X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease (X-link + lymphoproliferative_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Modulation of 2B4 (CD244) activity and regulated SAP expression in human NK cells

Johanna Endt
Abstract The adapter protein SAP is important for the signal transduction of the family of SLAM-related receptors (SRR), which have important immune-modulating functions. The importance of SAP and SRR for a functional immune reaction becomes obvious in patients suffering from X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, which is characterized by non-functional SAP. Here we investigate the regulation of SAP expression in human NK cells. We demonstrate that SAP mRNA expression and protein levels are low in freshly isolated resting NK cells. IL-2 stimulation leads to an up-regulation of SAP expression, which can be enhanced by IL-12, the stimulation of TLR3 by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C))and to a lesser extent by IFN-,. EAT-2, a SAP-related adapter protein, is already detectable in resting NK cells and does not change its expression after IL-2 stimulation. The regulation of SAP has functional consequences for the stimulation of NK cell cytotoxicity by 2B4. In resting NK cells, 2B4 stimulation can only enhance NK cell lysis when co-triggered with other activating NK cell receptors. In IL-2-activated NK cells with high SAP expression the triggering of 2B4 alone is sufficient to induce NK cell cytotoxicity, demonstrating a correlation between the regulated SAP expression and the function of 2B4. [source]

Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

Kim E. Nichols
Summary:, X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immune defect caused by mutations in the Src homology 2 domain-containing gene 1A, which encodes the adapter protein, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). SAP is expressed in T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells, where it binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the surface receptor SLAM (CD150) and the related receptors, 2B4 (CD244), CD84, Ly9 (CD229), NK-T-B-antigen, and CD2-like receptor-activating cytotoxic T cells. SAP also binds to the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn and recruits it to SLAM, which leads to the generation of downstream phosphotyrosine signals. While the roles of the SLAM family receptors are only beginning to be understood, experiments suggest that these molecules regulate important aspects of lymphocyte function, such as proliferation, cytokine secretion, cytotoxicity, and antibody production. Thus, in XLP patients who lack functional SAP, the SLAM family receptors may not signal properly. This property likely contributes to the phenotypes of XLP, including fulminant infectious mononucleosis, lymphoma, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Further studies of SAP and the SLAM family receptors will provide insights into XLP and elucidate the signaling events regulating lymphocyte ontogeny and function. [source]

Human natural killer cell receptors and co-receptors

Roberto Biassoni
Summary: In the absence of sufficient signaling by their HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptors, human natural killer (NK) cells become activated and display potent cytotoxicity against cells that are either HLA class I negative or deficient. This indicates that the NK receptors responsible for the induction of cytotoxicity recognize ligands on target cells different from HLA class I molecules. On this basis, the process of NK-cell triggering can be considered as a mainly non-MHC-restricted mechanism. The recent identification of a group of NK-specific triggering surface molecules has allowed a first series of pioneering studies on the functional/molecular characteristics of such receptors. The first three members of a receptor family that has been termed natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) are represented by NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. These receptors are strictly confined to NK cells, and their engagement induces a strong activation of NK-mediated cytolysis. A direct correlation exists between the surface density of NCR and the ability of NK cells to kill various target cells. Importantly, mAb-mediated blocking of these receptors has been shown to suppress cytotoxicity against most NK-susceptible target cells. However, the process of NK-cell triggering during target cell lysis may also depend on the concerted action of NCR and other triggering receptors, such as NKG2D, or surface molecules, including 2B4 and NKp80, that appear to function as co-receptors rather than as true receptors. Notably, a dysfunction of 2B4 has been associated with a severe form of immunodeficiency termed X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Future studies will clarify whether also the altered expression and/or function of other NK-triggering molecules may represent a possible cause of immunological disorders. This work was supported by grants awarded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (A.I.R.C.), Istituto Superiore di SanitÓ (I.S.S.), Ministero della SanitÓ, and Ministero dell'UniversitÓ e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (M.U.R.S.T.) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato Biotecnologie. The financial support of Telethon-Italy (grant no. E.0892) is gratefully acknowledged. [source]

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: proposal of a diagnostic algorithm based on perforin expression

Maurizio Aric˛
Summary. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, fatal disorder of early infancy. Mutations of the PRF1 gene have been identified in a subset of patients. However, the distinction between the different genetically determined and environmental subtypes of the disease remains a major issue to be solved. This may result in delayed or inappropriate application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We propose an algorithm that uses a combination of three rapid laboratory tests, i.e. perforin expression by peripheral lymphocytes, assessment of the behaviour of the 2B4 lymphocyte receptor and natural killer (NK) cell activity, to identify the different subgroups of HLH. In 19 patients diagnosed according to current criteria, we tested perforin expression, 2B4 receptor function and NK cell activity. PRF1 mutations were found in all seven patients showing absent perforin expression. In one male with abnormal behaviour of the 2B4 receptor, SH2D1A mutation confirmed the diagnosis of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Four patients with normal NK cell activity had evidence of associated infections. Of the seven with impaired NK cell activity, two had a probable genetically determined subtype of HLH and five appeared as sporadic, infection-associated cases. Improving the diagnostic approach may restrict the use of BMT, the only recognized curative treatment, to HLH patients with a documented poor prognosis while patients with milder disorders may be treated less intensively. Our flow chart could also lead to better selection of patients for specific gene analysis. [source]

Prevalence of SAP gene defects in male patients diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency

SUMMARY The molecular basis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is undefined, and diagnosis requires exclusion of other diseases including X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). This rare disorder of immunedysregulation presents typically after Epstein,Barr virus infection and results from defects in the SAP (SLAM associated protein) gene. SAP mutations have been found in a few patients diagnosed previously as CVID, suggesting that XLP may mimic CVID, but no large-scale analysis of CVID patients has been undertaken. We therefore analysed 60 male CVID and hypogammaglobulinaemic patients for abnormalities in SAP protein expression and for mutations in the SAP gene. In this study only one individual, who was found later to have an X-linked family history, was found to have a genomic mutation leading to abnormal SAP cDNA and protein expression. These results demonstrate that SAP defects are rarely observed in CVID patients. We suggest that routine screening of SAP may only be necessary in patients with other suggestive clinical features. [source]