Xylem Formation (xylem + formation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Overexpression of EgROP1, a Eucalyptus vascular-expressed Rac-like small GTPase, affects secondary xylem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Camille Foucart
Summary ,,To better understand the genetic control of secondary xylem formation in trees we analysed genes expressed during Eucalyptus xylem development. ,Using eucalyptus xylem cDNA libraries, we identified EgROP1, a member of the plant ROP family of Rho-like GTPases. These signalling proteins are central regulators of many important processes in plants, but information on their role in xylogenesis is scarce. ,,Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) confirmed that EgROP1 was preferentially expressed in the cambial zone and differentiating xylem in eucalyptus. Genetic mapping performed in a eucalyptus breeding population established a link between EgROP1 sequence polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to lignin profiles and fibre morphology. Overexpression of various forms of EgROP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana altered anisotropic cell growth in transgenic leaves, but most importantly affected vessel element and fibre growth in secondary xylem. Patches of fibre-like cells in the secondary xylem of transgenic plants showed changes in secondary cell wall thickness, lignin and xylan composition. ,,These results suggest a role for EgROP1 in fibre cell morphology and secondary cell wall formation making it a good candidate gene for marker-based selection of eucalyptus trees. [source]

Phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation

ABSTRACT Active phototropic bending of non-elongating and radially growing portion of stems (woody stems) has not been previously documented, whereas negative gravitropic bending is well known. We found phototropic bending in woody stems and searched for the underlying mechanism. We inclined 1-year-old Quercus crispula Blume seedlings and unilaterally illuminated them from a horizontal direction perpendicular to (,normal' illumination) or parallel to (,parallel' illumination) the inclination azimuth. With normal illumination, active phototropic bending and xylem formation could be evaluated separately from the negative gravitropic response and vertical deflection resulting from the weight of the seedlings. One-year-old stems with normal illumination bent significantly, with asymmetrical xylem formation towards the illuminated upper surface and side of the stem, whereas those with parallel illumination showed non-significant lateral bending, with asymmetrical xylem formation only on the upper side. A mechanical model was built on the assumption that a bending moment resulted from the asymmetrical xylem formation during phototropic bending of the woody stems. The model fitted the relationship between the observed spatial distributions of the xylem and the observed lateral bending, and thus supported the hypothesis that phototropic bending of woody stems results from asymmetrical xylem formation, as such occurs during gravitropism. [source]

ANAC012, a member of the plant-specific NAC transcription factor family, negatively regulates xylary fiber development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Jae-Heung Ko
Summary Vascular plants evolved to have xylem that provides physical support for their growing body and serves as a conduit for water and nutrient transport. In a previous study, we used comparative-transcriptome analyses to select a group of genes that were upregulated in xylem of Arabidopsis plants undergoing secondary growth. Subsequent analyses identified a plant-specific NAC-domain transcription factor gene (ANAC012) as a candidate for genetic regulation of xylem formation. Promoter-GUS analyses showed that ANAC012 expression was preferentially localized in the (pro)cambium region of inflorescence stem and root. Using yeast transactivation analyses, we confirmed the function of ANAC012 as a transcriptional activator, and identified an activation domain in the C terminus. Ectopic overexpression of ANAC012 in Arabidopsis (35S::ANAC012 plants) dramatically suppressed secondary wall deposition in the xylary fiber and slightly increased cell-wall thickness in the xylem vessels. Cellulose compositions of the cell wall were decreased in the inflorescent stems and roots of 35S::ANAC012 plants, probably resulting from defects in xylary fiber formation. Our data suggest that ANAC012 may act as a negative regulator of secondary wall thickening in xylary fibers. [source]