X-ray Luminosity (x-ray + luminosity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by X-ray Luminosity

  • x-ray luminosity function

  • Selected Abstracts


    The properties of the heterogeneous Shakhbazyan groups of galaxies in the SDSS

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    D. Capozzi
    ABSTRACT We present a systematic study of the subsample of Shakhbazyan (SHK) groups covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). SHK groups probe an environment with characteristics which are intermediate between those of loose and very compact groups. Surprisingly, we found that several groups identifying algorithms, e.g. Berlind et al. and Tago et al., miss this type of structures. Using the SDSS DR5 spectroscopic data and the photometric redshifts derived in D'Abrusco et al., we identified possible group members in photometric redshift space and derived, for each group, several individual properties (richness, size, mean photometric redshift, fraction of red galaxies, etc.). We also combined pointed and stacked Rosat All Sky Survey (RASS) data to investigate the X-ray luminosities of these systems. Our study confirms that the majority of groups are physical entities with richness in the range 3,13 galaxies, and properties ranging between those of loose and compact groups. We confirm that SHK groups are richer in early-type galaxies than the surrounding environment and the field, as expected from the morphology,density relation and from the selection of groups of red galaxies. Furthermore, our work supports the existence of two subclasses of structures, the first one being formed by compact and isolated groups and the second formed by extended structures. We suggest that while the first class of objects dwells in less dense regions like the outer parts of clusters or the field, possibly sharing the properties of Hickson Compact Groups, the more extended structures represent a mixture of [core + halo] configurations and cores of rich clusters. X-ray luminosities for SHK groups are generally consistent with these results and with the expectations for the LX,,v relation, but also suggest the velocity dispersions reported in literature are underestimated for some of the richest systems. [source]


    Parallel tracks in infrared versus X-ray emission in black hole X-ray transient outbursts: a hysteresis effect?

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    David M. Russell
    ABSTRACT We report the discovery of a new hysteresis effect in black hole X-ray binary state transitions, that of the near-infrared (NIR) flux (which most likely originates in the jets) versus X-ray flux. We find, looking at existing data sets, that the IR emission of black hole X-ray transients appears to be weaker in the low/hard state rise of an outburst than the low/hard state decline of an outburst at a given X-ray luminosity. We discuss how this effect may be caused by a shift in the radiative efficiency of the inflowing or outflowing matter, or variations in the disc viscosity or the spectrum/power of the jet. In addition we show that there is a correlation (in slope but not in normalization) between IR and X-ray luminosities on the rise and decline, for all three low-mass black hole X-ray binaries with well-sampled IR and X-ray coverage: LNIR,L0.5,0.7X. In the high/soft state this slope is much shallower; LNIR,L0.1,0.2X, and we find that the NIR emission in this state is most likely dominated by the viscously heated (as opposed to X-ray heated) accretion disc in all three sources. [source]


    A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2001
    Ewan O'Sullivan
    We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-type galaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literature and converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distance scale. Using this sample we fit the LX : LB relation for early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of ,2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fit and present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a single power-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxy X-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provide . We compare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, we examine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and on the form of the relation. We conclude that although environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties of individual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups and clusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations. [source]


    Toward an unbiased sample of X-ray selected normal galaxies outside the local Universe

    ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue 2 2008
    A. GeorgakakisArticle first published online: 14 FEB 200
    Abstract This paper shows that our understanding of the statistical properties of X-ray selected normal galaxies (e.g. X-ray luminosity function) can be significantly improved by combining a wide-area XMM-Newton survey with the moderare resolution and high S/N optical spectroscopy of the SDSS. Such a combined dataset has the potential to minimise uncertainties that affect existing normal galaxy samples at X-rays, such as small number statistics, cosmic variance, AGN contamination and incompleteness at bright X-ray luminosities. It is demonstrated that a 100 deg2 XMM-Newton survey in the SDSS area to the limit fX(0.5,2 keV) , 5 × 10,15 erg cm,2 s,1 will detect over 400 X-ray selected normal galaxies with excellent control over systematic biases, thereby providing tight contraints on the X-ray luminosity function at z , 0.1. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    X-rays from the HII Regions and Molecular Clouds near the Galactic Center

    ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN, Issue S1 2003
    Katsuji Koyama
    Abstract We report measurements by Chandra of a variety of X-ray sources in the molecular clouds and HII regions of the Sgr B2, Arches, Quintuplet and the Galactic center clusters. Moderately bright X-ray sources are present in the Sgr B2, Quintuplet and the Galactic center clusters at the positions of ultra compact HII regions and bright infrared sources. Their X-ray spectra are fitted with models of a thin thermal plasma with 2,10 keV temperatures and luminosities of ,1032,33erg s,1. The X-ray properties are typical of those of high-mass young stellar objects or clusters of such objects. The Arches Cluster has three bright X-ray sources, at the positions of bright IR and radio stars, with X-ray luminosities of a few ×1033 erg s,1 each, which may indicate an unusual X-ray emission mechanism from high mass YSOs. A unique X-ray feature of molecular clouds and HII regions near the Galactic center is the presence of diffuse emission with a strong 6.4 keV line; in Sgr B2 this is attributable to the fluorescence of gas irradiated by external sources in the Galactic center, while the diffuse emission from Arches is puzzling. [source]


    X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies in the Subaru,XMM Deep Field

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2010
    A. Finoguenov
    Abstract We present the results of a search for galaxy clusters in the Subaru,XMM Deep Field (SXDF). We reach a depth for a total cluster flux in the 0.5,2 keV band of 2 × 10,15 erg cm,2 s,1 over one of the widest XMM,Newton contiguous raster surveys, covering an area of 1.3 deg2. Cluster candidates are identified through a wavelet detection of extended X-ray emission. The red-sequence technique allows us to identify 57 cluster candidates. We report on the progress with the cluster spectroscopic follow-up and derive their properties based on the X-ray luminosity and cluster scaling relations. In addition, three sources are identified as X-ray counterparts of radio lobes, and in three further sources, an X-ray counterpart of the radio lobes provides a significant fraction of the total flux of the source. In the area covered by near-infrared data, our identification success rate achieves 86 per cent. We detect a number of radio galaxies within our groups, and for a luminosity-limited sample of radio galaxies we compute halo occupation statistics using a marked cluster mass function. We compare the cluster detection statistics in the SXDF with that in the literature and provide the modelling using the concordance cosmology combined with current knowledge of the X-ray cluster properties. The joint cluster log(N) , log(S) is overpredicted by the model, and an agreement can be achieved through a reduction of the concordance ,8 value by 5 per cent. Having considered the dn/dz and the X-ray luminosity function of clusters, we conclude that to pin down the origin of disagreement a much wider (50 deg2) survey is needed. [source]


    X-ray active galactic nuclei in the core of the Perseus cluster

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2007
    S. Santra
    ABSTRACT We present a study of the X-ray emission from the nuclei of galaxies observed in the core of the Perseus cluster in a deep exposure with Chandra. Point sources are found coincident with the nuclei of 13 early-type galaxies, as well as the central galaxy NGC 1275. This corresponds to all galaxies brighter than MB > ,18 in the Chandra field. All of these sources have a steep power-law spectral component and four have an additional thermal component. The unabsorbed power-law luminosities in the 0.5,7.0 keV band range from 8 × 1038 to 5 × 1040 erg s,1. We find no simple correlations between the K -band luminosity, or the FUV and NUV AB magnitudes of these galaxies and their X-ray properties. We have estimated the black hole masses of the nuclei using the K -band MBH,LKbol relation and again find no correlation between black hole mass and the X-ray luminosity. Bondi accretion on to the black holes in the galaxies with minihaloes should make them much more luminous than observed. [source]


    Parallel tracks in infrared versus X-ray emission in black hole X-ray transient outbursts: a hysteresis effect?

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2007
    David M. Russell
    ABSTRACT We report the discovery of a new hysteresis effect in black hole X-ray binary state transitions, that of the near-infrared (NIR) flux (which most likely originates in the jets) versus X-ray flux. We find, looking at existing data sets, that the IR emission of black hole X-ray transients appears to be weaker in the low/hard state rise of an outburst than the low/hard state decline of an outburst at a given X-ray luminosity. We discuss how this effect may be caused by a shift in the radiative efficiency of the inflowing or outflowing matter, or variations in the disc viscosity or the spectrum/power of the jet. In addition we show that there is a correlation (in slope but not in normalization) between IR and X-ray luminosities on the rise and decline, for all three low-mass black hole X-ray binaries with well-sampled IR and X-ray coverage: LNIR,L0.5,0.7X. In the high/soft state this slope is much shallower; LNIR,L0.1,0.2X, and we find that the NIR emission in this state is most likely dominated by the viscously heated (as opposed to X-ray heated) accretion disc in all three sources. [source]


    H i content in galaxies in loose groups

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2006
    Chandreyee Sengupta
    ABSTRACT Gas deficiency in cluster spirals is well known and ram-pressure stripping is considered the main gas removal mechanism. In some compact groups too gas deficiency is reported. However, gas deficiency in loose groups is not yet well established. Lower dispersion of the member velocities and the lower density of the intragroup medium in small loose groups favour tidal stripping as the main gas removal process in them. Recent releases of data from the H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) and catalogues of nearby loose groups with associated diffuse X-ray emission have allowed us to test this notion. In this paper, we address the following questions: (i) do galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission statistically have lower gas content compared to the ones in groups without diffuse X-ray emission? (ii) does H i deficiency vary with the X-ray luminosity, LX, of the loose group in a systematic way? We find that (i) galaxies in groups with diffuse X-ray emission, on average, are H i deficient, and have lost more gas compared to those in groups without X-ray emission; the latter are found not to have significant H i deficiency; (ii) no systematic dependence of the H i deficiency with LX is found. Ram-pressure-assisted tidal stripping and evaporation by thermal conduction are the two possible mechanisms to account for this excess gas loss. [source]


    Turbulent gas motions in galaxy cluster simulations: the role of smoothed particle hydrodynamics viscosity

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2005
    K. Dolag
    ABSTRACT Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) employs an artificial viscosity to properly capture hydrodynamic shock waves. In its original formulation, the resulting numerical viscosity is large enough to suppress structure in the velocity field on scales well above the nominal resolution limit, and to damp the generation of turbulence by fluid instabilities. This could artificially suppress random gas motions in the intracluster medium (ICM), which are driven by infalling structures during the hierarchical structure formation process. We show that this is indeed the case by analysing results obtained with an SPH formulation where an individual, time-variable viscosity is used for each particle, following a suggestion by Morris & Monaghan. Using test calculations involving strong shocks, we demonstrate that this scheme captures shocks as well as the original formulation of SPH, but, in regions away from shocks, the numerical viscosity is much smaller. In a set of nine high-resolution simulations of cosmological galaxy cluster formation, we find that this low-viscosity formulation of SPH produces substantially higher levels of turbulent gas motions in the ICM, reaching a kinetic energy content in random gas motions (measured within a 1-Mpc cube) of up to 5,30 per cent of the thermal energy content, depending on cluster mass. This also has significant effects on radial gas profiles and bulk cluster properties. We find a central flattening of the entropy profile and a reduction of the central gas density in the low-viscosity scheme. As a consequence, the bolometric X-ray luminosity is decreased by about a factor of 2. However, the cluster temperature profile remains essentially unchanged. Interestingly, this tends to reduce the differences seen in SPH and adaptive mesh refinement simulations of cluster formation. Finally, invoking a model for particle acceleration by magnetohydrodynamics waves driven by turbulence, we find that efficient electron acceleration and thus diffuse radio emission can be powered in the clusters simulated with the low-viscosity scheme provided that more than 5,10 per cent of the turbulent energy density is associated with fast magneto-sonic modes. [source]


    High-resolution observations of SN 2001gd in NGC 5033

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 3 2005
    M. A. Pérez-Torres
    ABSTRACT We report on 8.4-GHz very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of SN 2001gd in the spiral galaxy NGC 5033 made on 2002 June 26 (2002.48) and 2003 April 8 (2003.27). We used the interferometric visibility data to estimate angular diameter sizes for the supernova by model fitting. Our data nominally suggest a relatively strong deceleration for the expansion of SN 2001gd, but we cannot dismiss the possibility of a free supernova expansion. From our VLBI observations on 2003 April 8, we inferred a minimum total energy in relativistic particles and magnetic fields in the supernova shell of Emin= (0.3,14) × 1047 erg, and a corresponding equipartition average magnetic field of Bmin= 50,350 mG. We also present multiwavelength Very Large Array (VLA) measurements of SN 2001gd made at our second VLBI epoch at frequencies of 1.4, 4.9, 8.4, 15.0, 22.5 and 43.3 GHz. The VLA data are well fitted by an optically thin, synchrotron spectrum (,=,1.0 ± 0.1; S,,,,), partially absorbed by thermal plasma. We obtain a supernova flux density of 1.02 ± 0.05 mJy at the observing frequency of 8.4 GHz for the second epoch, which results in an isotropic radio luminosity of (6.0 ± 0.3) × 1036 erg s,1 between 1.4 and 43.3 GHz, at an adopted distance of 13.1 Mpc. Finally, we report on an XMM,Newton X-ray detection of SN 2001gd on 2002 December 18. The supernova X-ray spectrum is consistent with optically thin emission from a soft component (associated with emission from the reverse shock) at a temperature of around 1 keV. The observed flux corresponds to an isotropic X-ray luminosity of LX= (1.4 ± 0.4) × 1039 erg s,1 in the 0.3,5 keV band. We suggest that both radio and X-ray observations of SN 2001gd indicate that a circumstellar interaction similar to that displayed by SN 1993J in M 81 is taking place. [source]


    A Chandra observation of the H2O megamaser IC 2560

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 4 2002
    K. Iwasawa
    Abstract A short Chandra ACIS-S observation of the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 2560, which hosts a luminous nuclear water megamaser, shows (1) that the X-ray emission is extended; (2) that the X-ray spectrum displays emission features in the soft (E < 2 keV) X-ray band (this is the major component of the extended emission); and (3) a very strong (EW , 3.6 keV) iron K, line at 6.4 keV on a flat continuum. This last feature clearly indicates that the X-ray source is hidden behind Compton-thick obscuration, so that the intrinsic hard X-ray luminosity must be much higher than that observed, probably close to ,3 × 1042 erg s,1. We briefly discuss the implications for powering of the maser emission and the central source. [source]


    A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2001
    Ewan O'Sullivan
    We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-type galaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literature and converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distance scale. Using this sample we fit the LX : LB relation for early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of ,2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fit and present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a single power-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxy X-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provide . We compare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, we examine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and on the form of the relation. We conclude that although environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties of individual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups and clusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations. [source]


    Multiwavelength study of the nuclei of a volume-limited sample of galaxies , I. X-ray observations

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2000
    P. Lira
    We discuss ROSAT HRI X-ray observations of 33 very nearby galaxies, sensitive to X-ray sources down to a luminosity of approximately 1038 erg s,1. The galaxies are selected from a complete, volume-limited sample of 46 galaxies with for which we have extensive multiwavelength data. For an almost complete subsample with (29/31 objects) we have HRI images. Contour maps and source lists are presented within the central region of each galaxy, together with nuclear upper limits where no nuclear source was detected. Nuclear X-ray sources are found to be very common, occurring in ,35 per cent of the sample. Nuclear X-ray luminosity is statistically connected to host galaxy luminosity , there is not a tight correlation, but the probability of a nuclear source being detected increases strongly with galaxy luminosity, and the distribution of nuclear luminosities seems to show an upper envelope that is roughly proportional to galaxy luminosity. While these sources do seem to be a genuinely nuclear phenomenon rather than nuclear examples of the general X-ray source population, it is far from obvious that they are miniature Seyfert nuclei. The more luminous nuclei are very often spatially extended, and H ii region nuclei are detected just as often as LINERs. Finally, we also note the presence of fairly common superluminous X-ray sources in the off-nuclear population , out of 29 galaxies we find nine sources with a luminosity greater than 1039 erg s,1. These show no particular preference for more luminous galaxies. One is already known to be a multiple SNR system, but most have no obvious optical counterpart and their nature remains a mystery. [source]


    The ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample , IV.

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 2 2000
    The extended sample
    We present a low-flux extension of the X-ray-selected ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample (BCS) published in Paper I of this series. Like the original BCS and employing an identical selection procedure, the BCS extension is compiled from ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) data in the northern hemisphere (,,0°) and at high Galactic latitudes (|b|,20°). It comprises 99 X-ray-selected clusters of galaxies with measured redshifts z,0.3 (as well as eight more at z>0.3) and total fluxes between 2.8×10,12 and 4.4×10,12 erg cm,2 s,1 in the 0.1,2.4 keV band (the latter value being the flux limit of the original BCS). The extension can be combined with the main sample published in 1998 to form the homogeneously selected extended BCS (eBCS), the largest and statistically best understood cluster sample to emerge from the RASS to date. The nominal completeness of the combined sample (defined with respect to a power-law fit to the bright end of the BCS log N,log S distribution) is relatively low at 75 per cent (compared with 90 per cent for the high-flux sample of Paper I). However, just as for the original BCS, this incompleteness can be accurately quantified, and thus statistically corrected for, as a function of X-ray luminosity and redshift. In addition to its importance for improved statistical studies of the properties of clusters in the local Universe, the low-flux extension of the BCS is also intended to serve as a finding list for X-ray-bright clusters in the northern hemisphere which we hope will prove useful in the preparation of cluster observations with the next generation of X-ray telescopes such as Chandra and XMM-Newton. An electronic version of the eBCS can be obtained from the following URL: http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~ebeling/clusters/BCS.html. [source]


    The X-ray spectra of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies as seen by BeppoSAX

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Issue 1 2000
    G. Matt
    Results from BeppoSAX observations of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies are summarized and reviewed, and their general properties derived and discussed. In five out of the seven observed sources, the nucleus is directly visible at high X-ray energies, where the photons penetrate absorbers with column densities in the range 1.1,4.3×1024 cm,2 (in the other two sources, NGC 1068 and NGC 7674, the nucleus is instead totally obscured at all energies, implying even larger column densities). In most sources there is unambiguous evidence of a reflection component from optically thick, cold matter, while in two (or maybe four) cases there is also evidence of reflection from ionized matter. For the sources with a measured X-ray luminosity, a comparison with the infrared luminosity is made; while in two cases (the Circinus galaxy and NGC 4945) the IR emission appears to be dominated by starburst activity, in the other three sources (NGC 6240, Mrk 3 and TOL 0109-383) it is likely to be dominated by reprocessing of the UV and X-ray photons emitted by an active galactic nucleus. [source]


    Origin and evolution of magnetars

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY: LETTERS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2008
    Lilia Ferrario
    ABSTRACT We present a population synthesis study of the observed properties of the magnetars investigating the hypothesis that they are drawn from a population of progenitors that are more massive than those of the normal radio pulsars. We assume that the anomalous X-ray emission is caused by the decay of a toroidal or tangled up field that does not take part in the spin-down of the star. Our model assumes that the magnetic flux of the neutron star is distributed as a Gaussian in the logarithm about a mean value that is described by a power law , where Mp is the mass of the progenitor. We find that we can explain the observed properties of the magnetars for a model with ,0= 2 × 1025 G cm2 and ,= 5 if we suitably parametrize the time evolution of the anomalous X-ray luminosity as an exponentially decaying function of time. Our modelling suggests that magnetars arise from stars in the high-mass end (20 M,,Mp, 45 M,) of this distribution. The lower mass progenitors are assumed to give rise to the radio pulsars. The high value of , can be interpreted in one of two ways. It may indicate that the magnetic flux distribution on the main sequence is a strong function of mass and that this is reflected in the magnetic fluxes of the neutron stars that form from this mass range (the fossil field hypothesis). The recent evidence for magnetic fluxes similar to those of the magnetars in a high fraction (,25 per cent) of massive O-type stars lends support to such a hypothesis. Another possibility is that the spin of the neutron star is a strong function of the progenitor mass, and it is only for stars that are more massive than ,20 M, that magnetar-type fields can be generated by the ,,, dynamo mechanism (the convective dynamo hypothesis). In either interpretation, it has to be assumed that all or a subset of stars in the mass range ,20,45 M,, which on standard stellar evolution models lead to black holes via the formation of a fall-back disc, must give rise to magnetars. Unlike with the radio pulsars, the magnetars only weakly constrain the birth spin period, due to their rapid spin-down. Our model predicts a birthrate of ,1.5,3 × 10,3 yr,1 for the magnetars. [source]


    The ultraluminous X-ray source in M82: an intermediate-mass black hole with a giant companion

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY: LETTERS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2006
    A. Patruno
    ABSTRACT The starburst galaxy M82, at a distance of 12 million light years, is the host of an unusually bright 2.4,16 × 1040 erg s,1 X-ray point source, which is best explained by an accreting black hole 102 to 104 times more massive than the Sun. Though the strongest candidate for a so-called intermediate-mass black hole, the only support stems from the observed luminosity and the 0.05,0.1 Hz quasi-periodicity in its signal. Interestingly, the 7,12 Myr old star cluster MGG-11 which has been associated with the X-ray source is sufficiently dense that an intermediate mass black hole could have been produced in the cluster core via collision runaway. The recently discovered 62.0 ± 2.5 d periodicity in the X-ray source X-1 further supports the hypothesis that this source is powered by a black hole several hundred times more massive than the Sun. We perform detailed binary evolution simulations with an accreting compact object of 10,5000 M, and find that the X-ray luminosity, the age of the cluster, the observed quasi-periodic oscillations and the now observed orbital period are explained best by a black hole of 200,5000 M, that accretes material from a 22,25 M, giant companion in a state of Roche-lobe contact. Interestingly, such a companion star is consistent with the expectation based on the tidal capture in a young and dense star cluster such as MGG-11, making the picture self-consistent. [source]


    Constraints on jet X-ray emission in low/hard-state X-ray binaries

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY: LETTERS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2005
    Thomas J. Maccarone
    ABSTRACT We show that the similarities between the X-ray properties of low-luminosity accreting black holes and accreting neutron stars, combined with the differences in their radio properties, argue that the X-rays from these systems are unlikely to be formed in the relativistic jets. Specifically, the spectra of extreme island-state neutron stars and low/hard-state black holes are known to be quite similar, while the power spectra from these systems are known to show only minor differences beyond what would be expected from scaling the characteristic variability frequencies by the mass of the compact object. The spectral and temporal similarities thus imply a common emission mechanism that has only minor deviations from having all key parameters scaling linearly with the mass of the compact object, while we show that this is inconsistent with the observations that the radio powers of neutron stars are typically about 30 times lower than those of black holes at the same X-ray luminosity. We also show that an abrupt luminosity change would be expected when a system makes a spectral state transition from a radiatively inefficient jet-dominated accretion flow to a thin disc-dominated flow, but that such a change is not seen. [source]