X-ray Spectra (x-ray + spectrum)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Chromate reduction in wastewater at different pH levels using thin iron wires,A laboratory study

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 3 2005
Li-Yang Chang
Abstract The effectiveness of using thin zero-valent iron (Fe0) wires in the treatment of wastewater generated from a metal cleaning facility and with a pH in the range of 2 to 10 was examined. It was found that (1) when the sample containing low levels of total chromium (,14 mg/L) was mixed with iron wires at a pH of 3 to 8, 50 to 90% of the total chromium could be reduced in 4 h; (2) the initial reduction efficiency was pH-dependent: the lower the pH, the higher the reduction rate; (3) variations of solution pH, redox electrical potential, and electrical conductivity (EC) in samples were also pH-dependent; (4) the adsorption/reduction efficiency was limited by the diffusion of Cr(VI) from wastewater to the iron surface when the test duration was long; (5) when the initial pH = 3, iron corrosion and redox reaction dominated the reduction process; however, with pH = 8 or 10, corrosion, surface passivation, or metal precipitation could compete with reduction; (6) the used iron wires were still effective in chromium removal in new samples at pH = 3; and (7) some desorption of adsorbed chromium was observed in acidic samples when the test duration was long. Scanning electron microscope images and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra collected from iron samples also indicate that the efficiency of chromium adsorption/reduction is pH-dependent. Our results suggest that using zero-valent iron to polish acidic wastewater containing low contents of chromium and other heavy metals is feasible. 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2005 [source]


Electrochemical Method for Synthesis of a ZnFe2O4/TiO2 Composite Nanotube Array Modified Electrode with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Activity

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 13 2010
Yang Hou
Abstract An electrode with intimate and well-aligned ZnFe2O4/TiO2 composite nanotube arrays is prepared via electrochemical anodization of pure titanium foil in fluorine-containing ethylene glycol, followed by a novel cathodic electrodeposition method. The deposition of ZnFe2O4 is promoted in the self-aligned, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays but minimized at the tube entrances. Thus, pore clogging is prevented. Environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the as-prepared samples are highly ordered and vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays with ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles loading. The TiO2 nanotubes are anatase with the preferential orientation of <101> plane. Enhanced absorption in both UV and visible light regions is observed for the composite nanotube arrays. The current,voltage curve of ZnFe2O4 -loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays reveals a rectifying behavior. The enhanced separation of photoinduced electrons and holes is demonstrated by surface photovoltage and photocurrent measurements. Meanwhile, the photoelectrochemical investigations verify that the ZnFe2O4/TiO2 composite nanotube array modified electrode has a more effective photoconversion capability than the aligned TiO2 nanotube arrays alone. In addition, the photoelectrocatalytic ability of the novel electrode is found enhanced in the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. [source]


Optical and thermo electrical properties of ZnO nano particle filled polystyrene

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
Mulayam S. Gaur
Abstract The study of optical and thermally stimulated electrical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index, X-ray spectra, SEM spectra, thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been undertaken in ZnO nanoparicle filled polystyrene nanocomposite thin film of 30 ,m thickness. The appearance of single TSDC peak at temperature 408 5 K in nanocomposite samples shows the charge carriers injected from deeper trapping levels. It is due to the modification of surface and bulk properties of polystyrene by filling of ZnO nanoparticles. In other hand, the strong interaction of nanoparticles with polymer matrix is the expected reason of improvement of crystallite size, optical energy band gap, refractive index, TSDC, glass transition temperature, and charge storage. It is confirmed from SEM images that the modifications of these properties are caused by creation of clusters in amorphous,crystalline boundaries of pristine polystyrene. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


Effect of interfacial strengthening in blends of reclaimed rubber and polypropylene

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
S.-H. Zhu
Abstract Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) were prepared from polypropylene (PP) and reclaimed ground tire rubber crumbs. Three types of interfacial strengthening agents,degraded PP, hydrosilylated PP, and hydrosilylated PP grafted onto styrene,butadiene rubber,were prepared in melt via a stepwise series of reactions and employed to generate various degrees of interfacial adhesion in the aforementioned blends. The incorporation of the interfacial agents resulted in improvements in the mechanical properties of these TPVs, and the rubber particle size remained constant. The PP chain length and the functional groups present in the interfacial agents affected the magnitude of the improvement in the mechanical properties. The interfacial agents were primarily present on the surface of the rubber particles in the blends, as shown by energy-dispersive X-ray spectra. These interfacial agents in the PP/rubber crumb blends led to a unique preyield kink in their stress,strain curves, a plateau, or a sharp turning point in the region of approximately 3% elongation and approximately 4-MPa stress. These kinks were interpreted similarly to the cold flow of semicrystalline polymers in tension. The addition of the interfacial modifiers decreased the shear viscosity and increased the entrance pressure drop in flow through capillary dies, and this was attributed to changes in the elongational viscosity of the blends. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


On the Crystal Structure of Isotactic cis -1,4-Poly(1,3-pentadiene)

MACROMOLECULAR THEORY AND SIMULATIONS, Issue 8 2006
Roberto Napolitano
Abstract Summary: A comparison between the crystal structure of isotactic cis -1,4-poly(1,3-pentadiene) previously predicted by molecular mechanics calculations and that successively determined by other authors by experimental data is reported. The agreement between the two structures is very good as far as the space group, the unit cell parameters and the conformation of the polymer chain are concerned. The mode of packing of the chains proposed in the experimental crystal structure is very similar to that found as relative minimum in the previous energy calculations. The coexistence, in different amounts, of these two modes of packing is suggested by the analysis of the simulated X-ray spectra and by the results of new energy calculations. A mode of packing of chains of isotactic cis -1,4-poly(1,3-pentadiene). [source]


Colliding stellar wind models with non-equilibrium ionization: X-rays from WR 147

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2007
Svetozar A. Zhekov
ABSTRACT The effects of non-equilibrium ionization are explicitly taken into account in a numerical model which describes colliding stellar winds (CSW) in massive binary systems. This new model is used to analyse the most recent X-ray spectra of the WR+OB binary system WR 147. The basic result is that it can adequately reproduce the observed X-ray emission (spectral shape, observed flux) but some adjustment in the stellar wind parameters is required. Namely (i) the stellar wind velocities must be higher by a factor of 1.4,1.6 and (ii) the mass loss must be reduced by a factor of ,2. The reduction factor for the mass loss is well within the uncertainties for this parameter in massive stars, but given the fact that the orbital parameters (e.g. inclination angle and eccentricity) are not well constrained for WR 147, even smaller corrections to the mass loss might be sufficient. Only CSW models with non-equilibrium ionization and equal (or nearly equal) electron and ion post-shock temperature are successful. Therefore, the analysis of the X-ray spectra of WR 147 provides evidence that the CSW shocks in this object must be collisionless. [source]


Analysing the atolls: X-ray spectral transitions of accreting neutron stars

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2007
Jeanette Gladstone
ABSTRACT We systematically analyse all the available X-ray spectra of disc accreting neutron stars (atolls and millisecond pulsars) from the RXTE data base. We show that while all these have similar spectral evolution as a function of mass accretion rate, there are also subtle differences. There are two different types of hard/soft transition, those where the spectrum softens at all energies, leading to a diagonal track on a colour,colour diagram, and those where only the higher energy spectrum softens, giving a vertical track. The luminosity at which the transition occurs is correlated with this spectral behaviour, with the vertical transition at L/LEdd, 0.02 while the diagonal one is at ,0.1. Superimposed on this is the well-known hysteresis effect, but we show that classic, large-scale hysteresis occurs only in the outbursting sources, indicating that its origin is in the dramatic rate of change of mass accretion rate during the disc instability. We show that the long-term mass accretion rate correlates with the transition behaviour, and speculate that this is due to the magnetic field being able to emerge from the neutron star surface for low average mass accretion rates. While this is not strong enough to collimate the flow except in the millisecond pulsars, its presence may affect the inner accretion flow by changing the properties of the jet. [source]


Hard X-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere: Monte Carlo simulations

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
S. Sazonov
ABSTRACT We perform Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic ray-induced hard X-ray radiation from the Earth's atmosphere. We find that the shape of the spectrum emergent from the atmosphere in the energy range 25,300 keV is mainly determined by Compton scatterings and photoabsorption, and is almost insensitive to the incident cosmic ray spectrum. We provide a fitting formula for the hard X-ray surface brightness of the atmosphere as would be measured by a satellite-borne instrument, as a function of energy, solar modulation level, geomagnetic cut-off rigidity and zenith angle. A recent measurement by the INTEGRAL observatory of the atmospheric hard X-ray flux during the occultation of the cosmic X-ray background by the Earth agrees with our prediction within 10 per cent. This suggests that Earth observations could be used for in-orbit calibration of future hard X-ray telescopes. We also demonstrate that the hard X-ray spectra generated by cosmic rays in the crusts of the Moon, Mars and Mercury should be significantly different from that emitted by the Earth's atmosphere. [source]


A new interpretation of the remarkable X-ray spectrum of the symbiotic star CH Cyg

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
Peter J. Wheatley
ABSTRACT We have re-analysed the ASCA X-ray spectrum of the bright symbiotic star CH Cyg, which exhibits apparently distinct hard and soft X-ray components. Our analysis demonstrates that the soft X-ray emission can be interpreted as scattering of the hard X-ray component in a photoionized medium surrounding the white dwarf. This is in contrast to previous analyses in which the soft X-ray emission was fitted separately and assumed to arise independently of the hard X-ray component. We note the striking similarity between the X-ray spectra of CH Cyg and Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are also believed to exhibit scattering in a photoionized medium. [source]


Evidence of a change in the long-term spin-down rate of the X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
A. Baykal
ABSTRACT We analysed RXTE archival observations of 4U 1907+09 between 1996 February 17 and 2002 March 6. The pulse timing analysis showed that the source stayed at almost constant period around 1998 August and then started to spin-down at a rate of (,1.887 , 0.042) 10,14 Hz s,1 which is ,0.60 times lower than the long-term (,15 yr) spin-down rate. Our pulse-frequency measurements for the first time resolved significant spin-down rate variations since the discovery of the source. We also presented orbital phase resolved X-ray spectra during two stable spin-down episodes during 1996 November,1997 December and 2001 March,2002 March. The source has been known to have two orbitally locked flares. We found that X-ray flux and spectral parameters except hydrogen column density agreed with each other during the flares. We interpreted the similar values of X-ray fluxes as an indication of the fact that the source accretes not only via transient retrograde accretion disc but also via the stellar wind of the companion, so that the variation of the accretion rate from the disc does not cause significant variation in the observed X-ray flux. Lack of significant change in spectral parameters except hydrogen column density was interpreted as a sign of the fact that the change in the spin-down rate of the source was not accompanied by a significant variation in the accretion geometry. [source]


An explanation for the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
J. Crummy
ABSTRACT We present a large sample of type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) spectra taken with XMM,Newton, and fit them with both the conventional model (a power law and blackbody) and the relativistically blurred photoionized disc reflection model of Ross & Fabian. We find that the disc reflection model is a better fit. The disc reflection model successfully reproduces the continuum shape, including the soft excess, of all the sources. The model also reproduces many features that would conventionally be interpreted as absorption edges. We are able to use the model to infer the properties of the sources, specifically that the majority of black holes in the sample are strongly rotating, and that there is a deficit in sources with an inclination >70. We conclude that the disc reflection model is an important tool in the study of AGN X-ray spectra. [source]


XMM,Newton observations of UW CrB: detection of X-ray bursts and evidence for accretion disc evolution

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2005
Pasi Hakala
ABSTRACT UW CrB (MS 1603+2600) is a peculiar short-period X-ray binary that exhibits extraordinary optical behaviour. The shape of the optical light curve of the system changes drastically from night to night, without any changes in overall brightness. Here we report X-ray observations of UW CrB obtained with XMM,Newton. We find evidence for several X-ray bursts, confirming a neutron star primary. This considerably strengthens the case that UW CrB is an accretion disc corona system located at a distance of at least 5,7 kpc (3,5 kpc above the Galactic plane). The X-ray and Optical Monitor (ultraviolet,optical) light curves show remarkable shape variation from one observing run to another, which we suggest are due to large-scale variations in the accretion disc shape resulting from a warp that periodically obscures the optical and soft X-ray emission. This is also supported by the changes in phase-resolved X-ray spectra. [source]


The hard X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325,5926: reflection from an ionized disc and variable iron K emission

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2004
K. Iwasawa
ABSTRACT We report our analysis of the X-ray spectra of the Seyfert galaxy IRAS 18325,5926 (= Fairall 49) obtained from various X-ray observatories prior to XMM,Newton, including new results from two RXTE and one BeppoSAX observations. A relatively steep continuum slope (,, 2.2) in the 2,15 keV band is confirmed. The continuum spectrum observed with the BeppoSAX PDS shows a possible roll-over at energies above 30 keV, indicating a Comptonizing corona cooler than in other Seyfert nuclei. The X-ray spectrum above 2 keV is best explained with a model including reflection from a highly ionized disc with significant relativistic blurring. The iron K, emission feature is then mainly due to Fe xxv. The seven recent observations show that the iron K emission flux appears to follow the continuum between the observations separated by a few months to years, although some exceptions suggest that the linestrength may be determined in a more complex way. [source]


X-ray evidence for multiphase hot gas with nearly solar Fe abundances in the brightest groups of galaxies

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2000
David A. Buote
We analyse the ASCA spectra accumulated within ,100 kpc radii of 12 of the brightest groups of galaxies. Upon fitting isothermal models (1T) jointly to the ASCA SIS and GIS spectra we obtain fits for most groups that are of poor or at best marginal quality and give very subsolar metallicities similar to previous studies, ,Z,=0.290.12 Z,. Two-temperature models (2T) provide significantly better fits for 11 out of the 12 groups, and in every case have metallicities that are substantially larger than obtained for the 1T models, ,Z,=0.750.24 Z,. Though not very well constrained, for most of the groups absorption in excess of the Galactic value is indicated for the cooler temperature component of the 2T models. A simple multiphase cooling flow model gives results analogous to the 2T models including large metallicities, ,Z,=0.650.17 Z,. The nearly solar Fe abundances and also solar ,/Fe ratios indicated by the 2T and cooling flow models are consistent with models of the chemical enrichment of ellipticals, groups, and clusters which assume ratios of Type Ia to Type II supernovae and an initial mass function (IMF) similar to those of the Milky Way. Thus we have shown that the very subsolar Fe abundances and Si/Fe enhancements obtained from most previous studies within r,100 kpc of galaxy groups are an artefact of fitting isothermal models to the X-ray spectra, which also has been recently demonstrated for the brightest elliptical galaxies. Owing to the importance of these results for interpreting X-ray spectra, in an appendix we use simulated ASCA observations to examine in detail the ,Fe bias' and ,Si bias' associated with the spectral fitting of ellipticals, groups and clusters of galaxies. [source]


Titanium dioxide thin films deposited by the sol-gel technique starting from titanium oxy-acetyl acetonate: gas sensing and photocatalyst applications

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 9 2010
A. Maldonado
Abstract Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited onto sodocalcic glass plates by the sol-gel technique, starting from a non-alkoxide route, namely, titanium oxy-acetyl acetonate as Ti precursor. Film thickness effect on both the gas sensing and photocatalytic degradation performance was studied. The as-deposited films were annealed in air at 400 C. All the X-ray spectra of the films show a very broad-peak centered in a 2, angle around 30. In the case of the thinnest films the surface morphology is uniform and very smooth, whereas for the thickest films the corresponding surface is covered by grains with a rod-like shape with a length on the order of 140 nm. The films were tested both for two straightforward applications: ultraviolet assisted-degradation of methylene blue dissolved in water, at different times, as well as gas sensor in a controlled propane (C3H8) atmosphere. As the film thickness increases, the degradation of methylene blue (MB) also increases. The thickest TiO2 thin films after being exposed by 5 hours to the catalytic degradation, promoted by ultraviolet illumination, showed a final MB solution degradation in the order of 48%. This reult can be associated with the increase in the effective exposed area of the TiO2 thin films. On the other hand, the exposition of the films to a controlled propane atmosphere produced a significant change in the surface electrical resistance of the films at operating temperatures of 200 C and above. In fact, in the case of the thickest TiO2 films, a dramatic electrical resistance change of non-exposed and propane exposed , 560 to 0.7 M, ,, was registered. The results show that TiO2 films deposited by an economical deposition technique, as is the case of the sol-gel technique, could have an important potential in industrial applications. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


RF sputtered HgCdTe films for tandem cell applications

PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 4 2004
S. L. Wang
Abstract Polycrystalline Hg1,xCdxTe films were investigated for their potential as bottom cells of a CdTe-based tandem solar cell. The films were deposited by RF sputtering from a cold pressed target containing 30% HgTe + 70% CdTe. The as-deposited films were highly resistive with (111) preferred orientation and a bandgap of ,1.0 eV. Various thermal treatment schemes were investigated under different conditions of ambient and temperature to reduce the resistivity. The film properties were analyzed using infrared transmission spectra, energy dispersive X-ray spectra and X-ray diffraction. N doped p-HgCdTe films were also prepared by reactive sputtering in a N2/Ar ambient. P-n junction solar cells were fabricated with CdS films as the heterojunction partner. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Expanding atmosphere models for SSS spectra of novae

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2010
D.R. van Rossum
Abstract Super Soft Source (SSS) spectra are powered by nuclear burning on the surface of a white dwarf. The released energy causes a radiatively-driven wind that leads to a radially extended atmosphere around the white dwarf. Significant blue shifts in photospheric absorption lines are found in the spectra of novae during their SSS phase, being an evidence of continued mass loss in this phase. We present spherically symmetric PHOENIX models that account for the expansion of the ejecta. A comparison to a plane parallel, hydrostatic atmosphere model demonstrates that the mass loss can have a significant impact on the model spectra. The dynamic model yields less pronounced absorption edges, and harder X-ray spectra are the result. Therefore, lower effective temperatures are needed to explain the observed spectra. Although both types of models are yet to be fine-tuned in order to accurately determine best fit parameters, the implications on the chemical abundances are going in opposite directions. With the expanding models the requirement for strong depletion of the crucial elements that cause these edges is now avoidable ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Observational evidence for expansion in the SSS spectra of novae

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2010
J.-U. Ness
Abstract For several novae, a bright X-ray source with a spectrum resembling the class of Super Soft X-ray Sources (SSS) has been observed a few weeks to months after outburst. Novae are powered by explosive nuclear burning on the surface of a white dwarf, and enough energy is produced to power a radiatively driven wind. Owing to the evolution of the opacity of the ejecta, the observable spectrum gradually shifts from optical to soft X-rays (SSS phase). It has sometimes been assumed that at the beginning of the SSS phase no more mass loss occurs. However, high-resolution X-ray spectra of some novae have shown highly blue-shifted absorption lines, indicating a significant expansion. In this paper, I show that all novae that have been observed with X-ray gratings during their SSS phase show significant blue shifts. I argue that all models that attempt to explain the X-ray bright SSS phase have to accommodate the continued expansion of the ejecta ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Supersoft AGNs and their relations to Galactic binaries

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2010
Th. Boller
Abstract I review some basic results on AGN with supersoft X-ray spectra and their relations to Galactic binaries in their soft high states. This paper is based on a talk given at the Supersoft Sources Workshop at ESTEC in May 2009. Given the length of the talk and the number of pages the review cannot be complete and is biased towards my personal view. I demonstrate that at high accretion rates supersoft AGNs and Galactic binaries share steep soft X-ray spectra, that the X-ray variability of supersoft AGNs is more pronounced compared to Galactic binaries in their high states, that the X-ray variability of supersoft novae and supersoft AGNs is similar, and that in Galactic binaries mostly positive time lags are seen, while negative time lags are observed in some supersoft AGN ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Supersoft X-ray sources

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2010
F. Haberl
Abstract The workshop "Supersoft X-ray Sources , New Developments" brought together observers and theoretician to discuss the present status and unsolved problems of supersoft source research. A large part of the workshop was devoted to optical novae and their supersoft state. Large samples of supersoft X-ray sources were presented from nearby galaxies, as well as extensive monitoring campaigns ofbright individual sources. The theoretical modelling oflight curves and high-resolution X-ray spectra are well underway, but details are often not yet understood ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


Modelling the broad-band spectra of X-ray emitting GPS galaxies

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2-3 2009
L. Ostorero
Abstract The study of the broad-band emission of GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies is a powerful tool to investigate the physical processes taking place in the central, kpc-sized region of their active hosts, where the jets propagate and the lobes expand, interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). We recently developed a new dynamical-radiative model to describe the evolution of the GPS phenomenon (Stawarz et al. 2008): as the relativistic jets propagate through the ISM, gradually engulfing narrow-line emitting gas clouds along their way, the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves, emitting synchrotron light, as well as inverse-Compton radiation via up-scattering of the photon fields from the host galaxy and its active nucleus. The model, which successfully reproduces the key features of the GPS radio sources as a class, provides a description of the evolution of their spectral energy distribution (SED) with the lobes' expansion, predicting significant and complex X-ray to , -ray emission. We apply here the model to the broad-band SED's of a sample of known, X-ray emitting GPS galaxies, and show that (i) the free-free absorption mechanism enables us to reproduce the radio continuum at frequencies below the turnover; (ii) the lobes' non-thermal, inverse-Compton emission can account for the observed X-ray spectra, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-dominated scenario. We also show that, in our sample, the relationship between the X-ray and radio hydrogen column densities, NH and NHI, is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed, would support the scenario of high-energy emitting lobes ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


X-ray spectroscopy of early-type stars: The present and the future

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2008
G. Rauw
Abstract XMM-Newton and Chandra have boosted our knowledge about the X-ray emission of early-type stars (spectral types OB and Wolf-Rayet). However, there are still a number of open questions that need to be addressed in order to fully understand the X-ray spectra of these objects. Many of these issues require high-resolution spectroscopy or monitoring of a sample of massive stars. Given the moderate X-ray brightness of these targets, rather long exposure times are needed to achieve these goals. In this contribution, we review our current knowledge in this field and present some hot topics that could ideally be addressed with XMM-Newton over the next decade. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


A short introduction to broad and variable iron lines around black holes

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 10 2006
A. C. Fabian
Abstract Accreting black holes often show iron line emission in their X-ray spectra. When this line emission is very broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. The theory and observations of such broad and variable iron lines are briefly reviewed here. In order for a clear broad line to be found, one or more of the following have to occur: high iron abundance, dense disk surface and minimal complex absorption. Several excellent examples are found from observations of Seyfert galaxies and Galactic Black Holes. In several cases there is strong evidence that the black hole is rapidly spinning. Further examples are expected as more long observations are made with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku. Intriguing instances of rapid variability of some narrow iron lines, both emission and absorption, have been reported. These may reflect variations in the irradiation or motion of physical structures on the accretion disk. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


X-rays from the HII Regions and Molecular Clouds near the Galactic Center

ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue S1 2003
Katsuji Koyama
Abstract We report measurements by Chandra of a variety of X-ray sources in the molecular clouds and HII regions of the Sgr B2, Arches, Quintuplet and the Galactic center clusters. Moderately bright X-ray sources are present in the Sgr B2, Quintuplet and the Galactic center clusters at the positions of ultra compact HII regions and bright infrared sources. Their X-ray spectra are fitted with models of a thin thermal plasma with 2,10 keV temperatures and luminosities of ,1032,33erg s,1. The X-ray properties are typical of those of high-mass young stellar objects or clusters of such objects. The Arches Cluster has three bright X-ray sources, at the positions of bright IR and radio stars, with X-ray luminosities of a few 1033 erg s,1 each, which may indicate an unusual X-ray emission mechanism from high mass YSOs. A unique X-ray feature of molecular clouds and HII regions near the Galactic center is the presence of diffuse emission with a strong 6.4 keV line; in Sgr B2 this is attributable to the fluorescence of gas irradiated by external sources in the Galactic center, while the diffuse emission from Arches is puzzling. [source]


An additional soft X-ray component in the dim low/hard state of black hole binaries

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2010
C. Y. Chiang
ABSTRACT We test the truncated disc models using multiwavelength (optical/ultraviolet/X-ray) data from the 2005 hard state outburst of the black hole Swift J1753.5,0127. This system is both fairly bright and has fairly low interstellar absorption, so gives one of the best data sets to study the weak, cool disc emission in this state. We fit these data using models of an X-ray illuminated disc to constrain the inner disc radius throughout the outburst. Close to the peak, the observed soft X-ray component is consistent with being produced by the inner disc, with its intrinsic emission enhanced in temperature and luminosity by reprocessing of hard X-ray illumination in an overlap region between the disc and corona. This disc emission provides the seed photons for Compton scattering to produce the hard X-ray spectrum, and these hard X-rays also illuminate the outer disc, producing the optical emission by reprocessing. However, the situation is very different as the outburst declines. The optical is probably cyclo-synchrotron radiation, self-generated by the flow, rather than tracing the outer disc. Similarly, limits from reprocessing make it unlikely that the soft X-rays are directly tracing the inner disc radius. Instead they appear to be from a new component. This is seen more clearly in a similarly dim low/hard state spectrum from XTE J1118+480, where the 10 times lower interstellar absorption allows a correspondingly better view of the ultraviolet/extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission. The very small emitting area implied by the relatively high temperature soft X-ray component is completely inconsistent with the much larger, cooler, ultraviolet component which is well fit by a truncated disc. We speculate on the origin of this component, but its existence as a clearly separate spectral component from the truncated disc in XTE J1118+480 shows that it does not simply trace the inner disc radius, so cannot constrain the truncated disc models. [source]


The XMM-SSC survey of hard-spectrum XMM,Newton sources , I. Optically bright sources

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
M. J. Page
ABSTRACT We present optical and X-ray data for a sample of serendipitous XMM,Newton sources that are selected to have 0.5,2 versus 2,4.5 keV X-ray hardness ratios which are harder than the X-ray background. The sources have 2,4.5 keV X-ray flux ,10,14 erg cm,2 s,1, and in this paper we examine a subsample of 42 optically bright (r < 21) sources; this subsample is 100 per cent spectroscopically identified. All but one of the optical counterparts are extragalactic, and we argue that the single exception, a Galactic M star, is probably a coincidental association rather than the correct identification of the X-ray source. The X-ray spectra of all the sources are consistent with heavily absorbed power laws (21.8 < log NH < 23.4), and all of them, including the two sources with 2,10 keV intrinsic luminosities of <1042 erg s,1, appear to be absorbed active galactic nuclei (AGN). The majority of the sources show only narrow emission lines in their optical spectra, implying that they are type 2 AGN. Three sources have 2,10 keV luminosities of >1044 erg s,1, and two of these sources have optical spectra which are dominated by narrow emission lines, that is, are type 2 QSOs. Only a small fraction of the sources (7/42) show broad optical emission lines, and all of these have NH < 1023 cm,2. This implies that ratios of X-ray absorption to optical/ultraviolet extinction equivalent to >100 times the Galactic gas-to-dust ratio are rare in AGN absorbers (at most a few per cent of the population), and may be restricted to broad absorption line QSOs. Seven objects appear to have an additional soft X-ray component in addition to the heavily absorbed power law; all seven are narrow emission-line objects with z < 0.3 and 2,10 keV intrinsic luminosities <1043 erg s,1. We consider the implications of our results in the light of the AGN unified scheme. We find that the soft components in narrow-line objects are consistent with the unified scheme provided that >4 per cent of broad-line AGN (BLAGN) have ionized absorbers that attenuate their soft X-ray flux by >50 per cent. In at least one of the X-ray-absorbed BLAGN in our sample the X-ray spectrum requires an ionized absorber, consistent with this picture. [source]


A new interpretation of the remarkable X-ray spectrum of the symbiotic star CH Cyg

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2006
Peter J. Wheatley
ABSTRACT We have re-analysed the ASCA X-ray spectrum of the bright symbiotic star CH Cyg, which exhibits apparently distinct hard and soft X-ray components. Our analysis demonstrates that the soft X-ray emission can be interpreted as scattering of the hard X-ray component in a photoionized medium surrounding the white dwarf. This is in contrast to previous analyses in which the soft X-ray emission was fitted separately and assumed to arise independently of the hard X-ray component. We note the striking similarity between the X-ray spectra of CH Cyg and Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are also believed to exhibit scattering in a photoionized medium. [source]


X-ray synchrotron emission from the oblique shock in the jet of the powerful radio galaxy 3C 346

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2005
D. M. Worrall
ABSTRACT We report the first detection, with Chandra, of X-ray emission from the jet of the powerful narrow-line radio galaxy 3C 346. X-rays are detected from the bright radio and optical knot at which the jet apparently bends by approximately 70. The Chandra observation also reveals a bright galaxy-scale atmosphere within the previously known cluster and provides a good X-ray spectrum for the bright core of 3C 346. The X-ray emission from the knot is synchrotron radiation, as seen in lower-power sources. In common with these sources, there is evidence of morphological differences between the radio/optical and X-ray structures, and the spectrum is inconsistent with a one-component continuous-injection model. We suggest that the X-ray-bright knot is associated with a strong oblique shock in a moderately relativistic, light jet, at , 20 to the line of sight, and that this shock is caused by the jet interacting with the wake in the cluster medium behind the companion galaxy of 3C 346. The general jet curvature can result from pressure gradients in the cluster atmosphere. [source]


Near-infrared identification of the counterpart to X1908+075: a new OB-supergiant X-ray binary

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2005
T. Morel
ABSTRACT We report the near-infrared (near-IR) identification of the likely counterpart to X1908+075, a highly absorbed Galactic X-ray source recently suspected to belong to the rare class of OB supergiant,neutron star binary systems. Our JHKs -band imaging of the field reveals the existence within the X-ray error boxes of a near-IR source consistent with an early-type star lying at d, 7 kpc and suffering AV, 16 mag of extinction, the latter value being in good agreement with the hydrogen column density derived from modelling of the X-ray spectrum. Our follow-up, near-IR spectroscopic observations confirm the nature of this candidate and lead to a late O-type supergiant classification, thereby supporting the identification of a new Galactic OB-supergiant X-ray binary. [source]


An XMM,Newton observation of Ark 120: the X-ray spectrum of a ,bare' Seyfert 1 nucleus

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2004
S. Vaughan
ABSTRACT We report on a long (100 ks) XMM,Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy Arakelian 120. The source previously showed no signs of intrinsic reddening in its infrared,ultraviolet continuum and previous observations had shown no evidence for ionized absorption in either the ultraviolet or X-ray bands. The new XMM,Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer data place tight limits on the presence of an ionized X-ray absorber and confirm that the X-ray spectrum of Ark 120 is essentially unmodified by intervening matter. Thus Ark 120 can be considered a ,bare' Seyfert 1 nucleus. This observation therefore offers a clean view of the X-ray spectrum of a ,normal' Seyfert galaxy free from absorption effects. The spectrum shows a Doppler broadened iron emission line (FWHM , 3 104 km s,1) and a smooth, continuous soft excess which appears to peak at an energy ,0.5 keV. This adds weight to the claim that genuine soft excesses (i.e. those due to a real steepening of the underlying continuum below ,2 keV) are ubiquitous in Seyfert 1 spectra. However, the detailed shape of the excess could not be reproduced by any of the simple models tested (power laws, blackbodies, Comptonized blackbodies, accretion disc reflection). This observation therefore demonstrates both the need to understand the soft excess (as a significant contributor to the luminosity of most Seyfert 1s) and the inability of the existing, simple models to explain it. [source]