X-linked Hydrocephalus (X-link + hydrocephalus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Genetic and clinical aspects of X-linked hydrocephalus (L1 disease): Mutations in the L1CAM gene

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2001
Sabine Weller
Abstract L1 disease is a group of overlapping clinical phenotypes including X-linked hydrocephalus, MASA syndrome, spastic paraparesis type 1, and X-linked agenesis of corpus callosum. The patients are characterized by hydrocephalus, agenesis or hypoplasia of corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts, mental retardation, spastic paraplegia, and adducted thumbs. The responsible gene, L1CAM, encodes the L1 protein which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules. The L1 protein is expressed in neurons and Schwann cells and seems to be essential for nervous system development and function. The patients' gene mutations are distributed over the functional protein domains. The exact mechanisms by which these mutations cause a loss of L1 protein function are unknown. There appears to be a relationship between the patients' clinical phenotype and the genotype. Missense mutations in extracellular domains or mutations in cytoplasmic regions cause milder phenotypes than those leading to truncation in extracellular domains or to non-detectable L1 protein. Diagnosis of patients and carriers, including prenatal testing, is based on the characteristic clinical picture and DNA mutation analyses. At present, there is no therapy for the prevention or cure of patients' neurological disabilities. Hum Mutat 18:1,12, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Prenatal diagnosis in a family with X-linked hydrocephalus

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 10 2005
Maria Panayi
Abstract The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Its expression is essential during embryonic development of the nervous system and it is involved in cognitive function and memory. Mutations in the L1CAM gene are responsible for four related L1 disorders; X-linked hydrocephalus/HSAS (Hydrocephalus as a result of Stenosis of the Aqueduct of Sylvius), MASA (Mental retardation, Aphasia, Shuffling gait, and Adducted thumbs) syndrome, X-linked complicated spastic paraplegia type I (SPG1) and X-linked Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC). These four disorders represent a clinical spectrum that varies both between and within families. The main clinical features of this spectrum are Corpus callosum hypoplasia, mental Retardation, Adducted thumbs, Spastic paraplegia and Hydrocephalus (CRASH syndrome). Since there is no biochemically assayed disease marker, molecular analysis of the L1CAM gene is the only means of confirming a clinical diagnosis. Most L1CAM mutations reported to date are point mutations (missense, nonsense, splice site) and only a few patients with larger rearrangements have been documented. We have characterised a rare intragenic deletion of the L1CAM gene in a sample of DNA extracted from a chorionic villus biopsy (CVB) performed at 12 weeks' gestation. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Role of the cytoplasmic domain of the L1 cell adhesion molecule in brain development

THE JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY, Issue 7 2010
Yukiko Nakamura
Abstract Mutations in the human L1CAM gene cause X-linked hydrocephalus and MASA (Mental retardation, Aphasia, Shuffling gait, Adducted thumbs) syndrome. In vitro studies have shown that the L1 cytoplasmic domain (L1CD) is involved in L1 trafficking, neurite branching, signaling, and interactions with the cytoskeleton. L1cam knockout (L1KO) mice have hydrocephalus, a small cerebellum, hyperfasciculation of corticothalamic tracts, and abnormal peripheral nerves. To explore the function of the L1CD, we made three new mice lines in which different parts of the L1CD have been altered. In all mutant lines L1 protein is expressed and transported into the axon. Interestingly, these new L1CD mutant lines display normal brain morphology. However, the expression of L1 protein in the adult is dramatically reduced in the two L1CD mutant lines that lack the ankyrin-binding region and they show defects in motor function. Therefore, the L1CD is not responsible for the major defects observed in L1KO mice, yet it is required for continued L1 protein expression and motor function in the adult. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:1113,1132, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Prenatal diagnosis in a family with X-linked hydrocephalus

PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 10 2005
Maria Panayi
Abstract The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Its expression is essential during embryonic development of the nervous system and it is involved in cognitive function and memory. Mutations in the L1CAM gene are responsible for four related L1 disorders; X-linked hydrocephalus/HSAS (Hydrocephalus as a result of Stenosis of the Aqueduct of Sylvius), MASA (Mental retardation, Aphasia, Shuffling gait, and Adducted thumbs) syndrome, X-linked complicated spastic paraplegia type I (SPG1) and X-linked Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC). These four disorders represent a clinical spectrum that varies both between and within families. The main clinical features of this spectrum are Corpus callosum hypoplasia, mental Retardation, Adducted thumbs, Spastic paraplegia and Hydrocephalus (CRASH syndrome). Since there is no biochemically assayed disease marker, molecular analysis of the L1CAM gene is the only means of confirming a clinical diagnosis. Most L1CAM mutations reported to date are point mutations (missense, nonsense, splice site) and only a few patients with larger rearrangements have been documented. We have characterised a rare intragenic deletion of the L1CAM gene in a sample of DNA extracted from a chorionic villus biopsy (CVB) performed at 12 weeks' gestation. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]