Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of XI

  • factor xi

  • Terms modified by XI

  • xi deficiency

  • Selected Abstracts

    Distribution of ,-tocopherol in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), following dietary ,-tocopheryl acetate supplementation

    N. Ruff
    Abstract The present study investigated the distribution of , -tocopherol (vitamin E) in fillets of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Turbot and Atlantic halibut were fed commercial diets, supplemented with different levels of , -tocopheryl acetate at the dietary target levels of 100, 500 and 1000 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. The actual levels were 72, 547 and 969 for turbot, while halibut received 189, 613 and 875 mg , -tocopheryl acetate kg,1 diet. Turbot were fed the diets for 24 weeks, while Atlantic halibut were fed for 20 weeks prior to slaughter. At the end of the feeding periods fish had reached a final weight of around 1 kg. Fish were slaughtered and filleted. From the four fillets obtained per fish, 22 samples were taken from designated areas and analysed for their , -tocopherol content. The average concentrations of , -tocopherol incorporated in turbot and Atlantic halibut increased with increasing levels of , -tocopheryl acetate in the diet. Atlantic halibut had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in positions 2/II and 1/I than in position 9/IX. Turbot had significantly (P < 0.05) more , -tocopherol in position 2/II than in positions 1/I, 4/IV and 11/XI. By mapping , -tocopherol concentrations in fish fillets, a high degree of quality prediction may be established. Moreover, this study may help scientists in their choice of sampling position, when investigating if , -tocopheryl acetate supplementation resulted in successful , -tocopherol incorporation. [source]

    Issues, progress and new results in robust adaptive control,

    Sajjad Fekri
    Abstract We overview recent progress in the field of robust adaptive control with special emphasis on methodologies that use multiple-model architectures. We argue that the selection of the number of models, estimators and compensators in such architectures must be based on a precise definition of the robust performance requirements. We illustrate some of the concepts and outstanding issues by presenting a new methodology that blends robust non-adaptive mixed µ-synthesis designs and stochastic hypothesis-testing concepts leading to the so-called robust multiple model adaptive control (RMMAC) architecture. A numerical example is used to illustrate the RMMAC design methodology, as well as its strengths and potential shortcomings. The later motivated us to develop a variant architecture, denoted as RMMAC/XI, that can be effectively used in highly uncertain exogenous plant disturbance environments. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Arabidopsis class VIII myosin ATM2 is involved in endocytosis

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2008
    Amirali Sattarzadeh
    Abstract Members of the class XI of the myosin superfamily comprising higher plant, actin-based molecular motors have been shown to be involved in peroxisome and Golgi vesicle trafficking comparable to yeast and animal class V myosins. The tasks of the second class of myosins of higher plants, class VIII, are unclear. In this study the class VIII myosin ATM2 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was selected for the examination of cargo specificity in vivo. Fluorescent protein-fusion plasmid constructs with fragments of the ATM2 cDNA were generated and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -based transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The resulting subcellular localization patterns were recorded by live imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in epidermal leaf cells. Expression of a nearly full-length construct displayed labeling of filaments and vesicles, a head + neck fragment led to decoration of filaments only. However, expression of fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminal tail domain constructs labeled vesicular structures of different appearance. Most importantly, coexpression of different RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins showed colocalization and, hence, binding to the same type of vesicular target. Further coexpression experiments of RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins with the endosomal marker FYVE and the endosomal tracer FM4-64 demonstrated colocalization with endosomes. Colocalization was also detected by expression of the CFP-tagged membrane receptor BRI1 as marker, which is constantly recycled via endosomes. Occasionally the ATM2 tail targeted to sites at the plasma membrane closely resembling the pattern obtained upon expression of the YFP-ATM1 C-terminal tail. ATM1 is known for its localization at the plasma membrane at sites of plasmodesmata. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A subclass of myosin XI is associated with mitochondria, plastids, and the molecular chaperone subunit TCP-1, in maize

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2004
    Zhengyuan Wang
    Abstract The role and regulation of specific plant myosins in cyclosis is not well understood. In the present report, an affinity-purified antibody generated against a conserved tail region of some class XI plant myosin isoforms was used for biochemical and immunofluorescence studies of Zea mays. Myosin XI co-localized with plastids and mitochondria but not with nuclei, the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, or peroxisomes. This suggests that myosin XI is involved in the motility of specific organelles. Myosin XI was more than 50% co-localized with tailless complex polypeptide-1, (TCP-1,) in tissue sections of mature tissues located more than 1.0 mm from the apex, and the two proteins co-eluted from gel filtration and ion exchange columns. On Western blots, TCP-1, isoforms showed a developmental shift from the youngest 5.0 mm of the root to more mature regions that were more than 10.0 mm from the apex. This developmental shift coincided with a higher percentage of myosin XI /TCP-1, co-localization, and faster degradation of myosin XI by serine protease. Our results suggest that class XI plant myosin requires TCP-1, for regulating folding or providing protection against denaturation. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 57:218,232, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Light and scanning microscopic studies of integument differentiation in the grass snake Natrix natrix L. (Lepidosauria, Serpentes) during embryogenesis

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    Elwira Swad
    Abstract We analysed the differentiation of body cover in the grass snake (Natrix natrix L.) over the full length of the embryo's body at each developmental stage. Based on investigations using both light and scanning electron microscopes, we divided the embryonic development of the grass snake integument into four phases. The shape of the epidermal cells changes first on the caudal and ventral parts of the embryo, then gradually towards the rostral and dorsal areas. In stage V on the ventral side of the embryo the gastrosteges are formed from single primordia, but on the dorsal side the epidermis forms the scale primordia in stage VII. This indicates that scalation begins on the ventral body surface, and spreads dorsally. The appearance of melanocytes between the cells of the stratum germinativum in stage VII coincides with changes in embryo colouration. The first dermal melanocytes were detected in stage XI so in this stage the definitive skin pattern is formed. In the same stage the epidermis forms the first embryonic shedding complex and the periderm layer begins to detach in small, individual flakes. This process coincides with rapid growth of the embryos. [source]

    Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, Volume XI: Progress in Asexual Reproduction

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Stephen M. Shuster
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Procoagulant factors and the risk of myocardial infarction in young women

    Bea Tanis
    Abstract:,Objectives:,We investigated whether elevated levels of factor VIII, IX and XI is associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in young women. In addition, we studied ABO blood group, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods and results:,We compared 200 women with MI before age 49 years with 626 controls from a population-based case,control study. Mean levels of factor VIII activity (VIII), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF), factor IX activity (IX) were higher in patients (133, 134 and 132 IU/dL) than in controls (111, 107 and 120 IU/dL, respectively). Mean levels of factor XI (XI) were equal in patients (114 IU/dL) and controls (113 IU/dL). The odds ratio (OR) for MI for blood group non-O vs. O was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1,2.3]. The OR adjusted for age, index year and area of residence for the highest quartile >150 IU/dL of factor VIII was 2.7 (95% CI 1.6,4.6), of VWF 4.7 (95% CI 2.3,9.7), of factor IX 2.6 (95% CI 1.3,5.4) and of factor XI 0.9 (95% CI 0.5,1.4), all compared with the lowest quartile <100 IU/dL. Conclusions:,Non-O blood group, high VWF, factor VIII and factor IX levels are associated with an increased risk of MI in young women, while high factor XI levels are not. [source]

    Stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by neokyotorphin requires Ca2+ influx and activation of PKA, CaMK II and MAPK/ERK

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
    Olga V. Sazonova
    Neokyotorphin [TSKYR, hemoglobin ,-chain fragment (137,141)] has previously been shown to enhance fibroblast proliferation, its effect depending on cell density and serum level. Here we show the dependence of the effect of neokyotorphin on cell type and its correlation with the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) activator 8-Br-cAMP, but not the PKC activator 4,-phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA). In L929 fibroblasts, the proliferative effect of neokyotorphin was suppressed by the Ca2+L -type channel inhibitors verapamil or nifedipine, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N,,N, - tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester, kinase inhibitors H-89 (PKA), KN-62 (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) and PD98059 (mitogen-activated protein kinase). The proliferative effect of 8-Br-cAMP was also suppressed by KN-62 and PD98059. PKC suppression (downregulation with PMA or inhibition with bisindolylmaleimide XI) did not affect neokyotorphin action. The results obtained point to a cAMP-like action for neokyotorphin. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Geopolitics of Climate Change

    Jon Barnett
    Author's Introduction Climate change is a security problem in as much as the kinds of environmental changes that may result pose risks to peace and development. However, responsibilities for the causes of climate change, vulnerability to its effects, and capacity to solve the problem, are not equally distributed between countries, classes and cultures. There is no uniformity in the geopolitics of climate change, and this impedes solutions. Author Recommends 1.,Adger, W. N., et al. (eds) (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive collection of articles on the justice dimensions of adaptation to climate change. Chapters discuss potential points at which climate change becomes ,dangerous', the issue of adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the unequal outcomes of adaptation within a society, the effects of violent conflict on adaptation, the costs of adaptation, and examples from Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana, and Hungary. 2.,Leichenko, R., and O'Brien, K. (2008). Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. New York: Oxford University Press. This book uses examples from around the world to show the way global economic and political processes interact with environmental changes to create unequal outcomes within and across societies. A very clear demonstration of the way vulnerability to environmental change is as much driven by social processes as environmental ones, and how solutions lie within the realm of decisions about ,development' and ,environment'. 3.,Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003 An up-to-date, systematic and balanced review of research on the links between climate change and violent conflict. See also the other papers in this special issue of Political Geography. 4.,Parry, M., et al. (eds) (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The definitive review of all the peer-reviewed research on the way climate change may impact on places and sectors across the world. Includes chapters on ecosystems, health, human settlements, primary industries, water resources, and the major regions of the world. All chapters are available online at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg2.htm 5.,Salehyan, I. (2008). From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3), pp. 315,326. doi:10.1177/0022343308088812 A balanced review of research on the links between climate change and conflict, with attention to existing evidence. 6.,Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. Gives insight into how the US security policy community is framing the problem of climate change. This needs to be read critically. Available at http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 7.,German Advisory Council on Global Change. (2007). World in transition: climate change as a security risk. Berlin, Germany: WBGU. A major report from the German Advisory Council on Global Change on the risks climate changes poses to peace and stability. Needs to be read with caution. Summary and background studies are available online at http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2007_engl.html 8.,Yamin, F., and Depedge, J. (2004). The International climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. A clear and very detailed explanation of the UNFCCC's objectives, actors, history, and challenges. A must read for anyone seeking to understand the UNFCCC process, written by two scholars with practical experience in negotiations. Online Materials 1.,Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars http://www.wilsoncenter.org/ecsp The major website for information about environmental security. From here, you can download many reports and studies, including the Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2.,Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project http://www.gechs.org This website is a clearing house for work and events on environmental change and human security. 3.,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) http://www.ipcc.ch/ From this website, you can download all the chapters of all the IPCC's reports, including its comprehensive and highly influential assessment reports, the most recent of which was published in 2007. The IPCC were awarded of the Nobel Peace Prize ,for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made (sic) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change'. 4.,Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research http://www.tyndall.ac.uk The website of a major centre for research on climate change, and probably the world's leading centre for social science based analysis of climate change. From this site, you can download many publications about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and about various issues in the UNFCCC. 5.,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change http://unfccc.int/ The website contains every major document relation to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, including the text of the agreements, national communications, country submissions, negotiated outcomes, and background documents about most key issues. Sample Syllabus: The Geopolitics of Climate Change topics for lecture and discussion Week I: Introduction Barnett, J. (2007). The geopolitics of climate change. Geography Compass 1 (6), pp. 1361,1375. United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, address to the 12th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Nairobi, 15 November 2006. Available online at http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=495&ArticleID=5424&l=en Week II: The History and Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Topic: The drivers of climate change in space and time Reading Baer, P. (2006). Adaptation: who pays whom? In: Adger, N., et al. (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 131,154. Boyden, S., and Dovers, S. (1992). Natural-resource consumption and its environmental impacts in the Western World: impacts of increasing per capita consumption. Ambio 21 (1), pp. 63,69. Week III: The Environmental Consequences of climate change Topic: The risks climate change poses to environmental systems Reading Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat. Watch: Al Gore. The Inconvenient Truth. Weeks IV and V: The Social Consequences of Climate Change Topic: The risks climate change poses to social systems Reading Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development 27, pp. 249,269. Comrie, A. (2007). Climate change and human health. Geography Compass 1 (3), pp. 325,339. Leary, N., et al. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerability in a changing climate. A Synthesis from the AIACC project, AIACC Working Paper No. 21, International START Secretariat, Florida. Stern, N. (2007). Economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Chapters 3,5). Week VI: Mitigation of Climate Change: The UNFCCC Topic: The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol Reading Najam, A., Huq, S., and Sokona, Y. (2003). Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (3), pp. 221,231. UNFCCC Secretariat. (2005). Caring for climate: a guide to the climate change convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Bonn, Germany: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat. Weeks VII and VIII: Adaptation to Climate Change Topic: What can be done to allow societies to adapt to avoid climate impacts? Reading Adger, N., et al. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M., et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 717,744. Burton, I., et al. (2002). From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Climate Policy 2 (2,3), pp. 145,159. Eakin, H., and Lemos, M. C. (2006). Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 16 (1), pp. 7,18. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30, pp. 294,305. Weeks IX and X: Climate Change and Migration Topic: Will climate change force migration? Readings Gaim, K. (1997). Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: a critique of the current debate. Disasters 21 (1), pp. 20,38. McLeman, R., and Smit, B. (2006). Migration as adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change 76 (1), pp. 31,53. Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357 (1420), pp. 609,613. Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M., and Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change (online first, forthcoming); doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y Weeks XI and XII: Climate Change and Violent Conflict Topic: Will Climate change cause violent conflict? Readings Barnett, J., and Adger, N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 639,655. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. (2007). The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: CSIS. Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. [online]. Retrieved on 8 April 2007 from http://www.gbn.com/ArticleDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231 Focus Questions 1Who is most responsible for climate change? 2Who is most vulnerable to climate change? 3Does everyone have equal power in the UNFCCC process? 4Will climate change force people to migrate? Who? 5What is the relationship between adaptation to climate change and violent conflict? [source]

    Pregnancy and rare bleeding disorders

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2009
    R. KADIR
    Summary., Rare bleeding disorders include deficiency of fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, factor X, factor XI and factor XIII together with combined deficiency disorders, factor V+VIII deficiency, and deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent factors (factor II, VII, IX and X). They account for 3,5% of all inherited coagulation disorders. Due to their rarity, information about pregnancy complications and management is limited and mostly derived from case reports. Deficiency of fibrinogen and FXIII are both found to be strongly associated with increased risk of recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption. Factor replacement is used to reduce these risks. However, the risk of miscarriage and ante-partum complications is less clear in women with other bleeding disorders. Haemostatic abnormalities in women with rare bleeding disorders seem to persist throughout pregnancy especially if the defect is severe. Therefore women affected with these disorders are at risk of post-partum haemorrhage. The fetus can also be affected and potentially at risk of bleeding complications. Specialised multidisciplinary management is essential to minimise the potential maternal and neonatal complications and ensure an optimal outcome. This paper presents literature review for pregnancy complications in each of the rare bleeding disorders. In addition general principles for management of pregnancy, labour and delivery are discussed. [source]

    Screening for factor XI deficiency amongst pregnant women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 6 2006
    R. A. KADIR
    Summary., A pilot study was conducted over a 6-month period to evaluate antenatal screening for factor XI (FXI) deficiency amongst Ashkenazi Jewish women booking for their pregnancy in a single obstetric unit. Fifty-four women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin were recruited during their visit for the routine first trimester ultrasound scan. They completed a questionnaire about their personal bleeding symptoms and had blood taken for FXI levels (FXI:C). Seven (13%) women had partial FXI deficiency. Five (9%) were newly diagnosed, and in the remaining two, the diagnosis was known previously. One infant with severe FXI deficiency was identified as a result of maternal testing. This study has shown that FXI deficiency is common amongst women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin and supports its antenatal screening in this population. However, further studies are required to evaluate its cost-effectiveness and the effect on pregnancy outcome. [source]

    Successful use of recombinant factor VIIa in a patient with inhibitor secondary to severe factor XI deficiency

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2002
    Factor XI (FXI) inhibitors are a rare complication of inherited FXI deficiency. We report the successful use of recombinant factor VIIa (FVIIa) in a patient with a high-responding inhibitor undergoing cataract extraction. At the time of surgery there were limited available data on the optimal management of patients with FXI deficiency. A 62-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish woman had a lifelong history of excessive bleeding secondary to severe FXI deficiency (2 U dL,1), and received FXI concentrate (FXI:C) when she underwent a colposuspension procedure. She was subsequently diagnosed with a FXI inhibitor of 16 Bethesda units (BU) when she developed a poor response to FXI:C at the time of total hip replacement. Two months later she was admitted for cataract extraction. The FXI level was < 1 U dL,1 with an inhibitor titre of 48 BU. She received 90 ,g kg,1 of FVIIa immediately preoperatively followed by continuous infusion at a rate of 20 ,g kg,1 h,1 for 24 h. The cataract extraction was successful and there was no excess bleeding during surgery or in the postoperative period. Mutation analysis of the FXI gene showed that the patient was homozygous for the type II genotype [exon 5, Glu117,Ter]. The reason for the low prevalence of inhibitor formation in patients with FXI deficiency is unclear but may reflect a number of factors including reporting bias, the rarity of absent circulating FXI:C activity, and the infrequent use of FXI replacement therapy. [source]

    Factor XI deficiency and its management

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2000
    Factor XI deficiency has a more variable bleeding tendency than haemophilia A or B. Individuals with severe deficiency have only a mild bleeding tendency, which is typically provoked by surgery, but the risk of bleeding is not restricted to individuals with severe deficiency. The bleeding tendency varies between individuals with similar factor XI levels, and sometimes the bleeding tendency of an individual may vary. The reasons for this are not fully understood, although in cases of severe deficiency there is some correlation between phenotype and genotype. Factor XI is activated by thrombin. The role of factor XI in physiological processes has become clearer since this fact was discovered, and the discovery has contributed to a revised model of blood coagulation. Factor XI deficiency occurs in all racial groups, but is particularly common in Ashkenazi Jews. The factor XI gene is 23 kilobases long. Two mutations are responsible for most factor XI deficiency in the Ashkenazi population, but a number of other mutations have now been reported in other racial groups. Individuals with factor XI deficiency may need specific therapy for surgery, accidents, and dental extractions. Several therapies are available which include fresh frozen plasma, factor XI concentrates, fibrin glue, antifibrinolytic drugs, and desmopressin. Each has advantages and risks to be considered. Factor XI concentrate may be indicated for procedures with a significant risk of bleeding especially in younger patients with severe deficiency, but its use in older patients has been associated with thrombotic phenomena. If fresh frozen plasma is to be used it is preferable to obtain one of the virally inactivated products. Fibrin glue is a useful treatment which deserves further study. [source]

    Acupuncture for radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with cancer: A pilot study

    DrPH, M. Kay Garcia LAc
    Abstract Background This pilot study evaluated if acupuncture can alleviate radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with cancer. Secondary objectives were to assess the effects of acupuncture on salivary flow and quality of life (QOL). Methods Nineteen patients received acupuncture twice a week for 4 weeks. Results Xerostomia inventory (XI) and patient benefit questionnaire (PBQ) scores were significantly better after acupuncture on weeks 4 and 8 than at baseline (XI: p = .0004 and .0001; PBQ: p = .0004 and .0011, respectively). For QOL at weeks 4 and 8, there was a significant difference for questions related to head/neck cancer (p = .04 and .006, respectively). At week 8, there was a significant difference in physical well-being (p = .04). At weeks 5 and 8, there were significant differences in the total score (p = .04 and .03, respectively). Conclusions Acupuncture was effective for radiation-induced xerostomia in this small pilot study. Further research is needed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009 [source]

    Politic history, New Monarchy and state formation: Henry VII in European perspective

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 217 2009
    Steven Gunn
    Historians have repeatedly compared Henry VII with his continental contemporaries, Louis XI of France and Ferdinand of Aragon. Around 1600 the writers of politic history emphasized Henry's wisdom in drawing lessons in statecraft from his fellow monarchs. By 1900 analysts of the ,New Monarchy' placed more stress on the common circumstances that underlay the revival of monarchical power, but thereby raised awkward questions about similarities and differences in the development of national states. Latterly a model of European state formation has been constructed which sets Henry's kingship less comfortably alongside those of Louis and Ferdinand. This should lead us not to abandon, but to reshape the attempt to set Henry in his European context. [source]

    Diagnostic performance of three-dimensional ultrasound extended imaging at scrotal mass lesions

    Salah Elwagdy
    Objectives: High resolution two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) difficulty in evaluation of some scrotal mass lesions is not frequent. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional ultrasound extended imaging (3D XI) in characterization of those lesions. Methods: The study protocol had the approval of the University's review board all participants' informed consents were obtained. The study included 28 selected patients (12 testicular and 16 para-testicular mass lesions) examined by 2D US and 3D XI applications including computed multi-slice view (MSV) and multi-resolution enhanced images (XI MR). Results were correlated with histopathological findings. Results: Two-dimensional ultrasound did not adequately characterize 28 patients out of 329 (8.5%). 3D XI interrogation was an easy procedure and distinctive of the pathological findings in 27 patients out of 28 (96.4%). The performance of XI MR with respect to characterization provided additional diagnostic information over MSV. Conclusions: The performance of 3D XI with respect to testicular mass characterization proved better than static 2D US. Subsequently, the results of this study suggest that the routine use of 2D US in diagnosis of scrotal mass lesions should preferably be upgraded to 3D XI methods. [source]

    Elementary concepts of medicine: XI.

    Illness in a community: morbidity, epidemiology

    Coral-reef sounds enable nocturnal navigation by some reef-fish larvae in some places and at some times

    J. M. Leis
    At Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, catches of fish larvae by light traps that broadcast nocturnal reef sounds (noisy traps) were compared with catches by quiet traps over two 2·5 week new-moon periods in November (XI) 2000 and January (I) 2001. Three areas were sampled: near-reef (NR, 500 m from the shore) in I, middle (M, 650 m) in I and XI and offshore (O, >1000 m) in XI. The most abundant taxa captured were Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Lethrinidae, Mullidae and Pomacentridae. Significant differences in catch were found between areas, and a position effect was found at the O and M areas. At the NR and M areas, no taxa had significantly greater catches in quiet traps, but larvae of five taxa had significantly greater catches in noisy traps. These were (areas and times of greater catches): Apogonidae (NR; M XI), Mullidae (M I & XI), Pomacentridae (NR; M I & XI), Serranidae (M I) and Sphyraenidae (NR). At the offshore area, five taxa (Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Chaetodontidae, Mullidae and Pomacentridae) had significantly greater catches in quiet traps and only Lethrinidae had significantly greater catches in noisy traps. Thus some taxa (particularly apogonids and pomacentrids which had catches up to 155% greater in noisy traps, but also lethrinids and mullids, and perhaps others), were attracted to reef sounds at night, but this apparently varied with location and time. The sound-enhanced catches imply a radius of attraction of the sound 1·02,1·6 times that of the light. More than 65 m from the speaker,the broadcast sound levels at frequencies typical of fish hearing were equivalent to background levels, providing a maximum radius of sound attraction in this experiment. [source]

    Expression of cartilage-related genes in bovine synovial tissue

    Nahoko Shintani
    Abstract The synovium contains mesenchymal stem cells with chondrogenic potential. Although synovial and articular cartilage tissue develop from a common pool of mesenchymal cells, little is known about their genetic commonalities. In the present study, the mRNA levels for several cartilage-related proteins, namely, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen types I, II, IX, X, and XI, were measured using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data reveal the synovium of calf metacarpal joints to physiologically express not only type I collagen but also COMP, Sox9, aggrecan, and collagen types X and XI. The mRNA levels for the latter five proteins lie between 2% and 15% of those in articular cartilage. We speculate that these genes are being expressed by chondroprogenitor cells, whose presence in the synovium reflects a common ontogenetic phase in the fetal development of this tissue and of articular cartilage. © 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25: 813,819, 2007 [source]

    XAFS,XI and new sources in Europe , SLS, SOLEIL and DIAMOND

    S. Samar Hasnain
    First page of article [source]

    Involvement of the contact phase and intrinsic pathway in herpes simplex virus-initiated plasma coagulation

    Summary.,Background:,A hemostatic response to vascular injury is initiated by the extrinsic pathway of coagulation and amplified by the intrinsic pathway. We previously reported that purified herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) has constitutive extrinsic pathway tissue factor (TF) and anionic phospholipid on its surface derived from the host cell, and can consequently bypass strict cellular control of coagulation. Objective:,The current work addresses the hypothesis that HSV1-induced plasma coagulation also involves intrinsic pathway, factor VIII (FVIII), and upstream contact activation pathway, factor XII (FXII). Results:,HSV1-initiated clotting was accelerated when purified FVIII was added to FVIII-deficient plasma and in normal plasma attenuated by an inhibitory anti-FVIII antibody (Ab). High HSV1 concentrations predictably reduced the effect of FVIII due to the availability of excess viral TF. To further define TF-independent clotting mechanisms initiated by HSV1, the extrinsic pathway was disabled using factor VII-deficient plasma. The intrinsic pathway is triggered by activation of FXII associated with surface-bound kallikrein, which subsequently activates factor XI. Here we found that an inhibitor of activated FXII, corn trypsin inhibitor, and anti-FXII, anti-kallikrein and anti-FXI Abs inhibited HSV1-initiated clotting. HSV1-enhanced activation of purified FXII was confirmed by Western blot, but required prekallikrein. Conclusion:,The current work shows that HSV1 can trigger and amplify coagulation through the contact phase and intrinsic pathway, and suggests an additional mechanism that may contribute to vascular pathology. [source]

    Structural and functional features of factor XI

    Summary., Factor XI (FXI) has structural and mechanistic features that distinguish it from other coagulation proteases. A relatively recent addition to vertebrate plasma coagulation, FXI is a homodimer, with each subunit containing four apple domains and a protease domain. The apple domains form a disk structure with binding sites for platelets, high molecular weight kininogen, and the substrate factor IX (FIX). FXI is converted to the active protease FXIa by cleavage of the Arg369,Ile370 bond on each subunit. This converts the catalytic domains to the active forms, and unmasks exosites on the apple domains required for FIX binding. FXI activation by factor XIIa or thrombin proceeds through an intermediate with only one activated submit (1/2-FXIa). 1/2-FXIa activates FIX in a similar manner to FXIa. While the importance of the homodimeric structure of FXI is not certain, it may represent a strategy for binding to FIX and a platelet surface simultaneously. [source]

    Factor XI deficiency in animal models

    T. RENNÉ
    Summary., The blood coagulation system forms fibrin to limit blood loss from sites of injury, but also contributes to occlusive diseases such as deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. In the current model of a coagulation balance, normal hemostasis and thrombosis represent two sides of the same coin; however, data from coagulation factor XI-deficient animal models have challenged this dogma. Gene targeting of factor XI, a serine protease of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, severely impairs arterial thrombus formation but is not associated with excessive bleeding. Mechanistically, factor XI may be activated by factor XII following contact activation or by thrombin in a feedback activation loop. This review focuses on the role of factor XI, and its deficiency states as novel target for prevention of thrombosis with low bleeding risk in animal models. [source]

    Effects of factor XI deficiency on ferric chloride-induced vena cava thrombosis in mice

    X. WANG
    Summary.,Background:,Increased plasma levels of coagulation factor (F) XI are a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Objective:,To further explore the relationship between FXI and venous thrombosis, we evaluated FXI-deficient and wild-type mice in a ferric chloride (FeCl3)-induced vena cava thrombosis model. Methods and Results:,Thrombosis was induced by 3-min topical application of filter papers containing increasing concentrations of FeCl3 and the thrombus was measured at 30 min. In contrast to wild-type mice, FXI-deficient mice failed to form a thrombus with 5% FeCl3, and were partially protected against 7.5% and 10% FeCl3, respectively. The protective effect was substantially stronger than a high dose of heparin (1000 units kg,1, i.v.), clopidogrel (30 mg kg,1, p.o.) or argatroban (30 mg kg,1, i.p.). These antithrombotic agents resulted in off-scale bleeding in a tail bleeding time assay, whereas the bleeding time of FXI-deficient mice was unchanged compared to wild-type mice. In addition to its known effect on the coagulation cascade, enhanced clot lysis was demonstrated in FXI-deficient mouse and human plasma compared to those supplemented with FXIa. Conclusion:,Given the strong antithrombotic efficacy (possibly contributed by strong anticoagulant activity associated with increased fibrinolytic activity) and mild bleeding diathesis associated with FXI deficiency, therapeutic inhibition of FXI may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent venous thrombosis. [source]

    Prerequisites for recombinant factor VIIa-induced thrombin generation in plasmas deficient in factors VIII, IX or XI

    Summary.,Background:,Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) used for the treatment of hemophilia A or B patients with an inhibitor is hemostatically effective because it induces thrombin generation (TG), despite grossly impaired FVIII- and FIX-dependent amplification of FX activation. Tissue factor (TF) and or activated platelets were shown to be essential for the rFVIIa activity. Objective: To evaluate the relative effects of TF and phospholipids on rFVIIa-induced TG in FVIII-, FIX- and FXI-deficient plasmas. Methods: Phospholipids had an independent effect that was augmented by TF. The contribution of blood-borne TF in FVIII-, FIX- and FXI-deficient plasma to rFVIIa-induced TG was demonstrated by removing microparticles and use of anti-TF antibodies. Results: At increasing concentrations of rFVIIa, the dependence of rFVIIa-induced TG on TF declined, but the presence of phospholipids was essential. rFVIIa was also shown to activate purified FIX and FX in the presence of phospholipids and absence of TF. rFVIIa-induced TG was dramatically augmented in FVIII- or FIX-deficient plasma in which the level of FVIII or FIX was increased to 1 or 2 U dL,1. Conclusions: The data indicate that rFVIIa-induced TG is affected by TF, phospholipids, rFVIIa concentration, and the presence of FVIII and FIX. [source]

    Real-Time quantitative PCR analysis of factor XI mRNA variants in human platelets

    A. Podmore
    Summary., Coagulation factor XI (FXI) plays an essential role in blood coagulation. A deficiency of FXI is an unusual hemorrhagic diathesis in that the bleeding tendency can be highly variable, ranging from severe deficiencies with no symptoms to mild and moderate deficiencies requiring multiple blood transfusions for hemorrhages. This variability in bleeding has been attributed to a number of factors including the presence of a novel form of FXI associated with platelets, which ameliorates the bleeding in some cases of FXI deficiency. However, the nature of this platelet FXI molecule is controversial. Hsu et al. (J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 13787,93) suggest that it is a product of normal FXI , but lacking exon V whilst Martincic et al. (Blood 1999; 94: 3397,404) were unable to detect this alternatively spliced variant using RT-PCR. In order to resolve this controversy, we have employed the highly sensitive technique of real-time quantitative RT-PCR using RNA isolated from FXI-deficient patients. Our results indicate that the platelets of both normal and FXI deficient individuals contain FXI mRNA that is identical to the mRNA found in liver. An exon V deleted splice variant was not detected. Thus the FXI message is not alternatively spliced in platelets and therefore would not be able to produce an unusual FXI protein. [source]

    A common ancestral mutation (C128X) occurring in 11 non-Jewish families from the UK with factor XI deficiency

    P. H. B. Bolton-Maggs
    Summary., Factor XI (FXI) deficiency is a mild bleeding disorder that is particularly common in Ashkenazi Jews, but has been reported in all populations. In Jews, two FXI gene (F11) mutations (a stop codon in exon 5, E117X, type II, and a point mutation in exon 9, F283L, type III) are particularly common, but in other populations a variety of different mutations have been described. In the Basque region of France one mutation, C38R in exon 3, was found in eight of 12 families studied, haplotype analysis suggesting a founder effect. In the course of screening 78 unrelated individuals (including 15 Jewish and 12 Asian) we have found 10 Caucasian non-Jewish patients with the mutation C128X in exon 5. Individuals were investigated because of a personal or family history of bleeding, or finding a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Individuals negative for the type II and type III mutations were screened by a combination of SSCP and heteroduplex analysis. The C128X mutation was found in 10 families (one previously described). Among three individuals with severe FXI deficiency, one was homozygous for the C128X mutation, and two were compound heterozygotes for the C128X and another mutation; other individuals were carriers of the C128X mutation. This is a nonsense mutation producing a truncated protein; individuals have FXI antigen levels concordant with FXI coagulant activity. Haplotype analysis of 11 families, including a further kindred previously reported from the USA, but which originally came from the UK (in which the index patient was homozygous for C128X), suggests a founder effect. [source]

    The function of factor XI in tissue factor-initiated thrombin generation

    S. Butenas
    Summary., The influence of plasma and platelet factor (F)XI on thrombin generation initiated with 10 pm tissue factor (TF) in a synthetic coagulation model was evaluated in the presence of either 2 × 108 mL,1 platelets or the equivalent (2 µm) phospholipids. In either system, with all proteins present at physiological concentrations, FXI (30 nm) had no effect on thrombin generation. With phospholipids in the absence of FXI, an increase in vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDP) (up to 500%) significantly prolonged the initiation phase of thrombin generation and decreased maximum thrombin levels. The inhibition was principally caused by the elevated prothrombin and FIX concentrations. When 30 nm FXI was added with elevated VKDP and phospholipids, the initiation phase was decreased and the maximum thrombin levels generated substantially increased. In experiments with platelets (with and without plasma FXI), an increase in VKDP had little effect on the initiation phase of thrombin generation. These data indicate that (i) FXI has no effect on thrombin generation at 10 pm TF and physiological concentrations of VKDP; (ii) platelets and plasma FXI are able to compensate for the inhibitory effects of elevated VKDP. [source]

    Interactions between surface proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes and coagulation factors modulate clotting of human plasma

    H. Herwald
    Summary., Invasive and toxic infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes are connected with high morbidity and mortality. Typical symptoms of these infections are hypotension, edema formation, tissue necrosis, and bleeding disorders. Here we report that components of the coagulation system including fibrinogen, factors V, XI, and XII, and H-kininogen, are assembled at the surface of S. pyogenes through specific interactions with bacterial surface proteins. In plasma environment, absorption of fibrinogen by S. pyogenes causes a hypocoagulatory state resulting in prolonged clotting times and impaired fibrin network formation. Moreover, the binding of coagulation factors and the subsequent activation of the coagulation system at the bacterial surface lead to the formation of a fibrin network covering S. pyogenes bacteria adhering to epithelial cells. The results suggest that interactions between S. pyogenes and components of the coagulation system contribute to some of the symptoms seen in severe infections caused by this important human pathogen. [source]

    Faecal microbiota profile of Crohn's disease determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    A. ANDOH
    Summary Background, Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses are powerful tools to assess the diversity of complex microbiota. T-RFLPs permit rapid comparisons of microbiota from many samples. Aim, To perform T-RFLP analyses of faecal microbiota in Crohn's disease (CD) patients to investigate potential alterations in faecal microbial communities and furthermore to analyse the effects of elemental diet on faecal microbiota profiles. Methods, Thirty-four patients with CD and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. DNA was extracted from stool samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR. PCR products were digested with BslI restriction enzymes and T-RF lengths were determined. Results, Faecal microbial communities were classified into seven clusters. Almost all healthy individuals (28/30) were included in cluster I, II and III, but the majority of CD patients (25/34) could be divided into another four clusters (cluster IV,VII). Prediction of bacteria based on the BslI-digested T-RFLP database showed a significant decrease in Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium cluster XI and subcluster XIVa in CD patients. In contrast, Bacteroides significantly increased in CD patients. Significant increases in Enterobacteriales were also observed in CD patients. Furthermore, elemental diets modulated faecal bacterial communities in CD patients. Conclusions, Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses showed that the diversity of faecal microbiota in patients with CD differed from that of healthy individuals. Furthermore, elemental diets modulated faecal microbiota composition, and this effect may be involved in mechanisms of clinical effects of elemental diet. [source]