Xylem Development (xylem + development)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Seasonal water relations of Lyginia barbata (Southern rush) in relation to root xylem development and summer dormancy of root apices

Michael W. Shane
Summary ,Periods of dormancy in shallow roots allow perennial monocotyledons to establish deep root systems, but we know little about patterns of xylem maturation, water-transport capacities and associated economies in water use of growing and dormant roots. ,Xylem development, anatomy, conductance and in situ cellular [K] and [Cl] were investigated in roots of field-grown Lyginia barbata (Restionaceae) in Mediterranean southwestern Australia. Parallel studies of gas exchange, culm relative water loss and soil water content were conducted. ,Stomatal conductance and photosynthesis decreased during summer drought as soil profiles dried, but rates recovered when dormant roots became active with the onset of wetter conditions. Anatomical studies identified sites of close juxtaposition of phloem and xylem in dormant and growing roots. Ion data and dye tracing showed mature late metaxylem of growing roots was located , 100 mm from the tip, but at only , 10 mm for dormant roots. Dormant roots remained hydrated in dry soils (0.001,0.005 g g,1). ,Effective regulation of growth and water-conserving/obtaining properties permits the survival of shallow roots of L. barbata during summer drought and may represent important strategies for establishing deeper perennial root systems in other monocotyledonous plants adapted to seasonally dry habitats. [source]

Overexpression of EgROP1, a Eucalyptus vascular-expressed Rac-like small GTPase, affects secondary xylem formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Camille Foucart
Summary ,,To better understand the genetic control of secondary xylem formation in trees we analysed genes expressed during Eucalyptus xylem development. ,Using eucalyptus xylem cDNA libraries, we identified EgROP1, a member of the plant ROP family of Rho-like GTPases. These signalling proteins are central regulators of many important processes in plants, but information on their role in xylogenesis is scarce. ,,Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) confirmed that EgROP1 was preferentially expressed in the cambial zone and differentiating xylem in eucalyptus. Genetic mapping performed in a eucalyptus breeding population established a link between EgROP1 sequence polymorphisms and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to lignin profiles and fibre morphology. Overexpression of various forms of EgROP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana altered anisotropic cell growth in transgenic leaves, but most importantly affected vessel element and fibre growth in secondary xylem. Patches of fibre-like cells in the secondary xylem of transgenic plants showed changes in secondary cell wall thickness, lignin and xylan composition. ,,These results suggest a role for EgROP1 in fibre cell morphology and secondary cell wall formation making it a good candidate gene for marker-based selection of eucalyptus trees. [source]

Environmental and auxin regulation of wood formation involves members of the Aux/IAA gene family in hybrid aspen

Richard Moyle
Summary Indole acetic acid (IAA/auxin) profoundly affects wood formation but the molecular mechanism of auxin action in this process remains poorly understood. We have cloned cDNAs for eight members of the Aux/IAA gene family from hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. Populus tremuloides Michx.) that encode potential mediators of the auxin signal transduction pathway. These genes designated as PttIAA1-PttIAA8 are auxin inducible but differ in their requirement of de novo protein synthesis for auxin induction. The auxin induction of the PttIAA genes is also developmentally controlled as evidenced by the loss of their auxin inducibility during leaf maturation. The PttIAA genes are differentially expressed in the cell types of a developmental gradient comprising the wood-forming tissues. Interestingly, the expression of the PttIAA genes is downregulated during transition of the active cambium into dormancy, a process in which meristematic cells of the cambium lose their sensitivity to auxin. Auxin-regulated developmental reprogramming of wood formation during the induction of tension wood is accompanied by changes in the expression of PttIAA genes. The distinct tissue-specific expression patterns of the auxin inducible PttIAA genes in the cambial region together with the change in expression during dormancy transition and tension wood formation suggest a role for these genes in mediating cambial responses to auxin and xylem development. [source]

Down-Regulation of Lignin Biosynthesis in Transgenic Leucaena leucocephala Harboring O -Methyltransferase Gene

Smita Rastogi
In the present study, a 0.47 kb OMT gene construct from aspen, encoding for an enzyme O -methyltransferase (OMT, EC, in antisense orientation was used to down-regulate lignin biosynthesis in Leucaena leucocephala. The plants were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the antisense gene, and the transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of the npt II gene. The integration of a heterologous antisense OMT gene construct in transformed plants led to a maximum of 60% reduction in OMT activity relative to control. The evaluation of total lignin content by the Klason method revealed a maximum of 28% reduction. Histochemical analyses of stem sections depicted a reduction in lignin content and normal xylem development. The results also suggested a probable increase in aldehyde levels and a decrease in syringyl units. Lignin down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in methanol soluble phenolics to an extent that had no impact on wood discoloration, and the plants displayed a normal phenotype. Concomitantly, an increase of up to 9% in cellulose content was also observed. Upon alkali extraction, modified lignin was more extractable as evident from reduced Klason lignin in saponified residue and increased alkali soluble phenolics. The results together suggested that the extent of down-regulation of OMT activity achieved may lead to quality amelioration of Leucaena with respect to its applicability in pulp and paper manufacture as well as nutritive and easily digestible forage production. [source]