XO Activity (xo + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Circulating mononuclear cells nuclear factor-kappa B activity, plasma xanthine oxidase, and low grade inflammatory markers in adult patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia

J. T. Real
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (2): 89,94 Abstract Background, Few data are available on circulating mononuclear cells nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activity and plasma xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). The goal of the study was to analyse circulating mononuclear cells NF-kB and plasma XO activities in FH patients. Materials and methods, Thirty FH index patients and 30 normoglycaemic normocholesterolaemic controls matched by age, gender, body mass index, abdominal circumference and homeostasis model assessment index were studied. Plasma XO and inflammatory markers were measured by standard methods. NF-kB was assayed in circulating mononuclear cells. Results, Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients showed a significantly higher NF-kB (750 207 vs. 427 168 relative luminiscence units) and XO (044 013 vs. 032 009 mU mL,1) activities than controls. In addition, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (LDL-ox) were also significantly higher in FH patients. In the total group (FH and controls), XO was significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), NF-kB and hsCPR, and NF-kB activity was significantly associated with XO, hsCPR, LDL-ox, LDL-C and apoB plasma values. Using multiple regression analysis, XO was independently associated with hsCPR and NF-kB, and NF-kB activity in circulating mononuclear cells was independently associated with apoB and LDL-ox plasma values. Conclusion, Familial hypercholesterolaemia patients show increased activities of NF-kB and XO, and higher values of low grade inflammatory markers related to atherosclerosis. NF-kB activity was independently associated with apoB plasma values. These data could explain in part the high cardiovascular disease risk present in these patients. [source]

Comparison of xanthine oxidase-inhibiting and free radical-scavenging activities between plant adaptogens of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Rhodiola rosea

Chi-Ting Horng
Abstract The present study employed 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and xanthine,xanthine oxidase (XO) assays to compare the antioxidant capacity between two plant adaptogens, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae) and Rhodiola rosea (Crassulaceae). The IC50 value for XO activity for Rhodiola was 355.4,g/ml, while that for Eleutherococcus was >1,000,g/ml. Eleutherococcus inhibited DPPH generation by 58.32.8% at 1,000,g/ml, whereas Rhodiola inhibited DPPH radical by 91.12.6% at the same concentration. The results suggested that Rhodiola inhibited not only XO but also served as a potent radical scavenger. Rhodiola has potential as a natural source of antioxidants. Drug Dev Res 71:249,252, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Laminar xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prodromal stage of black-walnut induced equine laminitis

Summary Reasons for study: Xanthine oxidase (XO)-dependent production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, a characteristic of ischaemia-reperfusion injury, may contribute to the development of equine laminitis. Objective: To determine the levels of XO and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD]) in the digital laminae of normal horses (CON) and horses in the developmental stage of laminitis using the black walnut extract (BWE) model. Methods: Healthy horses (n = 12) were administered BWE (BWE group, n = 6), or water (CON group, n = 6) through a nasogastric tube. At the onset of leucopenia in the BWE-treated animals, all horses were anaesthetised, digital laminae and other samples collected rapidly and flash frozen, and the animals subjected to euthanasia. Extracts of the frozen tissues were assayed for the 2 conformational forms of xanthine: oxygen oxidoreductase (XOR), namely, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as well as the antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. Results: Extracts of liver, lungs and skin, but not digital laminae, from either CON or BWE-treated horses had endogenous SOD, whereas all had endogenous XO and catalase. The levels of XDH, XO and catalase were similar in extracts of laminae from CON and BWE-treated horses as was the ratio of XDH to XO in extracts. Conclusions and potential relevance: The absence of increased XO activity suggest against the involvement of this reactive oxygen intermediate-generating system in the development of laminar pathology in BWE-treated horses. Conversely, the absence of SOD from extracts of equine digital laminae, but not other tissues, suggests that the equine digital laminae are highly susceptible to damage by superoxide anion, produced, for example, by emigrant inflammatory leucocytes. [source]

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol attenuates the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy

Mohanraj Rajesh
Abstract In this study, we investigated the effect of the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, allopurinol (ALP), on cardiac dysfunction, oxidative-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity and fibrosis associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice. Diabetes was induced in C57/BL6 mice by injection of streptozotocin. Control and diabetic animals were treated with ALP or placebo. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were measured by pressure,volume system 10 weeks after established diabetes. Myocardial XO, p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, gp91phox, iNOS, eNOS mRNA and/or protein levels, ROS and nitrotyrosine (NT) formation, caspase3/7 and PARP activity, chromatin fragmentation and various markers of fibrosis (collagen-1, TGF-,, CTGF, fibronectin) were measured using molecular biology and biochemistry methods or immunohistochemistry. Diabetes was characterized by increased myocardial, liver and serum XO activity (but not expression), increased myocardial ROS generation, p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p91phox mRNA expression, iNOS (but not eNOS) expression, NT generation, caspase 3/7 and PARP activity/expression, chromatin fragmentation and fibrosis (enhanced accumulation of collagen, TGF-,, CTGF and fibronectin), and declined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance. ALP attenuated the diabetes-induced increased myocardial, liver and serum XO activity, myocardial ROS, NT generation, iNOS expression, apoptosis, PARP activity and fibrosis, which were accompanied by improved systolic (measured by the evaluation of both load-dependent and independent indices of myocardial contractility) and diastolic performance of the hearts of treated diabetic animals. Thus, XO inhibition with ALP improves type 1 diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress and fibrosis, which may have important clinical implications for the treatment and prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy and vascular dysfunction. [source]

The in-vivo effects of sho-saiko-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on two cytochrome P450 enzymes (1A2 and 3A) and xanthine oxidase in man

Junji Saruwatari
ABSTRACT The Chinese herbal medicine sho-saiko-to is a mixture of seven herbal components (Bupleurum root, Pinellia tuber, Scutellaria root, Jujube fruit, Ginseng root, Glycyrrhiza root and Ginger rhizome) that is widely administered to patients with chronic hepatitis in Japan. We assessed the effects of sho-saiko-to on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP3A and xanthine oxidase (XO) in man. Twenty-six healthy subjects were studied to evaluate their baseline activity of CYP1A2 and XO by the respective urinary metabolic ratios of an 8-h urine sample after an oral 150-mg dose of caffeine and of CYP3A by a urinary excretion ratio of 6,-hydroxycortisol (6,-HC) to free cortisol (FC). Thereafter, the subjects received a twice-daily 2.5-g dose of sho-saiko-to for five days, and underwent the caffeine test on day 1 and day 5. The mean activity of CYP1A2 decreased by 16% on both day 1 and day 5 compared with the baseline (P = 0.001). The mean activity of XO also significantly decreased by 25% on day 1 and 20% on day 5 (P < 0.0001) compared with the baseline value. The activity of CYP3A tended to be lower on day 5 than the baseline (P = 0.146). It is concluded that sho-saiko-to reduces CYP1A2 and XO activity in man. [source]

Inhibition of the development of leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) by treatment of wheat with allopurinol and production of a hypersensitive-like reaction in a compatible host

A. L. dm
The effect of allopurinol [4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4- d) pyrimidine], a purine analogue inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme, was studied in the host,pathogen combination of Triticum aestivum,Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici. Analysis of purines and pyrimidines in the allopurinol-treated wheat seedlings showed marked accumulation of xanthine, suggesting the inplanta inhibition of XO activity. In the incompatible wheat,rust interaction application of allopurinol as a drench, even at the highest concentration (50 ,m), did not change the hypersensitive reaction phenotype; only the number of lesions was slightly reduced. Allopurinol treatment decreased the augmented rate of electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation associated with the hypersensitive response (HR), an effect probably related to the inhibition of rust development by allopurinol. By contrast, in the case of the compatible wheat,leaf-rust combination the reaction type was strongly affected. The formation of uredia and production of uredospores were diminished or completely inhibited depending on the concentration of allopurinol, which was applied either as a drench (3.125,50 ,m) or as a foliar spray (100,400 ,m) to plants grown in perlite. At the highest allopurinol concentration in the drench, the compatible reaction type changed to a hypersensitive-like necrotic reaction. Significant increases in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (characteristic of the HR) were found 4,6 days after infection in susceptible plants treated with allopurinol. Staining of leaf slices from allopurinol-treated and compatible rust-infected plants with Evans blue indicated cell death surrounding the pustules, while at this stage no cell death was detected in infected leaves without allopurinol treatment. The above results suggest that XO is not the main source of the generation of active oxygen species in wheat during the HR to leaf rust. [source]

Metabolism of hydrogen peroxide between diapause and non-diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx Mori during chilling at 5C

L.C. Zhao
Abstract When diapause and non-diapause eggs of the same bivoltine strain of Bombyx mori were chilled at 5C for more than 30 days, the hatchability of diapause eggs increased while that of non-diapause eggs decreased, respectively. To investigate the relationship between effects of chilling on the hatchability and the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), content of H2O2 and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), and catalase (CAT) between diapause and non-diapause eggs were determined during the chilling at 5C. The significant enhancement of H2O2 occurred prior to the quick increase of the hatchability in diapause eggs and coincided with the quick decline of the hatchability in non-diapause eggs, respectively. Diapause eggs contained significantly higher H2O2 and XO activity and lower CAT activity compared to non-diapause eggs. Our results showed that there were significant differences in the metabolism of H2O2 between diapause and non-diapause eggs during chilling and that significant enhancement of H2O2 may be involved in the diapause termination of diapause eggs and the cell damage of non-diapause eggs. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Plasma xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and uric acid levels in severe and mild pre-eclampsia

Abdulkadir Yildirim
Abstract The aim of the present study was to measure plasma uric acid (UA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities and to evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Twenty-five pre-eclamptic, 15 healthy pregnant and 15 non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Increased mean plasma XO activity was found to be higher in both pre-eclampsia groups than in the healthy pregnant group. Plasma UA levels were the highest in the severe pre-eclampsia group among the study groups. SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly lower in both pre-eclampsia groups than in the healthy pregnant group (p,<,0.005 and p,<,0.001, respectively). Increased XO and decreased SOD and GSH-Px activities may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms of pre-eclampsia and increased UA may serve a protective role responding to superoxide radicals arising from increased XO activity or other sources in pre-eclampsia. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]