XRD Investigations (xrd + investigation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Real-time XRD Investigations During the Formation of Cu(IngGa)Se2 Thin Films

Frank Hergert
Abstract Knowledge of the solid-state reactions providing the synthesis of the absorber material Cu(IngGa)Se2 well below its melting point is an essential prerequisite for the further optimization of the technologically relevant production processes. Therefore, powder XRD has been applied as nondestructive tool to follow chemical solide-state reactions in-situ. Subsequent Rietveld refinement provides the quantitative phase evolution time. [source]

Nanomorphology and Charge Generation in Bulk Heterojunctions Based on Low-Bandgap Dithiophene Polymers with Different Bridging Atoms

Mauro Morana
Abstract Carbon bridged (C-PCPDTBT) and silicon-bridged (Si-PCPDTBT) dithiophene donor,acceptor copolymers belong to a promising class of low bandgap materials. Their higher field-effect mobility, as high as 10,2,cm2 V,1,s,1 in pristine films, and their more balanced charge transport in blends with fullerenes make silicon-bridged materials better candidates for use in photovoltaic devices. Striking morphological changes are observed in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunctions upon the substitution of the bridging atom. XRD investigation indicates increased ,,, stacking in Si-PCPDTBT compared to the carbon-bridged analogue. The fluorescence of this polymer and that of its counterpart C-PCPDTBT indicates that the higher photogeneration achieved in Si-PCPDTBT:fullerene films (with either [C60]PCBM or [C70]PCBM) can be correlated to the inactivation of a charge-transfer complex and to a favorable length of the donor,acceptor phase separation. TEM studies of Si-PCPDTBT:fullerene blended films suggest the formation of an interpenetrating network whose phase distribution is comparable to the one achieved in C-PCPDTBT:fullerene using 1,8-octanedithiol as an additive. In order to achieve a balanced hole and electron transport, Si-PCPDTBT requires a lower fullerene content (between 50 to 60,wt%) than C-PCPDTBT (more than 70,wt%). The Si-PCPDTBT:[C70]PCBM OBHJ solar cells deliver power conversion efficiencies of over 5%. [source]

Thermal Shock Performance of Fine Grained Al2O3 Ceramics With TiO2 and ZrO2 Additions for Refractory Applications,

Christos G. Aneziris
Abstract Due to zirconia and titania additions carbon-free fine grained alumina ceramics are produced with superior thermal shock performance. The decomposition of Al2TiO5 in the alumina doped matrix dominates during thermal shock attack and leads to higher strengths in comparison to the as sintered samples after thermal shock. EDX, EBSD, and XRD investigations describe the phase evolution before and after quenching the samples from 950 to 1200,C in water, respectively. [source]

An investigation into the mechanism of dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs from spray chilled gelucire 50/13 microspheres

Sheng Qi
Abstract The production and physicochemical characterisation of spray chilled Gelucire 50/13 microspheres is described with a view to improving the dissolution of a poorly water-soluble drug, piroxicam, and understanding the fundamental mechanisms associated with the improved drug release. Thermorheological testing was developed as a fast screening method for predicting the processability of dispersions for spray chilling preparation. Spray chilled piroxicam loaded microspheres were spherical in shape with a median diameter of circa 150,m. DSC indicated no interaction between piroxicam and lipid matrix, while HSM studies performed in polarized light mode indicated that the spheres contained distinct drug crystals. Polarising light microscopy and small-angle XRD investigations on the hydration behaviour of the lipid and the spray chilled microspheres revealed the formation of liquid crystalline phases depending on the degree of hydration. The dissolution behaviour of the piroxicam loaded microspheres showed significant improvements compared to drug alone. The particle size, drug loading and aging of the microspheres were all found to have an influence on the release behaviour. It was proposed that Gelucire 50/13 microspheres release the entrapped piroxicam via formation of a lyotropic liquid crystalline phase, which allows dissolution of the drug particles in a finely divided, high surface area and well-wetted state. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:262,274, 2010 [source]