in relation to its long-lasting vegetative habit. [source]


    The plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 is essential for salt tolerance in tomato and affects the partitioning of Na+ between plant organs

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 7 2009
    RAQUEL OLÍAS
    ABSTRACT We have identified a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), SlSOS1, and used heterologous expression in yeast to confirm that SlSOS1 was the functional homolog of AtSOS1. Using post-transcriptional gene silencing, we evaluated the role played by SlSOS1 in long-distance Na+ transport and salt tolerance of tomato. Tomato was used because of its anatomical structure, more complex than that of Arabidopsis, and its agricultural significance. Transgenic tomato plants with reduced expression of SlSOS1 exhibited reduced growth rate compared to wild-type (WT) plants in saline conditions. This sensitivity correlated with higher accumulation of Na+ in leaves and roots, but lower contents in stems of silenced plants under salt stress. Differential distribution of Na+ and lower net Na+ flux were observed in the xylem sap in the suppressed plants. In addition, K+ concentration was lower in roots of silenced plants than in WT. Our results demonstrate that SlSOS1 antiporter is not only essential in maintaining ion homeostasis under salinity, but also critical for the partitioning of Na+ between plant organs. The ability of tomato plants to retain Na+ in the stems, thus preventing Na+ from reaching the photosynthetic tissues, is largely dependent on the function of SlSOS1. [source]


    Evaporative enrichment and time lags between ,18O of leaf water and organic pools in a pine stand

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 5 2007
    ROMAIN L. BARNARD
    ABSTRACT Understanding ecosystem water fluxes has gained increasing attention, as climate scenarios predict a drier environment for many parts of the world. Evaporative enrichment of 18O (,18O) of leaf water and subsequent enrichment of plant organic matter can be used to characterize environmental and physiological factors that control evaporation, based on a recently established mechanistic model. In a Pinus sylvestris forest, we measured the dynamics of oxygen isotopic composition (,18O) every 6 h for 4 d in atmospheric water vapour, xylem sap, leaf water and water-soluble organic matter in current (N) and previous year (N-1) needles, phloem sap, together with leaf gas exchange for pooled N and N-1 needles, and relevant micrometeorological variables. Leaf water ,18O showed strong diel periodicity, while ,18O in atmospheric water vapour and in xylem sap showed little variation. The ,18O was consistently lower for N than for N-1 needles, possibly related to phenological stage. Modelled leaf water ,18O showed good agreement with measured values when applying a non-steady state evaporative enrichment model including a Péclet effect. We determined the time lags between ,18O signals from leaf water to water-soluble foliar organic matter and to phloem sap at different locations down the trunk, which clearly demonstrated the relevance of considering these time-lag effects for carbon transport, source-sink and carbon flux partitioning studies. [source]


    Silicon deposition in the root reduces sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings by reducing bypass flow

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 10 2006
    H. J. GONG
    ABSTRACT Sodium chloride reduces the growth of rice seedlings, which accumulate excessive concentrations of sodium and chloride ions in their leaves. In this paper, we describe how silicon decreases transpirational bypass flow and ion concentrations in the xylem sap in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings growing under NaCl stress. Salt (50 mM NaCl) reduced the growth of shoots and roots: adding silicate (3 mM) to the saline culture solution improved the growth of the shoots, but not roots. The improvement of shoot growth in the presence of silicate was correlated with reduced sodium concentration in the shoot. The net transport rate of Na from the root to shoot (expressed per unit of root mass) was also decreased by added silicate. There was, however, no effect of silicate on the net transport of potassium. Furthermore, in salt-stressed plants, silicate did not decrease the transpiration, and even increased it in seedlings pre-treated with silicate for 7 d prior to salt treatment, indicating that the reduction of sodium uptake by silicate was not simply through a reduction in volume flow from root to shoot. Experiments using trisodium-8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid (PTS), an apoplastic tracer, showed that silicate dramatically decreased transpirational bypass flow in rice (from about 4.2 to 0.8%), while the apparent sodium concentration in the xylem, which was estimated indirectly from the flux data, decreased from 6.2 to 2.8 mM. Direct measurements of the concentration of sodium in xylem sap sampled using Philaenus spumarius confirmed that the apparent reduction was not a consequence of sodium recycling. X-ray microanalysis showed that silicon was deposited in the outer part of the root and in the endodermis, being more obvious in the latter than in the former. The results suggest that silicon deposition in the exodermis and endodermis reduced sodium uptake in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under NaCl stress through a reduction in apoplastic transport across the root. [source]


    Xylem sap flow as a major pathway for oxygen supply to the sapwood of birch (Betula pubescens Ehr.)

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 11 2003
    D. GANSERT
    ABSTRACT The role of xylem sap flow as an aqueous pathway for oxygen supply to the wood parenchyma of Betula pubescens saplings was investigated. Using micro-optode sensors the oxygen status of the sapwood was quantified in relation to mass flow of xylem sap. Sap flow was gradually reduced by an increasing oxygen depletion in the root space. The effect of sap flow on radial O2 transport between stem and atmosphere was assessed by a stoichiometrical approach between respiratory CO2 production and O2 consumption. Restriction of sap flow set in 36.5 h after the onset of O2 depletion, and was complete after 71 h. Interruption of sap flow drastically increased the O2 deficit in the sapwood to 70%. Sap flow contributed about 60% to the total oxygen supply to the sapwood. Diurnal O2 flow rates varied between 3 and 6.3 nmol O2 m,2 leaf area (LA) s,1 during night- and daytime, respectively. Maximum O2 flow rates of 20 nmol O2 m,2 LA s,1 were reached at highest sap flow rates of 5.7 mmol H2O m,2 LA s,1. Sap flow not only affected the oxygen status of the sapwood but also had an effect on radial O2 transport between stem and atmosphere. [source]


    Measurement of xylem sap amino acid concentrations in conjunction with whole tree transpiration estimates spring N remobilization by cherry (Prunus avium L.) trees

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 12 2002
    G. GRASSI
    Abstract Prunus avium trees were grown in sand culture for one vegetative season with contrasting N supplies, in order to precondition their N storage capacities. During the spring of the second year a constant amount of 15N was supplied to all the trees, and the recovery of unlabelled N in the new biomass production was used as a direct measure of N remobilization. Destructive harvests were taken during spring to determine the pattern of N remobilization and uptake. Measurements of both xylem sap amino acid profiles and whole tree transpiration rates were taken, to determine whether specific amino acids are translocated as a consequence of N remobilization and if remobilization can be quantified by calculating the flux of these amino acids in the xylem. Whereas remobilization started immediately after bud burst, N derived from uptake by root appeared in the leaves only 3 weeks later. The tree internal N status affected both the amount of N remobilization and its dynamics. The concentration of xylem sap amino acids peaked shortly after bud burst, concurrently with the period of fastest remobilization. Few amino acids and amides (Gln, Asn and Asp) were responsible for most of N translocated through the xylem; however, their relative concentration varied over spring, demonstrating that the transport of remobilized N occurred mainly with Gln whereas transport of N taken up from roots occurred mainly with Asn. Coupling measurements of amino acid N in the xylem sap with transpiration values was well correlated with the recovery of unlabelled N in the new biomass production. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of measuring the spring remobilization of N in field-grown trees by calculating the flux of N translocation in the xylem. [source]


    Does engineering abscisic acid biosynthesis in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia modify stomatal response to drought?

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 5 2001
    C. Borel
    ABSTRACT The consequences of manipulating abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis rates on stomatal response to drought were analysed in wild-type, a full-deficient mutant and four under-producing transgenic lines of N. plumbaginifolia. The roles of ABA, xylem sap pH and leaf water potential were investigated under four experimental conditions: feeding detached leaves with varying ABA concentration; injecting exogenous ABA into well-watered plants; and withholding irrigation on pot-grown plants, either intact or grafted onto tobacco. Changes in ABA synthesis abilities among lines did not affect stomatal sensitivity to ABA concentration in the leaf xylem sap ([ABA]xyl), as evidenced with exogenous ABA supplies and natural increases of [ABA]xyl in grafted plants subjected to drought. The ABA-deficient mutant, which is uncultivable under normal evaporative demand, was grafted onto tobacco stock and then presented the same stomatal response to [ABA]xyl as wild-type and other lines. This reinforces the dominant role of ABA in controlling stomatal response to drought in N. plumbaginifolia whereas roles of leaf water potential and xylem sap pH were excluded under all studied conditions. However, when plants were submitted to soil drying onto their own roots, stomatal response to [ABA]xyl slightly differed among lines. It is suggested, consistently with all the results, that an additional root signal of soil drying modulates stomatal response to [ABA]xyl. [source]


    Simultaneous measurement of water flow velocity and solute transport in xylem and phloem of adult plants of Ricinus communis over a daily time course by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 5 2001
    A. D. Peuke
    ABSTRACT A new method for simultaneously quantifying rates of flow in xylem and phloem using the FLASH imaging capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry was applied in this study. The method has a time resolution of up to 4 min (for the xylem) and was used to measure the velocity of flows in phloem and xylem for periods of several hours to days. For the first time, diurnal time course measurements of flow velocities and apparent volume flows in phloem and xylem in the hypocotyl of 40-d-old Ricinus communis L were obtained. Additional data on gas exchange and the chemical composition of leaves, xylem and phloem sap were used to assess the role of leaves as sinks for xylem sap and sources for phloem. The velocity in the phloem (0·250 ± 0·004 mm s,1) was constant over a full day and not notably affected by the light/dark cycle. Sucrose was loaded into the phloem and transported at night, owing to degradation of starch accumulated during the day. Concentrations of solutes in the phloem were generally less during the night than during the day but varied little within either the day or night. In contrast to the phloem, flow velocities in the xylem were about 1·6-fold higher in the light (0·401 ± 0·004 mm s,1) than in the dark (0·255 ± 0·003 mm s,1) and volume flow varied commensurately. Larger delays were observed in changes to xylem flow velocity with variation in light than in gas exchange. The relative rates of solute transport during day and night were estimated on the basis of relative flow and solute concentrations in xylem and phloem. In general, changes in relative flow rates were compensated for by changes in solute concentration during the daily light/dark cycle. However, the major solutes (K+, NO3,) varied appreciably in relative concentrations. Hence the regulation of loading into transport systems seems to be more important to the overall process of solute transport than do changes in mass flow. Due to transport behaviour, the chemical composition of leaves varied during the day only with regard to starch and soluble carbohydrates. [source]


    Transport of cytokinins mediated by purine transporters of the PUP family expressed in phloem, hydathodes, and pollen of Arabidopsis

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Lukas Bürkle
    Summary Nucleobases and derivatives like cytokinins and caffeine are translocated in the plant vascular system. Transport studies in cultured Arabidopsis cells indicate that adenine and cytokinin are transported by a common H+ -coupled high-affinity purine transport system. Transport properties are similar to that of Arabidopsis purine transporters AtPUP1 and 2. When expressed in yeast, AtPUP1 and 2 mediate energy-dependent high-affinity adenine uptake, whereas AtPUP3 activity was not detectable. Similar to the results from cell cultures, purine permeases (PUP) mediated uptake of adenine can be inhibited by cytokinins, indicating that cytokinins are transport substrates. Direct measurements demonstrate that AtPUP1 is capable of mediating uptake of radiolabeled trans -zeatin. Cytokinin uptake is strongly inhibited by adenine and isopentenyladenine but is poorly inhibited by 6-chloropurine. A number of physiological cytokinins including trans- and cis- zeatin are also efficient competitors for AtPUP2-mediated adenine uptake, suggesting that AtPUP2 is also able to mediate cytokinin transport. Furthermore, AtPUP1 mediates transport of caffeine and ribosylated purine derivatives in yeast. Promoter,reporter gene studies point towards AtPUP1 expression in the epithem of hydathodes and the stigma surface of siliques, suggesting a role in retrieval of cytokinins from xylem sap to prevent loss during guttation. The AtPUP2 promoter drives GUS reporter gene activity in the phloem of Arabidopsis leaves, indicating a role in long-distance transport of adenine and cytokinins. Promoter activity of AtPUP3 was only found in pollen. In summary, three closely related PUPs are differentially expressed in Arabidopsis and at least two PUPs have properties similar to the adenine and cytokinin transport system identified in Arabidopsis cell cultures. [source]


    ABA during reproductive development in non-irrigated grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo)

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF GRAPE AND WINE RESEARCH, Issue 3 2003
    M. CARMEN ANTOLÍN
    Abstract In grapevines, stomatal aperture decreases after a mid-morning peak during summer days. Afternoon stomatal closure increases in non-irrigated plants as water limitation progresses, which suggests the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in the control of stomatal aperture. The objective of this work was to study the seasonal and diurnal time-courses of CO2 assimilation rate, leaf conductance, leaf water potential +, and ABA concentration in xylem sap, leaves, flowers and berries in non-irrigated field-grown Tempranillo grapevines throughout reproductive development. Leaf decreased throughout fruit development because water availability decreased towards the end of the reproductive cycle. CO2 assimilation rate, leaf conductance and xylem ABA concentration also decreased during the course of the growing season. Combining all measurements xylem ABA was either not correlated, or only slightly correlated, with leaf water status + and daily leaf conductance, respectively. This lack of relationship indicates that xylem ABA during fruit ripening had functions other than provision of a non-hydraulic signal. On a seasonal basis, xylem ABA concentration measured in non-irrigated grapevines was well related to berry ABA concentration, especially at the end of fruit development (veraison and harvest). [source]