X-ray Irradiation (x-ray + irradiation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Isoform-specific quantification of metallothionein in the terrestrial gastropod Helix pomatia.


Abstract The two function-specific metallothionein (MT) isoforms characterized from the midgut gland and mantle tissue of Helix pomatia differ substantially in their metal-binding preferences, as well as molecular and biochemical features. These differences make them potential candidates for biomarker studies based on a differential, isoform-specific approach. To prove this hypothesis, induction experiments with two metals (Cd and Cu) that are normally bound by the two isoforms were compared with a range of organic chemicals and physical stressors under laboratory conditions to test the responsiveness of the two isoforms to the stressors applied. In addition, field studies were conducted with Roman snails and substrate samples collected from different metal-contaminated sites in Austria to test the suitability of the two isoforms as biomarkers under field conditions. The results of these combined laboratory and field studies confirmed the validity of the biomarker approach with the two metal- and tissue-specific isoforms. It is demonstrated that the Cd-binding MT specifically and exclusively responds to Cd exposure by increasing concentrations, whereas the Cu-binding MT isoform decreases in its concentration upon exposure to physical stress (X-ray irradiation and cold). This suggests researchers should adopt, under certain preconditions, a dual biomarker approach by combining the simultaneous quantification of Cd-MT concentrations in the midgut gland as a biomarker for Cd pollution and of Cu-MT concentration in the mantle as a biomarker for the impairment of snails by additional physical stressors. [source]

Dicer-related drh-3 gene functions in germ-line development by maintenance of chromosomal integrity in Caenorhabditis elegans

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2007
Masaharu Nakamura
In the course of systematic RNA interference (RNAi)-based screens with helicase-like genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have identified the drh-3(D2005.5) gene as a candidate gene for protection against X-ray irradiation. This gene encodes a novel RNA helicase-like protein that is similar to two nematode Dicer-related helicases (DRH). Here, we have showed the increased expression of drh-3 transcripts during maturation of larvae to adults, and characterized the phenotype of drh-3 -interferred nematodes using feeding RNAi method. RNAi-mediated depletion of the drh-3 transcripts caused embryonic lethality of F1 progeny and temperature-sensitive reproductive capacity but did not affect the nematode life span. F1 progeny from drh-3(RNAi) animals exhibited increased lethality after X-ray irradiation or exposure to camptothecin. In drh-3(RNAi) worms, aggregated chromosomes were observed in diakinesis oocyte nuclei. In developing early zygotic embryos from drh-3(RNAi) worms, abnormally segregated chromosomes were observed and embryonic development was largely arrested at the mid-stages of embryogenesis. Finally, examination of checkpoint responses in mitotic germ cells with regards to replication arrest by hydroxyurea and X-ray-induced DNA damage suggested that both checkpoints function normally under these genotoxic stress conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that the drh-3 gene is essential for the development of germ-lines by maintaining chromosomal integrity in C. elegans. [source]

A bladder preservation regimen using intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: A prospective study

Naoto Miyanaga
Abstract Background: A prospective study was performed to investigate combined treatment with intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation therapy for bladder preservation in locally invasive bladder cancer. Methods: Patients with invasive bladder cancer, stage T2,3N0M0, were included in the study. Intra-arterial chemotherapy was performed with three injections of methotrexate and cisplatin at 3-week intervals. Simultaneously, the patients underwent X-ray irradiation (40 Gy) of the small pelvic space. Where a post-treatment transurethral resection (TUR) biopsy showed no residual tumor, the tumor site was irradiated by a 30 Gy proton beam and the bladder was preserved. Where tumors remained, radical cystectomy was performed. Results: Between 1990 and 1996, 42 patients were treated according to this protocol. Post-treatment TUR biopsy and urine cytology showed no residual tumors in 39 of 42 cases (93%). The bladder was preserved in accordance with the study protocol in 36 cases. A median follow-up of 38 months showed 3-year non-recurrence in 72% of bladder-preserved patients and the rate of bladder preservation was 84%. The nine recurrences included eight cases of superficial bladder recurrence. One cancer death occurred among the bladder-preservation patients, giving 3-year survival and cause-specific survival rates of 84% and 100%, respectively. Although bladder function decreased slightly in compliance, bladder capacity was retained in almost all cases. Conclusions: This regimen is useful for bladder preservation in T2,3 locally invasive bladder cancer. Information from more cases and the results of more long-term observations are needed, as is an evaluation of appropriate subject selection and factors associated with quality of life issues, particularly regarding bladder function. [source]

Reduction of type II taste cells correlates with taste dysfunction after X-ray irradiation in mice

M. Yamazaki
J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 212,218 Background:, Taste dysfunction that develops after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer impairs patients' quality of life. Although taste cells have been shown to degenerate after exposure to X-ray irradiation, the alteration in taste cell population is unclear. This study investigated the histopathological change of taste bud structure and the taste cell population in X-ray irradiated mice. Methods:, The head and neck region of C57BL/6J male mice was exposed to a single 15 Gy dose of X-ray irradiation and a chronological histopathological analysis of the circumvallate papilla was performed. Preference for sweet taste was measured using the two-bottle preference method. Results:, The histological analysis of the circumvallate papilla revealed that the basal cells had almost disappeared, but that there was not clear change in the spindle-shaped taste cells on day 4 after irradiation. The number of taste cells had decreased on day 8, and then remained unchanged until day 20, after which they increased and recovered to their original number by day 24. There was a more marked decrease in the number of ,-gustducin-positive type II taste cells than in the number of serotonin-positive type III taste cells. Preference for sweet taste measured by the two-bottle preference method was decreased in parallel with taste cell number. Conclusion:, These findings suggest that X-ray irradiation disrupts the basal cells, resulting in a decrease of the number of taste cells, particularly type II taste cells, which may be the cause of radiotherapy-induced taste dysfunction. [source]

The outburst duration and duty cycle of GRS 1915+105

Patrick Deegan
ABSTRACT The extraordinarily long outburst of GRS 1915+105 makes it one of the most remarkable low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). It has been in a state of constant outburst since its discovery in 1992, an eruption which has persisted ,100 times longer than those of more typical LXMBs. The long orbital period of GRS 1915+105 implies that it contains large and massive accretion disc which is able to fuel its extreme outburst. In this paper, we address the longevity of the outburst and quiescence phases of GRS 1915+105 using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of its accretion disc through many outburst cycles. Our model is set in the two-, framework and includes the effects of the thermoviscous instability, tidal torques, irradiation by central X-rays and wind mass loss. We explore the model parameter space and examine the impact of the various ingredients. We predict that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 yr and possibly up to ,100 yr if X-ray irradiation is very significant. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 yr, making the X-ray duty cycle a few 0.1 per cent. Such a low duty cycle may mean that GRS 1915+105 is not an anomaly among the more standard LMXBs and that many similar, but quiescent, systems could be present in the Galaxy. [source]

Localization and movement of native interstitials in chlorinated SrCl2:Fe crystals

D. Ghica
Abstract The formation of the electron trapped Fe+(IV) centre, produced by X-ray irradiation at 80 K and further annealing at temperatures of up to 700 K in chlorinated SrCl2:Fe crystals, has been investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. Our studies report the transformation of the monoclinic Fe+(III) centre into the axial Fe+(IV) centre above 450 K. The formation of the Fe+(IV) centre is attributed to the presence and thermally activated movement of neighbouring interstitial chlorine and alkali impurity Na+ ions. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

On the PL, TSL and OSL properties of SrS:Ce,Sm phosphor

Dominique Lapraz
Abstract The photoluminescence (PL), thermostimulated luminescence (TSL) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) properties of a cerium and samarium codoped strontium sulfide (SrS:Ce,Sm) used in OSL imaging devices are studied after UV or X-ray irradiation. A correlation is made between TSL and OSL results, showing a strong thermal and optical fading at room temperature, implying a significant instability of the OSL signal. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

host-defect luminescence of stishovite

A. Trukhin
Abstract a detailed study of the 4.75 eV luminescence band of stishovite single crystal (SiO2 with rutile structure) is reported. Kinetics of luminescence intensity is studied at durable (tens of minutes) X-ray excitation. The observed behaviour of the band intensity is explained by creation and destruction of luminescence centres depending on temperature both being determined by radiation stimulated diffusion of atomic particles. The luminescence decay is observed to last for minutes after X-ray irradiation while only for ns and hundreds of s under pulsed e-beam irradiation suggesting a complicated recombination of the created defects. The UV band of stishovite is compared with the 4.9 eV luminescence band in ,-quartz, which could not be created by X-ray. the latter being associated with transient centres created by destructive electron-beam irradiation or with permanent centres at neutron or ,-irradiation, and with oxygen-deficient luminescence of silica glass. ( 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Characterization of Ninjurin and TSC22 induction after X-irradiation of normal human skin cells

Manabu KOIKE
ABSTRACT The skin is an external organ that is most frequently exposed to radiation. It is important to elucidate the influence of radiation exposure on the skin at the molecular level. To identify radiation-responsive genes in human skin cells, we used microarray technology to examine the effects of irradiation on 641 genes in normal human epidermal keratinocytes at 4 h and 8 h postirradiation with a cytotoxic dose of X-ray (10 Gy). We found that 18 genes were upregulated and 35 genes were downregulated in keratinocytes at 4 h and/or 8 h postirradiation. Ninjurin, whose function remains unknown in keratinocytes, was induced most strongly by X-irradiation. Several known apoptosis-related genes, such as TSC22, were also upregulated. We characterized Ninjurin and TSC22 induction after X-irradiation of normal human skin cells. The induction of the expression of Ninjurin and TSC22 mRNA in keratinocytes following high-dose X-irradiation was confirmed by northern blot analysis. In dermal fibroblasts, Ninjurin, but not TSC22, was induced after X-ray irradiation. The dependence of both gene expression on the status of an apoptosis regulator, p53, was found. In addition, the expression of both mRNA was induced upon treatment with an apoptosis inducer, etoposide. On the other hand, TSC22, but not Ninjurin, was induced and accumulated in keratinocytes upon treatment with an apoptosis inducer, anisomycin. However, in transient expression assay, EYFP-TSC22, as well as EYFP-Ninjurin or EYFP alone, did not induce apoptosis in keratinocytes in contrast to EYFP-GADD45. Taken together, these findings have important implications on the understanding of the mechanism underlying the complex response of skin cells following X-irradiation. [source]

To scavenge or not to scavenge: that is the question

Elzbieta Nowak
Analysis of a series of diffraction data sets measured from four native as well as four nicotinic acid-soaked crystals of trypsin at 100,K shows a high variability in radiation-sensitivity among individual crystals for both nicotinic acid-soaked and native crystals. The level of radiation-sensitivity and the extent of its variability is statistically indistinguishable between the two conditions. This suggests that this potential scavenger does not have any statistically significant effect on the amount of radiation damage incurred in the crystals on X-ray irradiation. This is in contrast to previous results [Kauffmann et al. (2006), Structure, 14, 1099,1105] where only one crystal specimen was used for each condition (native and nicotinic acid-soaked). [source]

Radiation-induced site-specific damage of mercury derivatives: phasing and implications

Udupi A. Ramagopal
The behavior of mercury-derivatized triclinic crystals of a 60,kDa protein target from the New York Structural GenomiX Research Consortium provides novel insights into the mechanism of heavy-atom-specific radiation damage and its potential exploitation for de novo structure solution. Despite significant anomalous signal, structure solution by classic SAD and MAD phasing approaches was not successful. A detailed analysis revealed that significant isomorphic variation of the diffracted intensities was induced by X-ray irradiation. These intensity changes allowed the crystal structure to be solved by the radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) technique. Inspection of the crystal structure and electron-density maps demonstrated that the covalent S,Hg bonds at all four derivatized cysteine sites were much more susceptible to radiation-induced cleavage than other bonds typically present in native proteins. A simple diagnostic is described to identify the fingerprint of such decay at the time of data collection/processing. The rapid radiation-induced decomposition of mercury adducts is consistent with the difficulties frequently associated with the experimental phasing of mercury derivatives and suggests a straightforward solution to overcome this limitation by radiation-damage-induced phasing with anomalous scattering (RIPAS). These results indicate that historically recalcitrant and newly emerging difficulties associated with Hg phasing should be revisited. [source]