Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An examination of different fetal specific antibodies and magnetic activated cell sorting for the enrichment of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood

Xiao Xi Zhao
ABSTRACT, The aim of the present study was to compare the rates of fetal cells obtained after separation from maternal blood by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) using different fetal specific antibodies, and to evaluate the potential role of this method in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 42 women carrying chromosomally normal fetuses and from 4 women with aneuploid fetuses (2 cases of 47,XX,+18 and 2 of 47,XY,+21) at 9,20 weeks of gestation. After fetal cells were enriched by MACS with three different monoclonal antibodies (GPA, CD71, CD14), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome X, and Y-specific probes was performed to detect the rates of fetal cells in the samples sorted. FISH with chromosome 13-, 18-, and 21-specific probes was carried out to compare proportions of cells with three-signal nuclei in chromosomally normal and abnormal groups. In male infants, X-and Y-positive cells were detected in 80%, 73.3%, and 66.6% of samples after the separation by antibodies CD14, GPA, and CD71, respectively. The percentage of nuclei with three signals was increased in pregnancies with trisomy, ranging between 2% and 5.18%. Pregnancies with normal fetuses showed 0 to 3.7% of nuclei with three signals. The data demonstrate that fetal cell detection varies depending on the antibodies used for cell sorting. This study provides further evidence on the feasibility of screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities by enriching maternal blood for fetal cells and using FISH. [source]

One Hundred Fifty Years of Change in Forest Bird Breeding Habitat: Estimates of Species Distributions

aptitud del hábitat; ecología aviar; ecología de paisaje; planificación de conservación Abstract:,Evaluating bird population trends requires baseline data. In North America the earliest population data available are those from the late 1960s. Forest conditions in the northern Great Lake states (U.S.A.), however, have undergone succession since the region was originally cut over around the turn of the twentieth century, and it is expected that bird populations have undergone concomitant change. We propose pre-Euro-American settlement as an alternative baseline for assessing changes in bird populations. We evaluated the amount, quality, and distribution of breeding bird habitat during the mid-1800s and early 1990s for three forest birds: the Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus), Blackburnian Warbler (D. fusca), and Black-throated Green Warbler (D. virens). We constructed models of bird and habitat relationships based on literature review and regional data sets of bird abundance and applied these models to widely available vegetation data. Original public-land survey records represented historical habitat conditions, and a combination of forest inventory and national land-cover data represented current conditions. We assessed model robustness by comparing current habitat distribution to actual breeding bird locations from the Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. The model showed little change in the overall amount of Pine Warbler habitat, whereas both the Blackburnian Warber and the Black-throated Green Warbler have experienced substantial habitat losses. For the species we examined, habitat quality has degraded since presettlement and the spatial distribution of habitat shifted among ecoregions, with range expansion accompanying forest incursion into previously open habitats or the replacement of native forests with pine plantations. Sources of habitat loss and degradation include loss of conifers and loss of large trees. Using widely available data sources in a habitat suitability model framework, our method provides a long-term analysis of change in bird habitat and a presettlement baseline for assessing current conservation priority. Resumen:,La evaluación de tendencias de las poblaciones de aves requiere de datos de referencia. En Norte América, los primeros datos disponibles de poblaciones son del final de la década de 1960. Sin embargo, las condiciones de los bosques en los estados de los Grandes Lagos (E.U.A.) han experimentado sucesión desde que la región fue talada en los inicios del siglo veinte, y se espera que las poblaciones de aves hayan experimentado cambios concomitantes. Proponemos que se considere al período previo a la colonización euro americana como referencia alternativa para evaluar los cambios en las poblaciones de aves. Evaluamos la cantidad, calidad y distribución del hábitat para reproducción de tres especies de aves de bosque (Dendroica pinus, D. fusca y D. virens) a mediados del siglo XIX e inicios del XX. Construimos modelos de las relaciones entre las aves y el hábitat con base en la literatura y conjuntos de datos de abundancia de aves y los aplicamos a los datos de vegetación ampliamente disponibles. Los registros topográficos de tierras públicas originales representaron las condiciones históricas del hábitat, y una combinación de datos del inventario forestal y de cobertura de suelo representaron las condiciones actuales. Evaluamos la robustez del modelo mediante la comparación de la distribución de hábitat actual con sitios de reproducción de aves registrados en el Wisconsin Breeding Bird Atlas. El modelo mostró poco cambio en la cantidad total de hábitat de Dendroica pinus, mientras que tanto D. fusca como D. virens han experimentado pérdidas sustanciales de hábitat. Para las especies examinadas, la calidad del hábitat se ha degradado desde antes de la colonización y la distribución espacial del hábitat cambió entre ecoregiones, con la expansión del rango acompañando la incursión de bosques en hábitats anteriormente abiertos o el reemplazo de bosques nativos con plantaciones de pinos. Las fuentes de pérdida y degradación de hábitats incluyen la pérdida de coníferas y de árboles grandes. Mediante la utilización de fuentes de datos ampliamente disponibles en un modelo de aptitud de hábitat, nuestro método proporciona un análisis a largo plazo de los cambios en el hábitat de aves y una referencia precolonización para evaluar prioridades de conservación actuales. [source]

Novel markers of early ovarian pre-granulosa cells are expressed in an Sry -like pattern

Hyunjoo J. Lee
Abstract Mammalian gonad differentiation involves sexually dimorphic cell-fate decisions within the bipotential gonadal primordia. Testis differentiation is initiated by a center-to-poles wave of Sry expression that induces supporting cell precursors (SCPs) to become Sertoli rather than granulosa cells. The initiation of ovary differentiation is less well understood. We identified two novel SCP markers, 1700106J16Rik and Sprr2d, whose expression is ovary-biased during early gonad development, and altered in Wnt4, Sf1, Wt1, and Fog2 mutant gonads. In XX and XY gonads, both genes were up-regulated at ,E11 in a center-to-poles wave, and then rapidly down-regulated in XY gonads in a center-to-poles wave, which is reminiscent of Sry expression in XY gonads. Our data suggest that 1700106J16Rik and Sprr2d may have important roles in early gonad development, and are consistent with the hypothesis that ovarian SCP differentiation occurs in a center-to-poles wave with similar timing to that of testicular SCP differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 238:812,825, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sexual dimorphism of g-protein subunit Gng13 expression in the cortical region of the developing mouse ovary

Akihiro Fujino
Abstract In our search for genes required for the development and function of mouse gonads, we identified Gng13 (guanine nucleotide binding protein 13, gamma), a gene with an embryonic expression pattern highly restricted to the ovary. Based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization, Gng13 is expressed in both XX and XY gonads at embryonic day (E) 11.5, but becomes up-regulated in the XX gonad by E12.5. Expression is retained after treatment with busulfan, a chemical known to eliminate germ cells, pointing to the soma as a site of Gng13 transcription. In situ hybridization of embryonic ovarian tissue sections further localized the expression to the cortex of the developing XX gonad. Gng13 expression in the adult is also highly restricted. Northern blot analyses and Genomic Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation expression profiling of adult tissues detected very high expression in the cerebrum and cerebellum, in addition to, a weaker signal in the ovary. Gng13 belongs to a well-known family of signal transduction molecules with functions in many aspects of development and organ physiology. Here, we report that, in the developing mouse embryo, expression of Gng13 mRNA is highly restricted to the cortex of the XX gonad during sexual differentiation, suggesting a role for this gene during ovarian development. Developmental Dynamics 236:1991,1996, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Two DM domain genes, DMY and DMRT1, involved in testicular differentiation and development in the medaka, Oryzias latipes

Tohru Kobayashi
Abstract The recent discovery of the DMY gene (DM domain gene on Y chromosome and one of the DMRT1 family genes) as a key determinant of male development in the medaka (Oryzias latipes) has led to its designation as the prime candidate gene for sex-determination in this species. This study focused on the sites and pattern of expression of DMY and DMRT1 genes during gonadal differentiation of medaka to further determine their roles in testis development. DMY mRNA and protein are expressed specifically in the somatic cells surrounding primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the early gonadal primordium, before morphological sex differences are seen. However, somatic cells surrounding PGCs never express DMY during the early migratory period. Expression of DMY persists in Sertoli cell lineage cells, from PGC-supporting cells to Sertoli cells, indicating that only DMY -positive cells enclose PGCs during mitotic arrest after hatching. DMRT1 is expressed in spermatogonium-supporting cells after testicular differentiation (20,30 days after hatching), and its expression is much higher than that of DMY in mature testes. In XX sex-reversed testes, DMRT1 is expressed in the Sertoli cell lineage, similar to the expression of DMY in XY testes. These results suggest strongly that DMY regulates PGC proliferation and differentiation sex-specifically during early gonadal differentiation of XY individuals and that DMRT1 regulates spermatogonial differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 231:518,526, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

X chromosome number causes sex differences in gene expression in adult mouse striatum

Xuqi Chen
Abstract Previous research suggests that sex differences in the nigrostriatal system are created by direct effects of the sex chromosomes (XX vs. XY), independent of the action of gonadal hormones. Here we tested for sex chromosome effects on expression of three mRNAs in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of adult mice of the four core genotypes model (XX and XY gonadal males, XX and XY gonadal females). Mice were gonadectomized (GDX) at 47,51 days old to eliminate group differences in the levels of gonadal steroids. Three weeks later, mice were killed and brains collected for in situ hybridization of the striatum, or the striatum was dissected out for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression in XX and XY mice was measured by in situ hybridization using riboprobes encoding the dynorphin precursor Pdyn (prodynorphin), the substance P precursor Tac1 (preprotachykinin) or dopamine D2 receptor. XX mice had higher expression, relative to XY mice of the same gonadal sex, of Pdyn and Tac1 mRNA in specific striatal regions. Quantitative PCR confirmed that GDX XX mice have higher Pdyn expression in striatum than XY mice, regardless of their gonadal sex. XX had higher Pdyn expression than XY or XO mice, indicating that the sex chromosome effect is the result of XX vs. XY differences in the number of X chromosomes, probably because of sex differences in the expression of X gene(s) that escape inactivation. We detected no sex chromosome effect on D2 receptor mRNA. [source]

A sensitized genetic background reveals evolution near the terminus of the Caenorhabditis germline sex determination pathway

Robin Cook Hill
SUMMARY Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae are both self-fertile hermaphroditic nematodes that evolved independently from male/female ancestors. In C. elegans, FEM-1, FEM-2, and FEM-3 specify male fates by promoting proteolysis of the male-repressing transcription factor, TRA-1. Phenotypes of tra-1 and fem mutants are consistent with this simple linear model in the soma, but not in the germline. While both XX and XO tra-1(lf) mutants have functional male somas, they produce both sperm and oocytes. Further, all three tra-1; fem double mutants retain the expected male soma, but make only oocytes (the germline fem phenotype). Thus, a poorly characterized tra-1 activity is important for sustained male spermatogenesis, and the fem genes affect germline sexual fate independently of their role in regulating TRA-1. C. briggsae tra-1 mutants are phenotypically identical to their C. elegans counterparts, while the fem mutants differ in the germline: XX and XO C. elegans fem mutants are true females, but in C. briggsae they are self-fertile hermaphrodites. To further explore how C. briggsae hermaphrodites regulate germline sex, we analyzed Cb-tra-1/Cb-fem interactions. Cb-tra-1 is fully epistatic to Cb-fem-2 in the germline, unlike the orthologous C. elegans combination. In contrast, Cb-fem-3 shifts the Cb-tra-1(lf) germline phenotype to that of a nearly normal hermaphrodite in the context of a male somatic gonad. This suggests that Cb-fem-3 is epistatic to Cb-tra-1(lf) (as in C. elegans), and that the normal control of C. briggsae XX spermatogenesis targets Cb-tra-1 -independent factors downstream of Cb-fem-3. The effect of Cb-fem-3(lf) on Cb-tra-1(lf) is not mediated by change in the expression of Cb-fog-3, a likely direct germline target of Cb-tra-1. As Cb-fem-2 and Cb-fem-3 have identical single mutant phenotypes, Cb-tra-1 provides a sensitized background that reveals differences in how they promote male germline development. These results represent another way in which C. briggsae germline sex determination is incongruent with that of the outwardly similar C. elegans. [source]

An investigation of the substrate specificity of the xyloglucanase Cel74A from Hypocrea jecorina

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
Tom Desmet
The substrate specificity of the xyloglucanase Cel74A from Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) was examined using several polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. Our results revealed that xyloglucan chains are hydrolyzed at substituted Glc residues, in contrast to the action of all known xyloglucan endoglucanases (EC The building block of xyloglucan, XXXG (where X is a substituted Glc residue, and G is an unsubstituted Glc residue), was rapidly degraded to XX and XG (kcat = 7.2 s,1 and Km = 120 µm at 37 °C and pH 5), which has only been observed before with the oligoxyloglucan-reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase from Geotrichum (EC However, the cellobiohydrolase can only release XG from XXXGXXXG, whereas Cel74A hydrolyzed this substrate at both chain ends, resulting in XGXX. Differences in the length of a specific loop at subsite +,2 are discussed as being the basis for the divergent specificity of these xyloglucanases. [source]

Nubili e celibi tra scelta e costrizione (secoli XVI,XX) edited by Margareth Lanzinger and Raffaella Sarti

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Recruitment of host progenitor cells in rat liver transplants,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Zhaoli Sun
Despite major histocompatibility complex incompatibility, liver transplants from Lewis rats to dark agouti (DA) rats survive indefinitely without immunosuppression, and the studies we report sought the mechanism(s) responsible for this. At 1 year, most of the liver reacted positively to host anti-DA antibody. When small (50%) grafts were transplanted, recruitment was more rapid because most of the organ assumed the host phenotype at 3 months. After transplantation, the Y chromosome was detected in the hepatocytes of XX to XY grafts by both in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Further, livers from transgenic Lewis rats carrying strong green fluorescent protein (GFP) markers lost the marker with time after transplantation to DA, GFP-negative hosts. Few liver cells contained the Y chromosome in syngeneic XX to XY liver grafts or when the hosts of Lewis XX to DA XY allografts were treated with cyclosporine A at 10 mg/kg/day. This dosage also impeded enlargement of the liver at 10 days. Using GFP-positive XX Lewis donors transplanted to GFP-negative XY DA hosts, we found little Y DNA in GFP-positive cells at 10 days. Host-derived OV-6,positive and c-kit,positive, albumin-positive cells were present at 3-10 days, but cells with the CD34 marker were less common and some clearly still had the donor phenotype at 10 days. Cells positive for chemokine cysteine-X-cysteine receptor-4 increased with time and were abundant 1 month after transplantation. We conclude: (1) extrahepatic cells can differentiate into liver tissues; (2) regenerative stimuli accelerate stem cell recruitment; (3) both regeneration and recruitment are impeded by cyclosporine A immunosuppression, and (4) donor GFP-positive cells contained little host Y chromosome after transplantation, suggesting that cell fusion was uncommon and, therefore, unlikely to be the mechanism leading to the changes in genotype and phenotype we observed. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]

Electronic structure, chemical bonding, and finite-temperature magnetic properties of full Heusler alloys

Yasemin Kurtulus
Abstract The electronic structure, chemical bonding, and magnetic properties of 15 full Heusler alloys X2MnZ have been studied on the basis of density-functional theory using the TB-LMTO-ASA approach and the local-density (LDA), as well as the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA). Correlations between the chemical bondings derived from crystal orbital Hamilton population (COHP) analysis and magnetic phenomena are obvious, and different mechanisms leading to spin polarization and ferromagnetism are derived. As long as a magnetically active metal atom X is present, antibonding XX and XMn interactions at the Fermi level drive the systems into the ferromagnetic ground state; only if X is nonmagnetic (such as in Cu2MnZ), antibonding MnMn interactions arise, which again lead to ferromagnetism. Finite-temperature effects (Curie temperatures) are analyzed using a mean-field description, and a surprisingly simple (or, trivial) relationship between structural properties (MnMn interatomic distances) and TC is found, being of semiquantitative use for the prediction of the latter. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 27: 90,102, 2006 [source]

Temperature effects on sex determination and ontogenetic gene expression of the aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b, and the estrogen receptors esr1 and esr2 in atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

Solveig van Nes
Abstract The aromatase (CYP19) and estrogen receptor (ESR) play important roles in the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of lower vertebrates. Several studies have proven these mechanisms to be temperature sensitive, which can influence the direction of phenotypic gender development. A temperature study was conducted to examine the effect of temperature on the sex differentiation in farmed Atlantic halibut. Sexually undifferentiated larvae were exposed to 7°C, 10°C, or 13°C during gonadal differentiation. Temperature effects on the transcription rate of the aromatase genes cyp19a (ovary type) and cyp19b (brain type) and the ESR genes esr1 and esr2 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. With increasing temperatures, both cyp19a mRNA levels and the female incidence showed a decreasing trend, thus strongly indicating a relation between the expression of cyp19a and morphological ovary differentiation. In contrast to cyp19a, the levels of cyp19b, esr1, and esr2 mRNA strongly increased in all temperature groups throughout the study period, and did not show obvious temperature-related expression patterns. The present data provide evidence that posthatching temperature exposure significantly affects the expression of cyp19a mRNA during the developmental period and that high temperature possibly influences genetic sex determination in Atlantic halibut. Though, the female incidence never exceeded 50%, suggesting that only the homogametic (XX) female is thermolabile. So whereas temperature treatment is not likely suitable for direct feminization in halibut, the possibility for high-temperature production of XX neomales for broodstock to obtain all-female offspring by crossing with XX females is suggested. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 73: 1481,1490, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dystonia in a patient with ring chromosome 21,

Craig E. Hou MD
Abstract Dystonia associated with chromosomal abnormalities is typically attributed to chromosomal deletions. We describe a patient with ring chromosome 21, with karyotype 46XX,r(21)(p11.2q22.3); 46,XX,dic r(21)(p11.2q22.3); 45, XX, ,21, who developed childhood onset cervical dystonia. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Mesenchymal dysplasia of the placenta

Makiko Ohyama
A severe case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia occurred in association with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The gravida-1, para-1 mother was a 26-year-old Japanese. The first pregnancy was unremarkable and a healthy female infant was delivered. The present pregnancy had been uneventful until 34 weeks of gestation when IUFD was detected. The 1516-g (mean ± SD, 2050 ± 387 g) stillborn infant had no external abnormalities and the karyotype was 46,XX. The placenta was markedly enlarged (1050 g; mean ± SD, 452 ± 202 g), and approximately 80% was occupied by extraordinary enlarged villous structures with a myxoid appearance. Histologically, the dysplastic villi had myxoid stroma and a decreased number of, occasionally obliterated, fetal vessels. There was no abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. Large-sized fetal vessels in the chorionic plate frequently contained organized thrombi. This is the first case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia, which possibly lead to the IUFD. [source]

Biclonal low grade B-cell lymphoma confirmed by both flow cytometry and karyotypic analysis, in spite of a normal kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratio

J.P. Delville
Abstract Composite low grade lymphoma with two subpopulations in a same site is uncommon. We herewith report the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with isolated bilateral dacryoadenomegaly. Pathological examination of an incisional biopsy of her right lacrimal gland was consistent with a marginal zone lymphoma. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping showed two distinct clonal B-cell populations expressing sIg D lambda or sIg M kappa restriction in the lacrimal gland, blood, and bone marrow. Both B-cells populations were sorted from peripheral blood for molecular biology investigations and comparison with molecular data performed on tumor and bone marrow cells. IgH PCR performed on purified blood populations disclosed two monoclonal peaks: 98 bp-sized peak in the sIg M kappa and a 107 bp in the sIg D lambda clones, respectively. The lacrimal gland tumor expressed mainly sIg M kappa population, and showed a major 98 bp-sized peak coexisting with a very minor 107 bp peak. Cytogenetic studies showed a 46, XX,del (7) (q22q32) karyotype. Bone marrow examination at diagnosis revealed the same B-cell clones distribution than the one observed in blood with a dominant sIg D lambda population, a Genescan profile showing a major peak of 107 bp and a minor peak of 98 bp. Chromosomal analysis disclosed a 46,XX,del (10) (?p14) karyotype without detectable 7q deletion. To our knowledge, this observation represents the first reported case of biclonal low grade lymphoma hidden behind a normal classical kappa/lambda Ig light chain ratio in blood, but clearly demonstrated by the combination of three ancillary techniques (flow cytometry both analytical and cell sorting, molecular biology, and cytogenetics) and analysis of different tissues (i.e., in this case, lacrimal gland biopsy, blood, and bone marrow. Am. J. Hematol., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Fine structure of emission lines from charged CdSe/ZnSe/ZnMnSe quantum dots

E. A. Chekhovich
Abstract Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been employed to study CdSe/ZnSe/ZnMnSe quantum dots. For most of the dots studied here luminescence comes in three spectrally separated features: neutral exciton (X), biexciton (XX), and charged exciton (XC) states. Spectral properties of X and XX emission are well understood, however, in a marked contrast with previous studies, the observed fine structure of XC can not be explained within a commonly accepted model of a ground state trion luminescence. We find that at zero magnetic field luminescence from the charged state exhibits fine structure that varies gradually between different dots from a single unpolarized line to a quartet with the maximum splitting of 2,meV. Several models including magnetic polaron formation and double charging have been considered, but a plausible explanation can be given only if one considers the influence of a charge trapped in a nearby dot. [source]

Temperature related effects on embryonic development of the Mediterranean locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus

E. Quesada-Moraga
Summary Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the effect of temperature on the development of the eggs of Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg) (Orthoptera, Acrididae) during anatrepsis (stages I,XIV) and during catatrepsis (stages XV,XX). The developmental rates of anatrepsis were studied at five constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 30°C. Egg development occurred over the entire range but at 10°C the embryos were unable to complete anatrepsis. The relationship between temperature and developmental times for completing anatrepsis was analysed by the non-linear Logan type III model. The optimal temperature estimated for the development of eggs during anatrepsis was 24.7°C; the lower and upper thermal thresholds were 9°C and 31°C, respectively. Once the embryos completed anatrepsis, only those incubated at 15°C continued morphogenesis beyond stage XIV (diapause stage) without a low-temperature exposure period. The developmental rate of catatrepsis was studied at four constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 30°C after exposure to low-temperature, 10°C, for 30, 60 or 90 days. For catatrepsis, temperature and developmental time were linearly and inversely related. Linear regression was used to estimate the lower developmental threshold and the degree days requirements for catatrepsis. Both decreased with longer exposure to the low temperature; the former from 13.8°C to 10.5°C and the latter from 212.8 to 171.5 degree days, following 30 and 90 days at 10°C, respectively. Our results improve the ability of decision support systems for Mediterranean locust pest management by providing better forecasts to land managers and pest advisors. [source]

Early Twentieth-Century Racial Discrimination Cases in State Supreme Courts

POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 6 2009
An aspect of civil rights litigation receiving scant scholarly attention is the response of state supreme courts to racial discrimination claims in the early twentieth century. While scholarship on general social context suggests claims would find more support in non-southern courts and in the later years of the period, this has not been systematically investigated. Furthermore, while the literature on the U.S. Supreme Court establishes variance patterns by discrimination type, they cannot necessarily be extrapolated to state outcomes. I show that since the predictive utility of frameworks "borrowed" from other studies is dubious in this context, these state cases demand their own unique investigation and understanding. The assessment of two key clusters of cases offered here suggests distinct patterns in southern jury discrimination and northern public accommodations decisions. In the former, claims were routinely denied, with U.S. Supreme Court precedent occasionally used to overturn a conviction. In the latter, plaintiffs relying on state civil rights statutes were mostly successful. Un aspecto del litigio por los derechos civiles que recibe escasa atención académica es la respuesta de la Suprema Corte estatal a los reclamos por discriminación racial a principios del siglo XX. Aunque los estudios del contexto social general sugieren que los reclamos encontrarían mayor apoyo en cortes no-sureñas, en los años posteriores a dicho periodo, esto no ha sido sistemáticamente investigado. Además, aunque la literatura sobre la Suprema Corte de Justicia establece diferentes patrones por tipo de discriminación, estos no pueden ser necesariamente extrapolados al nivel de resultados estatales. Demuestro que dado que la utilidad predictiva de esquemas "prestados" de otros estudios es discutible en este contexto, estos casos estatales requieren su propia investigación e interpretación. La evaluación de dos grupos claves de casos propuestos aquí sugiere patrones distintivos en la discriminación de los jurados sureños y las decisiones de "public accommodations" norteñas. En el primero, los reclamos fueron rutinariamente rechazados, ocasionalmente invocando precedente de la Suprema Corte de Justicia para darle vuelta a la condena. En el segundo grupo, los demandantes que descansaron su caso en los estatutos estatales sobre los derechos civiles en su mayoría tuvieron éxito. [source]

Monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant in gender from a naturally conceived pregnancy through postzygotic sex chromosome loss in a 47,XXY zygote

Nicolas H. Zech
Abstract Objective It is generally believed that monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies result from one fertilized oocyte with both siblings having the same genotype and phenotype. In rare instances, due to somatic mutations or chromosome aberrations, the karyotypes and phenotypes of the two twins can differ. Method We report cytogenetic, molecular genetic and clinical examinations in monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant in gender. Results The monochorionic-diamniotic status of the twins was diagnosed by ultrasound and histologic examination of the placenta. Prenatal chromosome examination performed on amniocytes revealed a normal female karyotype in one and a 46,XX(26)/46,XY(3) karyotype in the other twin. Molecular examinations confirmed monozygosity despite discordant sex. Based on the cytogenetic and molecular results of lymphocytes and placental cells, the only explanation for gender discordance was that the conceptus originally had a 47,XXY chromosome complement. Conclusion A 47,XXY zygote appears to have undergone a twinning process. A postzygotic loss of the X chromosome in some cells and the Y chromosome in other cells, either before or after twinning, resulted in 46,XX/46,XY mosaicism in both monozygotic (MZ) twins. The sex discordance of the MZ twins can be explained by different proportions of the 46,XX and 46,XY cell lines in the gonads and other tissues. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parental mosaic trisomy 21 detected following maternal cell contamination of an amniotic fluid specimen from a normal male pregnancy

Melissa L. Street
Abstract We report a case of maternal mosaic trisomy 21 ascertained at prenatal diagnosis as a result of maternal cell contamination of an amniotic fluid sample. A 34 year old female was referred for karyotyping because of a previous trisomy 21 pregnancy. Chromosome analysis of primary in situ cultures showed a karyotype of 47,XX, + 21[6]/46,XY[32]/46,XX[2]. Molecular testing demonstrated maternal cell contamination of the amniotic fluid sample and G-banded karyotyping of maternal blood showed that 3/200 cells had trisomy 21, consistent with the mother being a Down syndrome mosaic. A normal male baby with a 46,XY chromosome complement was delivered at 30 weeks. This case emphasises the need for close collaboration between cytogenetic and molecular genetics laboratories in resolving unusual cases of mosaicism. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

De novo monosomy 9p24.3-pter and trisomy 17q24.3-qter characterised by microarray comparative genomic hybridisation in a fetus with an increased nuchal translucency

Sophie Brisset
Abstract Objectives Increased nuchal translucency (NT) during the first trimester of pregnancy is a useful marker to detect chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we report a prenatal case with molecular cytogenetic characterisation of an abnormal derivative chromosome 9 identified through NT. Methods Amniocentesis was performed because of an increased NT (4.4 mm) and showed an abnormal de novo 46,XX,add(9)(p24.3) karyotype. To characterise the origin of the small additional material on 9p, we performed a microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (microarray CGH) using a genomic DNA array providing an average of 1 Mb resolution. Results Microarray CGH showed a deletion of distal 9p and a trisomy of distal 17q. These results were confirmed by FISH analyses. Microarray CGH provided accurate information on the breakpoint regions and the size of both distal 9p deletion and distal 17q trisomy. The fetus was therefore a carrier of a de novo derivative chromosome 9 arising from a t(9;17)(p24.3;q24.3) translocation and generating a monosomy 9p24.3-pter and a trisomy 17q24.3-qter. Conclusion This case illustrates that microarray CGH is a rapid, powerful and sensitive technology to identify small de novo unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Placental mesenchymal dysplasia associated with fetal aneuploidy

Marta C. Cohen
Abstract Objectives To describe three cases of placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) associated with abnormal karyotype and review the cases reported in the literature. Methods The cases were retrieved from the files of three different institutions. A search of the English language literature was performed using Medline database. Results Placental abnormalities suggestive of molar changes were seen on the prenatal ultrasound scans. Histologically, the cases had large, hydropic stem villi with myxomatous stroma, cistern formation and ,chorangiomatoid' changes. The placental and fetal karyotypes identified were trisomy 13 (47,XX,t(1:13)(q32;q32)+ 13); Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and triploidy (69,XXX). Including these 3 cases, of 66 reported cases, 51 (78%) were female and 14 (22%) male (ratio 3.6:1); the karyotype was normal in 32/36 (89%) and abnormal in 4/36 (11%); Beckwith,Wiedemann syndrome was confirmed or suspected in 15/66 (23%). Excluding termination of pregnancies, intrauterine death occurred in 18/54 (33%) cases. Conclusion Molar ultrasonographic appearances associated with increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein but normal, or slightly elevated, levels of ß human Chorionic Gonadotrophin should raise the clinical suspicion of PMD. The diagnosis of this condition should not be disregarded when an abnormal fetus and/or an abnormal karyotype are demonstrated. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nonhomologous Robertsonian translocations (NHRTs) and uniparental disomy (UPD) risk: an Italian multicentric prenatal survey

A. Sensi
Abstract Objectives The risk of uniparental disomy (UPD) occurrence associated with the prenatal finding of balanced nonhomologous Robertsonian translocations (NHRTs) has been estimated only on limited empirical data. The aim of the study was to verify the estimate of the general risk, to get narrower confidence intervals by cumulating the data and to obtain risk estimates for specific translocation types. Methods We tested for UPD 160 prenatal specimens referred to the participant centers after the cytogenetic finding of NHRT. Results One case of upd(14)mat was found, associated with a 45,XX,der(14;22)mat fetal karyotype. The general empirical risk of UPD occurrence in NHRT carrier fetuses, corrected for the actual number of chromosomes analyzed, was 0.76% (95% CI 0.02,4.25%). Cumulative data with previous studies gives a general risk of UPD associated with NHRT of 0.80% (95% CI 0.17,2.34%). The UPD risk for the specific NHRT der(13;14) did not significantly differ from that of the other NHRTs taken together. Conclusion The present survey confirms the previously estimated risk of occurrence of UPD in offspring of NHRT carriers as a low, but not negligible risk, worth being investigated in prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Second-trimester diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 associated with abnormal maternal serum screen results, open sacral spina bifida and congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and review of the literature

Chih-Ping Chen
Abstract Objectives To present the prenatal diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 and to review the literature Case A 25-year-old primigravida woman was referred for amniocentesis at 19 weeks' gestation because of abnormal maternal screen results showing an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) level and a low maternal serum free ,-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfree,-hCG) level. Results Genetic amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9 in the amniocytes and an elevated amniotic fluid AFP level. Ultrasonography demonstrated intrauterine growth restriction, left congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal ascites, a sacral spina bifida, a horseshoe kidney, and absence of amniotic fluid. Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging scans further depicted detailed anatomical configurations of the major congenital malformations. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The proband postnatally manifested characteristic facial dysmorphism, limb deformities, and an open sacral spina bifida with myelomeningocele. Cytogenetic analysis of the skin fibroblasts revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9. Molecular studies of various uncultured fetal tissues using microsatellite markers confirmed a diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 resulting from a meiotic I nondisjunction error of maternal origin. Conclusion Complete trisomy 9 can be identified prenatally with advanced maternal age, sonographically detected fetal structural abnormalities, and abnormal maternal serum screen results. Fetuses with complete trisomy 9 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, an open sacral spina bifida, elevated MSAFP, and low MSfree,-hCG. We suggest detailed prenatal imaging investigations and genetic analyses of multiple fetal tissues when a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 9 is made. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of extra-structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) found prenatally: outcome and follow-up

E. Marchina
Abstract A 40-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 15.3 weeks of gestation. Chromosome analysis performed using QFQ, DA-DAPI and CBG banding revealed two de novo extra-chromosomal markers (ESACs) in 11 of the 16 colonies analysed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that both chromosomes came from the Yq11.22.1 region of the Y chromosome. PCR analysis of genes and STS localized on the Y chromosome excluded the Yp presence specifically of the SRY gene, and most of the euchromatic region of Yq. After extensive genetic counselling and considering both laboratory and second-level ultrasound data, the couple decided to continue the pregnancy. At 37.4 weeks of gestational age, a girl weighing 2750 g was born with an Apgar score of 9/10. A blood sample taken from the umbilical cord showed three cellular lines:mos47,XX, +mar1 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+) [21%]/48,XX, +mar1 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+), +mar2 ish.der (Y)(wcpY+) [41%]/46,XX [38%]. One year after birth, the baby was developing normally and had normal psychomotorial activity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prenatal detection of complex chromosomal aberrations using advanced molecular cytogenetic techniques

J. M. de Pater
Abstract Objective This study aimed to identify a marker chromosome and characterize the short arm of a derivative chromosome 5 in a foetus with the following karyotype: mos 47,XX,del(5)(p?),+i(5)(p10)[50]/48,XX,del(5)(p?),+i(5)(p10),+mar[25]. Method Amniocentesis was performed in the 26th week of pregnancy because of ultrasound abnormalities (polyhydramnion and decreased amount of gastric filling). All classic banding techniques were performed. FISH and microdissection combined with reverse painting were used to reveal the exact origin of the marker and any extra material on the deleted chromosome 5p. The parents decided to continue the pregnancy and we compared the clinical features of the child born in week 34 with data from the literature on trisomy 5p. The possible contribution of trisomy of the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and trisomy 8p23.3,8pter to this clinical picture was evaluated. Results GTG banding showed one normal and two aberrant chromosomes 5 [del(5)(p?) and i(5)(p10)] in all the cells examined. Furthermore, a supernumerary marker chromosome was present in approximately 30% of the cells. The marker was CBG positive and positive with the pancentromere probe, but dystamicinA/DAPI negative. It did not contain NOR-positive satellites. FISH proved this marker to be derived from the centromeric region of chromosome 8. MicroFISH disclosed the aberrant chromosome 5 as der(5)t(5;8)(p10;p23.3). The parent's karyotypes were normal. The baby showed the characteristic features of trisomy 5p syndrome. She died at the age of 15 days after cardiorespiratory arrest. Conclusion The karyotype was interpreted as mos 47,XX,add(5)(p10).rev ish der(5)t(5;8)(p10;p23.3),+i(5)(p10) (WCP5+,D5S23+)[50]/48,XX,add(5)(p10).rev ish der(5)t(5;8)(p10;p23.3),+i(5)(p10)(WCP5+,D5S23+),+mar.ish 8(p10q10)(D8Z2+,WCP8-)[25]. Therefore, the baby had complete trisomy 5p, with trisomy of the distal part of 8p and of the centromeric region of chromosome 8. The clinical significance of de novo marker chromosomes is a major problem in prenatal counselling. Molecular cytogenetic tools such as FISH and microFISH are indispensable for characterizing markers and determining the breakpoints more precisely in deleted chromosomes. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prenatal diagnosis of occipital encephalocele, mega-cisterna magna, mesomelic shortening, and clubfeet associated with pure tetrasomy 20p

Yi-Cheng Wu
Abstract We present the first case of a fetus with pure tetrasomy 20p proven by cord-blood sampling at 24 weeks of gestation. This case was diagnosed in utero with multiple congenital anomalies including occipital encephalocele, mega-cisterna magna, mesomelic shortening, and clubfeet. An analysis of GTG-banded chromosomes of 20 metaphase cells was performed. Female karyotype [47,XX, +i(20)(p10)] was revealed in all cells. Pure tetrasomy 20p was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomere probe for chromosome 20p in all seven metaphase cells. The pregnancy was terminated because of associated multiple anomalies and severe oligohydramnios. The postmortem examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic ring chromosome 22 associated with cardiovascular abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction

Chih-Ping Chen
Abstract Objectives To present the prenatal diagnosis and perinatal findings of mosaic ring chromosome 22. Case Amniocentesis was performed at 18 gestational weeks because of an advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis of the cultured amniotic fluid cells revealed mosaicism for ring chromosome 22, 45,XX,-22[6]/46,XX,r(22)(p13q13.31)[15]. Abnormal fetal sonographic findings included small for gestational age, a ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus. The pregnancy was terminated. Additional phenotypic findings included hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and abnormal ears. Cytogenetic analysis of the cord blood lymphocytes revealed a complex mosaic karyotype, 45,XX,-22[7]/46,XX,r(22)(p13q13.31)[82]/46,XX,idic r(22)(p13q13.31;p13q13.31)[11]. Cytogenetic analysis of the hepatocytes also revealed mosaic r(22) with mosaicism for idic r(22) and monosomy 22. The deletion of distal 22q and the duplication of 22q11.2 on idic r(22), and the distal 22q deletion on r(22) were demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 22q terminal probes at 22q13 and a DiGeorge syndrome critical region probe at 22q11.2. The breakpoint on distal 22q13 and the extent of the duplication of 22q on idic r(22) was determined by examining polymorphic markers specific for chromosome 22 using quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assays. The chromosomal aberration was of maternal origin. Conclusion Molecular and FISH studies allow a better delineation of some prenatally detected aneuploidy syndromes and help elucidate the genetic pathogenesis. Fetuses having mosaic r(22) with a low level mosaicism for r(22) duplication/deletion may present cardiovascular abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction on prenatal ultrasound. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prenatal diagnosis of female monozygotic twins discordant for Turner syndrome: implications for prenatal genetic counselling

B. Gilbert
Abstract We describe a set of monozygotic (MZ) female twins, one of whom presented with a typical Turner syndrome (TS) phenotype and the other a normal female phenotype. Prenatal fetal ultrasonographic examination showed a monochorial diamniotic pregnancy with a hygroma colli and growth delay in Twin A and no anomalies in Twin B. Karyotypic analysis performed on fetal blood samples demonstrated a 46,XX/45,X (23/2) mosaicism in Twin A and a normal 46,XX chromosome constitution in Twin B. At birth, Twin A presented with a typical TS and Twin B had a normal female phenotype. Postnatal cytogenetic investigation of blood lymphocytes showed the same 46,XX/45,X mosaicism in both twins: 46,XX/45,X (40/7) in Twin A and 46,XX/45,X (40/5) in Twin B. Further investigations at the age of 10,months showed in Twin A a 46,XX/45,X (98/2) mosaicism in lymphocytes and 100% of 45,X (50 analysed cells) in fibroblasts, and in Twin B a normal 46,XX (100 analysed cells) chromosome constitution in lymphocytes but a mild 46,XX/45,X (78/2) mosaicism in fibroblasts. Monozygosity was confirmed by molecular analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS. Review of reported sets of MZ female twins (eight cases) or triplets (one case) discordant for TS shows, as in the present case, that the phenotype correlates better with the chromosomal distribution of mosaicism in fibroblasts than in lymphocytes. In the blood of MZ twins chimerism may modify the initial allocation of the mosaicism. These results suggest that, in cases of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS, the phenotype of each twin would be better predicted from karyotype analysis of cells from amniotic fluid than from fetal blood. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Duplication of chromosome 2 in association with ventriculomegaly , a case report

W. L. Martin
Abstract This is a case report of the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo interstitial duplication of chromosome 2 (46,XX,dup(2)(p13p21) de novo) with an associated phenotypic abnormality. This chromosomal duplication is rare, only one has previously been described prenatally. Postnatal reports of similar duplications in this region have described associated dysmorphic features and significant neurodevelopmental delay. In our case, the only ultrasound finding was moderately severe ventriculomegaly. At post-mortem, ventriculomegaly was confirmed and there was associated macrocephaly (head circumference above the 97th centile) with no dysmorphic features seen. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]