XI Deficiency (xi + deficiency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of XI Deficiency

  • factor xi deficiency

  • Selected Abstracts

    Screening for factor XI deficiency amongst pregnant women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2006
    R. A. KADIR
    Summary., A pilot study was conducted over a 6-month period to evaluate antenatal screening for factor XI (FXI) deficiency amongst Ashkenazi Jewish women booking for their pregnancy in a single obstetric unit. Fifty-four women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin were recruited during their visit for the routine first trimester ultrasound scan. They completed a questionnaire about their personal bleeding symptoms and had blood taken for FXI levels (FXI:C). Seven (13%) women had partial FXI deficiency. Five (9%) were newly diagnosed, and in the remaining two, the diagnosis was known previously. One infant with severe FXI deficiency was identified as a result of maternal testing. This study has shown that FXI deficiency is common amongst women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin and supports its antenatal screening in this population. However, further studies are required to evaluate its cost-effectiveness and the effect on pregnancy outcome. [source]

    Successful use of recombinant factor VIIa in a patient with inhibitor secondary to severe factor XI deficiency

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2002
    Factor XI (FXI) inhibitors are a rare complication of inherited FXI deficiency. We report the successful use of recombinant factor VIIa (FVIIa) in a patient with a high-responding inhibitor undergoing cataract extraction. At the time of surgery there were limited available data on the optimal management of patients with FXI deficiency. A 62-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish woman had a lifelong history of excessive bleeding secondary to severe FXI deficiency (2 U dL,1), and received FXI concentrate (FXI:C) when she underwent a colposuspension procedure. She was subsequently diagnosed with a FXI inhibitor of 16 Bethesda units (BU) when she developed a poor response to FXI:C at the time of total hip replacement. Two months later she was admitted for cataract extraction. The FXI level was < 1 U dL,1 with an inhibitor titre of 48 BU. She received 90 ,g kg,1 of FVIIa immediately preoperatively followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 20 ,g kg,1 h,1 for 24 h. The cataract extraction was successful and there was no excess bleeding during surgery or in the postoperative period. Mutation analysis of the FXI gene showed that the patient was homozygous for the type II genotype [exon 5, Glu117,Ter]. The reason for the low prevalence of inhibitor formation in patients with FXI deficiency is unclear but may reflect a number of factors including reporting bias, the rarity of absent circulating FXI:C activity, and the infrequent use of FXI replacement therapy. [source]

    Factor XI deficiency and its management

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2000
    Factor XI deficiency has a more variable bleeding tendency than haemophilia A or B. Individuals with severe deficiency have only a mild bleeding tendency, which is typically provoked by surgery, but the risk of bleeding is not restricted to individuals with severe deficiency. The bleeding tendency varies between individuals with similar factor XI levels, and sometimes the bleeding tendency of an individual may vary. The reasons for this are not fully understood, although in cases of severe deficiency there is some correlation between phenotype and genotype. Factor XI is activated by thrombin. The role of factor XI in physiological processes has become clearer since this fact was discovered, and the discovery has contributed to a revised model of blood coagulation. Factor XI deficiency occurs in all racial groups, but is particularly common in Ashkenazi Jews. The factor XI gene is 23 kilobases long. Two mutations are responsible for most factor XI deficiency in the Ashkenazi population, but a number of other mutations have now been reported in other racial groups. Individuals with factor XI deficiency may need specific therapy for surgery, accidents, and dental extractions. Several therapies are available which include fresh frozen plasma, factor XI concentrates, fibrin glue, antifibrinolytic drugs, and desmopressin. Each has advantages and risks to be considered. Factor XI concentrate may be indicated for procedures with a significant risk of bleeding especially in younger patients with severe deficiency, but its use in older patients has been associated with thrombotic phenomena. If fresh frozen plasma is to be used it is preferable to obtain one of the virally inactivated products. Fibrin glue is a useful treatment which deserves further study. [source]

    Factor XI deficiency in animal models

    T. RENNÉ
    Summary., The blood coagulation system forms fibrin to limit blood loss from sites of injury, but also contributes to occlusive diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the current model of a coagulation balance, normal hemostasis and thrombosis represent two sides of the same coin; however, data from coagulation factor XI-deficient animal models have challenged this dogma. Gene targeting of factor XI, a serine protease of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, severely impairs arterial thrombus formation but is not associated with excessive bleeding. Mechanistically, factor XI may be activated by factor XII following contact activation or by thrombin in a feedback activation loop. This review focuses on the role of factor XI, and its deficiency states as novel target for prevention of thrombosis with low bleeding risk in animal models. [source]

    Effects of factor XI deficiency on ferric chloride-induced vena cava thrombosis in mice

    X. WANG
    Summary.,Background:,Increased plasma levels of coagulation factor (F) XI are a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Objective:,To further explore the relationship between FXI and venous thrombosis, we evaluated FXI-deficient and wild-type mice in a ferric chloride (FeCl3)-induced vena cava thrombosis model. Methods and Results:,Thrombosis was induced by 3-min topical application of filter papers containing increasing concentrations of FeCl3 and the thrombus was measured at 30 min. In contrast to wild-type mice, FXI-deficient mice failed to form a thrombus with 5% FeCl3, and were partially protected against 7.5% and 10% FeCl3, respectively. The protective effect was substantially stronger than a high dose of heparin (1000 units kg,1, i.v.), clopidogrel (30 mg kg,1, p.o.) or argatroban (30 mg kg,1, i.p.). These antithrombotic agents resulted in off-scale bleeding in a tail bleeding time assay, whereas the bleeding time of FXI-deficient mice was unchanged compared to wild-type mice. In addition to its known effect on the coagulation cascade, enhanced clot lysis was demonstrated in FXI-deficient mouse and human plasma compared to those supplemented with FXIa. Conclusion:,Given the strong antithrombotic efficacy (possibly contributed by strong anticoagulant activity associated with increased fibrinolytic activity) and mild bleeding diathesis associated with FXI deficiency, therapeutic inhibition of FXI may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent venous thrombosis. [source]

    A common ancestral mutation (C128X) occurring in 11 non-Jewish families from the UK with factor XI deficiency

    P. H. B. Bolton-Maggs
    Summary., Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a mild bleeding disorder that is particularly common in Ashkenazi Jews, but has been reported in all populations. In Jews, two FXI gene (F11) mutations (a stop codon in exon 5, E117X, type II, and a point mutation in exon 9, F283L, type III) are particularly common, but in other populations a variety of different mutations have been described. In the Basque region of France one mutation, C38R in exon 3, was found in eight of 12 families studied, haplotype analysis suggesting a founder effect. In the course of screening 78 unrelated individuals (including 15 Jewish and 12 Asian) we have found 10 Caucasian non-Jewish patients with the mutation C128X in exon 5. Individuals were investigated because of a personal or family history of bleeding, or finding a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Individuals negative for the type II and type III mutations were screened by a combination of SSCP and heteroduplex analysis. The C128X mutation was found in 10 families (one previously described). Among three individuals with severe FXI deficiency, one was homozygous for the C128X mutation, and two were compound heterozygotes for the C128X and another mutation; other individuals were carriers of the C128X mutation. This is a nonsense mutation producing a truncated protein; individuals have FXI antigen levels concordant with FXI coagulant activity. Haplotype analysis of 11 families, including a further kindred previously reported from the USA, but which originally came from the UK (in which the index patient was homozygous for C128X), suggests a founder effect. [source]

    Molecular basis of severe factor XI deficiency in seven families from the west of France.

    Seven novel mutations, including an ancient Q88X mutation
    Summary., Inherited factor (F)XI deficiency is a rare disorder in the general population, though it is commonly found in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. In particular, two mutations,a stop mutation (type II) and a missense mutation (type III),which are responsible for FXI deficiency, predominate. The bleeding tendency associated with plasma FXI deficiency in patients is variable, with ,,50% of patients exhibiting excessive post-traumatic or postsurgical bleeding. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of FXI deficiency in 10 patients belonging to six unrelated families of the Nantes area in France and one family of Lebanese origin. As in Ashkenazi Jewish or in French Basque patients, we have identified a new ancient mutation in exon 4 resulting in Q88X, specific to patients from Nantes, that can result in a severely truncated polypeptide. Homozygous Q88X was found in a severely affected patient with an inhibitor to FXI and in three other unrelated families, either as homozygous, heterozygous or compound heterozygous states. Other identified mutations are two nonsense mutations in the FXI gene, in exon 7 and 15, resulting in R210X and C581X, respectively, which were identified in three families. A novel insertion in exon 3 (nucleotide 137 + G), which causes a stop codon, was characterized. Finally, sequence analysis of all 15 exons of the FXI gene revealed three missense mutations resulting in G336R and G350A (exon 10) and T575M (exon 15). Two mutations (T575M and G350A) with discrepant antigen and functional values are particularly interesting because most of the described mutations are associated with the absence of secreted protein. [source]

    Two factor XI mutations in a Chinese family with factor XI deficiency

    W.Y. Au
    Abstract We describe a Chinese family with factor XI deficiency, the first reported to date. The proband had factor XI activity of 1% and was heterozygous for two nonsense mutations, an exon-8 C713,T mutation resulting in Gln263,Term, and an exon-10 C979,A mutation resulting in Tyr351,Term. Two daughters were heterozygous for the Gln263,Term mutation and two for the Try351,Term mutation. All showed a reduction of factor XI activity to about 50%. The Gln263,Term mutation has been described in two Japanese families, and it remains to be determined whether a common founder exists between the three kindreds. The Try351,Term mutation is novel. Am. J. Hematol. 74:136,138, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss Inc. [source]

    The use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for treatment of menorrhagia in women with inherited bleeding disorders

    C.E.C. Kingman
    Background The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is used commonly by gynaecologists as a contraceptive and to treat menorrhagia. However, its efficacy has not been examined in women with inherited bleeding disorders. Design A prospective pilot study. Setting A teaching hospital in north London with a designated haemophilia centre. Population Female patients with a known inherited bleeding disorder. Methods Sixteen women with subjective and objective menorrhagia caused by inherited bleeding disorders (13 von Willebrand's Disease, two factor XI deficiency and one Hermansky,Pudlak syndrome), who had previously undergone unsuccessful medical treatment were followed up for nine months after LNG-IUS insertion. Bleeding was measured by pictorial chart and haemoglobin concentration. Main outcome measure Results All women reported that their periods were improved, pictorial chart scores were lower and 56% became amenorrhoeic. None reported side effects. Conclusion The LNG-IUS is well tolerated and effective and improves quality of life. [source]