X-ray Examination (x-ray + examination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Radiological protection for diagnostic examination of pregnant women

CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 1 2002
Tomoko Kusama
ABSTRACT, Application of diagnostic X-ray examination to pregnant women is complicated since risks to both mother and embryo/fetus must be considered. Embryos and fetuses are more sensitive to radiation than adults or children. The threshold doses for fetal death, malformations and mental retardation which are deterministic effects, are reported to be 100,200 mGy or higher. The relative risk for childhood cancer due to radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 mGy during embryonic/fetal development has been estimated at 1.4. However, the absorbed dose of the embryo/fetus during X-ray diagnostic examination in which the X-ray beam does not irradiate the embryo/fetus directly such as maternal skull and chest X-ray is extremely low, less than 0.01 mGy. Thus these diagnostic procedures are not a problem from the perspective of radiological protection of the embryo/fetus. However, for pelvic CT scan and barium enema in which the uterus is directly within the X-ray beam, the absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus are about 20,80 mGy and 10,20 mGy, respectively. Therefore, medical staff must pay careful attention to the embryo/fetus in application of these examinations. Pregnant women who were not aware of pregnancy at the time of their diagnostic exposure have great anxiety about radiation from such X-ray examinations. However, fetal doses below 100 mGy should not be considered a reason for terminating a pregnancy. [source]


PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH RENAL AND GASTRIC CANCER THAT DEMONSTRATED AN STK11 MISSENSE MUTATION

DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 4 2006
Hiromi Kataoka
A 75-year-old male was admitted to the gastroenterology unit of Nagoya City University Hospital due to epigastralgia after surgical treatment for right renal cancer. Endoscopy revealed advanced type 1 gastric cancer in the corpus of the stomach and multiple polypoid lesions in the stomach and duodenum. X-ray examination of the small intestine using barium showed multiple polyps in the upper jejunum. Faint pigmentation on the palm was also detected. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) was diagnosed, despite a lack of family history. Total gastrectomy, resection of part of the upper jejunum and intraoperative endoscopic polypectomy of duodenal polyps was performed. This is the second reported case of PJS associated with renal cancer. We also detected a missense mutation in the tumor suppressor gene STK11 that, when mutated, is causative for PJS. [source]


Identification of root canals in molars by tuned-aperture computed tomography

INTERNATIONAL ENDODONTIC JOURNAL, Issue 4 2000
R. Nance
Abstract Aim To compare the tuned-aperture computed tomography system of imaging to conventional D-speed film for their ability to identify root canals in extracted human molars. Methodology Thirteen maxillary and six mandibular human molars were mounted in acrylic blocks to simulate clinical conditions by surrounding the teeth with a radiodense structure. The teeth were then imaged with conventional D-speed film using a standard paralleling technique, and with a modified orthopantomograph OP100 machine using a Schick no. 2 size CCD sensor as the image receptor. The source images were registered and TACT slices were generated using TACT WorkbenchÔ Software. Three observers were asked to identify the number of canals in the conventional film group and the TACT image group using specific criteria. Ground truth was established by cross-sectioning the teeth at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the roots and directly visualizing the root canal morphology. Results TACT imaging detected 36% of 4th canals in maxillary molars and 80% of third canals in mandibular molars. Conventional film detected 0% of fourth canals in maxillary molars and 0% of third canals in mandibular molars. The differences in canal detection between the two techniques were statistically significant (Wilcoxon matched pair sign rank test, P = 0.001). Conclusions In this study, the TACT system of digital imaging was superior to conventional film in the detection of root canals in human molars and may be useful for the detection of root canals that will probably be missed upon conventional X-ray examination. [source]


Erythema induratum with pulmonary tuberculosis: histopathologic features resembling true vasculitis

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Yong Suk Lee MD
A 22-year-old South Korean woman presented with a 4-month history of several nodules on both legs. She looked healthy, but suffered from tenderness and swelling of the legs. Physical examination showed multiple, nonulcerating, erythematous nodules occurring on the calves, knee joints, and thighs (Fig. 1). A biopsy specimen of the skin revealed necrotizing vasculitis of medium-sized arteries with fibrinoid necrosis at the border between the dermis and the subcutis. Dense cellular infiltrates, including numerous neutrophils and lymphocytes, presented within and around the vessel walls as in polyarteritis nodosa, with some eosinophils (Fig. 2A,B). There were no other generalized symptoms. She was diagnosed with cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa and was initially treated with systemic steroids. She was given an intravenous injection of Solu-Cortef, 60 mg/6 h for 7 days. This was replaced with oral prednisolone for 2 weeks. The skin lesions and symptoms improved. Figure 1. Small, nut-sized, erythematous, brown-colored nodules and patches on the lower extremities, even above the knee joints Figure 2. (A) Dense infiltration within and around artery (× 40). (B) Slightly expanded lobular panniculitis with vasculitis (× 100) Six months later, she complained of general weakness and recurrent skin lesions. Purified protein derivative (PPD) test gave a moderate positive reaction and chest X-ray examination showed the features of pulmonary tuberculosis: radio-opaque infiltrations in the right lower lung field. A repeated biopsy revealed mild vasculitis with more diffuse lobular infiltrations of the subcutaneous tissue compared with the former specimen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and tissue culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were performed from a biopsy specimen. DNA was extracted from skin tissue with an AplisystemTM DNA/RNA detection kit using the resin-mediated boiling method (Stargene, Seoul, South Korea). The primers were designed on the basis of the M. tuberculosis gene IS6110 target (sense primer, 5,-CCA GAT GCA CCG TCG AAC GGC TGA T-3, antisense primer, 5,-CGC TCG CTG AAC CGG ATC GAT GTG T-3,). The amplification was performed with uracil- N -glycosylase (UNG), to prevent carry-over contamination, and internal control primers, to correct for false-negative reaction (Kox LF, Rhienthong D, Miranda AM et al. A more reliable PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32: 672,678; Longo MC, Berninger MS, Hartley JL. Use of uracil DNA glycosylase to control carry-over contamination in polymerase chain reactions. Gene 1990; 93: 125,128). According to the manufacturer's instructions, amplification was carried out for 40 cycles with denaturation at 94 °C for 40 s, annealing at 70 °C for 1 min, and extension at 72 °C for 1 min in a thermal cycler (Perkin,Elmer Cetus, Norwalk, CT, USA). The results of PCR and tissue culture for M. tuberculosis using the biopsy specimen were all negative (Fig. 3). Figure 3. Negative result in PCR for M. tuberculosis (negative control is not shown; M, marker; P, positive control; I, internal control; S, specimen) The patient was finally diagnosed with erythema induratum with pulmonary tuberculosis and was started on antituberculosis medication (isoniazid 400 mg, rifampicin 600 mg, ethambutol 800 mg, and pyrazinamide 1500 mg daily). She showed prompt improvement after 2 weeks of medication. After 9 months of antituberculosis therapy, her skin lesions and chest X-ray had cleared. She was followed up for 4 months with no recurrence of skin and pulmonary lesions. [source]


A retrospective analysis of two independent prospective cartilage repair studies: autogenous perichondrial grafting versus subchondral drilling 10 years post-surgery

JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2002
Phianne S. J. M. Bouwmeester
Background: Experimental data indicate that perichondrial grafting to restore articular cartilage defects will result in repair with hyaline-like cartilage. In contrast, debridement and drilling results in repair with fibro-cartilage. In this retrospective study the longterm clinical results of both procedures were compared to evaluate the theoretical benefit of repair with hyaline-like tissue. Methods: From two independent studies patients were selected with a cartilage defect in their knee. The selection was performed using strict inclusion criteria published elsewhere [Bouwmeester et al. Int. Orthop. 21 (1997) 313]. The patients were treated with either a perichondrium transplantation (PT group, n = 14) or with an ,open' debridement and drilling procedure (DD group, n = 11). The results of both procedures after 10,11 years were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Score (HSSS), X-ray examination, clinical examination and visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain during walking and at rest. Results: Both procedures resulted in a general improvement compared to the situation before the operation. After an average of 10 years in the PT group there were three failures, in the DD group none, success rates were 78% and 100%, respectively. When comparing the successful PT patients with the DD patients, there were no differences in HSSS and VAS data. Both groups showed an equal number of irregular operation surface sites on X-ray (PT 9/11 versus DD 8/10). Conclusions: This study shows that clinically at 10 years follow-up no difference was observed between debridement and drilling and perichondrium transplantation for treatment of an isolated cartilage defect. This raises questions about ongoing research to develop methods in order to improve the results of debridement and drilling as therapy for an isolated cartilage defect in a young patient (, 40 years). © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]


Titanium-Catalyzed Norbornene Oligomerization.

MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 22 2006
3- exo -Disyndiotactic Structure, Isolation of a Crystalline Heptamer with a
Abstract Summary: Norbornene (NB) was oligomerized at 0,°C using AlEt2Cl-TiCl4 at a monomer/titanium molar ratio of about 11. The oligomerization product consists of a fraction soluble in diethyl ether, amorphous by X-ray examination, and of a crystalline fraction, insoluble in diethyl ether. The crystalline fraction was shown by powder X-ray diffraction to consist of a NB heptamer. Single-crystal X-ray analysis indicated that the heptamer had a stereoregular 2,3- exo -disyndiotactic structure. The heptamer adopts a strained, highly irregular, folded conformation in the crystalline state. Structural differences with respect to NB oligomers obtained with zirconocene catalysts are discussed. A view of the molecular structure of the crystalline NB heptamer. [source]


Radiological protection for diagnostic examination of pregnant women

CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 1 2002
Tomoko Kusama
ABSTRACT, Application of diagnostic X-ray examination to pregnant women is complicated since risks to both mother and embryo/fetus must be considered. Embryos and fetuses are more sensitive to radiation than adults or children. The threshold doses for fetal death, malformations and mental retardation which are deterministic effects, are reported to be 100,200 mGy or higher. The relative risk for childhood cancer due to radiation at an absorbed dose of 10 mGy during embryonic/fetal development has been estimated at 1.4. However, the absorbed dose of the embryo/fetus during X-ray diagnostic examination in which the X-ray beam does not irradiate the embryo/fetus directly such as maternal skull and chest X-ray is extremely low, less than 0.01 mGy. Thus these diagnostic procedures are not a problem from the perspective of radiological protection of the embryo/fetus. However, for pelvic CT scan and barium enema in which the uterus is directly within the X-ray beam, the absorbed doses to the embryo/fetus are about 20,80 mGy and 10,20 mGy, respectively. Therefore, medical staff must pay careful attention to the embryo/fetus in application of these examinations. Pregnant women who were not aware of pregnancy at the time of their diagnostic exposure have great anxiety about radiation from such X-ray examinations. However, fetal doses below 100 mGy should not be considered a reason for terminating a pregnancy. [source]


Seasonal variation of the onset of presentations in stage 1 sarcoidosis

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 11 2006
S. S. DEMIRKOK
Summary Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease with an unknown aetiology. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern of seasonality of stage 1 sarcoidosis subjects who had symptoms by all cases, by age and by both genders. In this study, we used Roger's test for cyclic variation to prove that this seasonal variation was more than chance. Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients with sarcoidosis who presented different clinical symptoms were included in this retrospective cohort study. According to the chest X-ray examinations, 185 patients had stage 1, while 307 patients in control group had stage 0, 2, 3 and 4 sarcoidosis. The demographic features, presenting clinical features, course of the disease, initial diagnostic methods and both the month and the age at the initial diagnosis for each patient were analysed on chart reviews. Roger's test for cyclic variation was used to determine the significance of any seasonal variation of incidence. Otherwise, t -test was used. The distribution of cumulative monthly presentations for patients with stage 1 peaked in April (108% above the average) and was lowest in October, November and December (48% below the average) (p < 0.001). Seasonality of the control group peaked in May (84% above the average) and was lowest in August (69% below the average) (p < 0.001). The seasonal pattern of subjects within both groups was influenced by some age groups and by both genders (p < 0.05). Some differences in the amplitude of the seasonal variation by age and by both genders increase the possibility of interactions among age, gender and the disease. Further well-designed and prospective studies are required to better understand the importance of our findings and the pathogenesis of the disease. [source]


Destructive arthritis in Behçet's disease: a report of eight cases and literature review

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES, Issue 3 2009
F. FRIKHA
Abstract Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystemic disease with typically non-erosive and non-deforming joint manifestations. The occurrence of destructive arthritis in Behçet's disease has rarely been reported. Here we attempt to define the epidemiological, clinical and radiological features of this unusual type of osteoarticular manifestation of BD. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 553 patients with Behçet's disease seen over 25-year period in our department of Internal Medicine (Sfax-Tunisia). All the patients fulfilled The International Study Group of Behçet's Disease criteria. Patients with destructive arthritis (defined by radiological changes: erosions and/or geodes and/or global narrowing of the joint space and/or ankylosis) were included in this study. Rheumatologic manifestations were observed in 71.1% patients. Eight patients (1.4% overall, 2% among patients with rheumatologic manifestations) had presented with destructive arthritis. The joint symptoms involved the knee in two cases, the wrist in one case, the elbow (one case), the sternoclavicular joint in two cases, the foot in one case and the tarsal scaphoïd in one case. There was recurrent arthritis at the same joint in the majority of cases. X-ray examinations revealed radiological changes: global narrowing of the joint in one case (knee), narrowing of the joint with geodes in three cases (knee, sternoclavicular), isolated geodes in two cases (tarsal scaphoid, foot) and severe lesions with ankylosis in two cases (two elbows, right wrist). Joint manifestations are common in patients with BD, but destructive arthritis is rare. [source]


Radiation exposure from work-related medical X-rays at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard,

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2005
Robert D. Daniels BS
Abstract Background Previous analyses suggest that worker radiation dose may be significantly increased by routine occupational X-ray examinations. Medical exposures are investigated for 570 civilian workers employed at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) at Kittery, Maine. The research objective was to determine the radiation exposure contribution of work-related chest X-rays (WRX) relative to conventional workplace radiation sources. Methods Methods were developed to estimate absorbed doses to the active (hematopoietic) bone marrow from X-ray examinations and workplace exposures using data extracted from worker dosimetry records (8,468) and health records (2,453). Dose distributions were examined for radiation and non-radiation workers. Results Photofluorographic chest examinations resulted in 82% of the dose from medical sources. Radiation workers received 26% of their collective dose from WRX and received 66% more WRX exposure than non-radiation workers. Conclusions WRX can result in a significant fraction of the total dose, especially for radiation workers who were more likely to be subjected to routine medical monitoring. Omission of WRX from the total dose is a likely source of bias that can lead to dose category misclassification and may skew the epidemiologic dose,response assessment for cancers induced by the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 47:206,216, 2005. Published 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Plasma cell tumours: cytomorphological features in a series of 12 cases diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology

CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
U. Handa
U. Handa, S. Chhabra and H. Mohan Plasma cell tumours: cytomorphological features in a series of 12 cases diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology Objective:, Plasma cell tumours represent autonomous proliferation of plasma cells and can manifest as multiple myeloma, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, variants of plasma cell myeloma or plasmacytoma. Methods:, We report 12 cases of plasma cell tumours, which were initially diagnosed as plasmacytoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The patients were further subjected to bone marrow examination, serum electrophoresis, urine examination for Bence,Jones proteins, and x-ray examination of the skeleton. Results:, The cytological smears from all cases were cellular and showed numerous plasma cells in varying degrees of maturity. Subsequent to investigations, five cases were labelled as multiple myeloma with secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma, three as solitary bone plasmacytoma and two as primary extramedullary plasmacytoma. In the remaining two cases, bone marrow and urine examination findings were not available, so a conclusive diagnosis of multiple myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma could not be made. Conclusion:, The study highlights the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of plasma cell tumours. Subsequent work-up and follow-up of these patients is important to rule out the presence of multiple myeloma. [source]