Xenopus Oocytes (xenopus + oocyte)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Altering the Relative Abundance of GABAA Receptor Subunits Changes GABA- and Ethanol-Responses in Xenopus Oocytes

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
Joyce H. Hurley
Background:, Variations in GABRA2 and GABRG3, genes encoding the ,2 and ,3 subunits of the pentameric GABAA receptor, are associated with the risk of developing alcoholism in adults, conduct disorder at younger ages, and with differences in electroencephalographic power in the , frequency range. The SNPs associated with alcoholism did not alter the coding of these genes, and extensive DNA sequencing of GABRA2 did not find coding changes in the high-risk haplotypes. Therefore, we hypothesize that the associations arise from differences in gene expression. Methods:, Here we report studies in Xenopus oocytes to examine the functional effects of altering the relative abundance of these 2 receptor subunits on GABA current and response to ethanol, as a model of potential effects of regulatory differences. Results:, When human ,2,2,3 subunits are co-expressed, increasing the amount of the ,2 subunit mRNA increased GABA current; in contrast, increasing the amount of the ,3 subunit decreased GABA currents. Acute ethanol treatment of oocytes injected with a 1:1:1 or 2:2:1 ratio of ,2:,2:,3 subunit mRNAs resulted in significant potentiation of GABA currents, whereas ethanol inhibited GABA currents in cells injected with a 6:2:1 ratio. Overnight treatment with ethanol significantly reduced GABA currents in a manner dependent on the ratio of subunits. Conclusions:, These studies demonstrate that changes in relative expression of GABAA receptor subunits alter the response of the resulting channels to GABA and to ethanol. [source]

Inhibition of the Activity of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 4 Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes After Chronic Exposure to Ethanol

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2008
Seung-Yeon Yoo
Background:, The extracellular glutamate concentration is tightly controlled by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). EAAT4 is the predominant EAAT in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. Purkinje cells play a critical role in motor coordination and may be an important target for ethanol to cause motor impairments. We designed this study to determine the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on the activity of EAAT4 and evaluate the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in these effects. Methods:, EAAT4 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes following injection of EAAT4 mRNA. Oocytes were incubated with ethanol-containing solution for 24 to 96 hours. Membrane currents induced by l -aspartate were recorded using 2-electrode voltage clamps. Responses were quantified by integration of the current trace and reported in microCoulombs (,C). Results:, Ethanol dose- and time-dependently reduced EAAT4 activity. EAAT4 activity after a 96-hour exposure was significantly decreased compared to the control values at all concentrations tested (10 to 100 mM). Ethanol (50 mM) significantly decreased the Vmax (2.2 ± 0.2 ,C for control vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 ,C for ethanol, n = 18, p < 0.05) of EAAT4 for l -aspartate. Preincubation of ethanol-treated (50 mM for 96 hours) oocytes with phorbol-12-myrisate-13-acetate (100 nM for 10 minutes) abolished the ethanol-induced decrease in EAAT4 activity. While staurosporine (2 ,M for 1 hour) or chelerythrine (100 ,M for 1 hour) significantly decreased EAAT4 activity, no difference was observed in EAAT4 activity among the staurosporine, ethanol, or ethanol plus staurosporine groups. Similarly, EAAT4 activity did not differ among the chelerythrine, ethanol, or ethanol plus chelerythrine groups. Pretreatment of the oocytes with wortmannin (1 ,M for 1 hour) also significantly decreased EAAT4 activity. However, no difference was observed in the wortmannin, ethanol, or ethanol plus wortmannin groups. Conclusions:, The results of this study suggest that chronic ethanol exposure decreases EAAT4 activity and that PKC and PI3K may be involved in these effects. These effects of ethanol on EAAT4 may cause an increase in peri-Purkinje cellular glutamate concentration, and may be involved in cerebellar dysfunction and motor impairment after chronic ethanol ingestion. [source]

Ethanol Potentiation of Glycine Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes Antagonized by Increased Atmospheric Pressure

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2003
Daryl L. Davies
Background: Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate that exposure to 12 times normal atmospheric pressure (12 ATA) of helium-oxygen gas (heliox) is a direct, selective ethanol antagonist. The current study begins to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts by a common mechanism on ligand-gated ion channels by expanding previous hyperbaric investigations on ,-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs) at the biochemical level to ,1glycine (GlyRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Methods: Oocytes expressing wild-type ,1 homomeric GlyRs were voltage-clamped (,70 mV) and tested in the presence of glycine (EC2) ± ethanol (50,200 mM) under 1 ATA control and 3 to 12 ATA heliox conditions. Glycine concentration response curves, strychnine/glycine interactions, and zinc (Zn2+) modulation of GlyR function was also tested. Results: Pressure reversibly antagonized the action of ethanol. The degree of antagonism increased as pressure increased. Pressure did not significantly alter the effects of glycine, strychnine, or Zn2+, indicating that ethanol antagonism by pressure cannot be attributed to alterations by pressure of normal GlyR function. The antagonism did not reflect tolerance to ethanol, receptor desensitization, or receptor rundown. Conclusion: This is the first use of hyperbarics to investigate the mechanism of action of ethanol in recombinant receptors. The findings indicate that pressure directly and selectively antagonizes ethanol potentiation of ,1GlyR function in a reversible and concentration- and pressure-dependent manner. The sensitivity of ethanol potentiation of GlyR function to pressure antagonism indicates that ethanol acts by a common, pressure-antagonism,sensitive mechanism in GlyRs and GABAARs. The findings also support the hypothesis that ethanol potentiation of GlyR function plays a role in mediating the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. [source]

Formalin-Induced Short- and Long-Term Modulation of Cav Currents Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes: An In Vitro Cellular Model for Formalin-Induced Pain

Senthilkumar Rajagopal
Cav channels were expressed with ,1,1b and ,2, sub-units and the currents (IBa) were studied by voltage clamp. None of the oocytes was dead during the exposure to formalin. Oocyte death was significant between day 1 and day 5 after the exposure to formalin and was uniform among the oocytes expressing various Cav channels. Peak IBa of all Cav and A1, the inactivating current component was decreased whereas the non-inactivated R current was not affected by 5 min. exposure to formalin. On day 1 after the exposure to formalin, Cav1.2c currents were increased, 2.1 and 2.2 currents were decreased and 2.3 currents were unaltered. On day 5, both peak IBa and A1 currents were increased. Cav1.2c, 2.2 and 2.3 currents were increased and Cav2.1 was unaltered on day 10 after the exposure to formalin. Protein kinase C (PKC) may be involved in formalin-induced increase in Cav currents due to the (i) requirement for Cav,1b sub-units; (ii) decreased phorbol-12-myristate,13-acetate potentiation of Cav2.3 currents; (iii) absence of potentiation of Cav2.3 currents following down-regulation of PKC; and (iv) absence of potentiation of Cav2.2 or 2.3 currents with Ser,Ala mutation of Cav,12.2 or 2.3 sub-units. Increased Cav currents and PKC activation may coincide with changes observed in in vivo pain investigations, and oocytes incubated with formalin may serve as an in vitro model for some cellular mechanisms of pain. [source]

Molecular physiology of SLC4 anion exchangers

Seth L. Alper
Plasmalemmal Cl,,HCO3, exchangers regulate intracellular pH and [Cl,] and cell volume. In polarized epithelial cells, they contribute also to transepithelial secretion and reabsorption of acid,base equivalents and of Cl,. Members of both the SLC4 and SLC26 mammalian gene families encode Na+ -independent Cl,,HCO3, exchangers. Human SLC4A1/AE1 mutations cause either the erythroid disorders spherocytic haemolytic anaemia or ovalocytosis, or distal renal tubular acidosis. SLC4A2/AE2 knockout mice die at weaning. Human SLC4A3/AE3 polymorphisms have been associated with seizure disorder. Although mammalian SLC4/AE polypeptides mediate only electroneutral Cl,,anion exchange, trout erythroid AE1 also promotes osmolyte transport and increased anion conductance. Mouse AE1 is required for DIDS-sensitive erythroid Cl, conductance, but definitive evidence for mediation of Cl, conductance is lacking. However, a single missense mutation allows AE1 to mediate both electrogenic SO42,,Cl, exchange or electroneutral, H+ -independent SO42,,SO42, exchange. In the Xenopus oocyte, the AE1 C-terminal cytoplasmic tail residues reported to bind carbonic anhydrase II are dispensable for Cl,,Cl, exchange, but required for Cl,,HCO3, exchange. AE2 is acutely and independently inhibited by intracellular and extracellular H+, and this regulation requires integrity of the most highly conserved sequence of the AE2 N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Individual missense mutations within this and adjacent regions identify additional residues which acid-shift pHo sensitivity. These regions together are modelled to form contiguous surface patches on the AE2 cytoplasmic domain. In contrast, the N-terminal variant AE2c polypeptide exhibits an alkaline-shifted pHo sensitivity, as do certain transmembrane domain His mutants. AE2-mediated anion exchange is also stimulated by ammonium and by hypertonicity by a mechanism sensitive to inhibition by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ and by calmidazolium. This growing body of structure,function data, together with increased structural information, will advance mechanistic understanding of SLC4 anion exchangers. [source]

Existence of a tightly regulated water channel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2001
Valérie Meyrial
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ,1278b possesses two putative aquaporins, Aqy1-1p and Aqy2-1p. Previous work demonstrated that Aqy1-1p functions as a water channel in Xenopus oocyte. However, no function could be attributed to Aqy2-1p in this system. Specific antibodies were used to follow the expression of Aqy1-1p and Aqy2-1p in the yeast. Aqy1-1p was never detected whatever the growth phase and culture conditions tested. In contrast, Aqy2-1p was detected only during the exponential growth phase in rich medium containing glucose. Aqy2-1p expression was repressed by hyper-osmotic culture conditions. Both immunocytochemistry and biochemical subcellular fractionation demonstrated that Aqy2-1p is located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as on the plasma membrane. In microsomal vesicles enriched in ER, a water channel activity due to Aqy2-1p was detected by stopped-flow analysis. Our results show that the expression of aquaporins is tightly controlled. The physiological relevance of aquaporin-mediated water transport in yeast is discussed. [source]

Akt2/PKB,-sensitive regulation of renal phosphate transport

D. S. Kempe
Abstract Aim:, The protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is known to stimulate the cellular uptake of glucose and amino acids. The kinase is expressed in proximal renal tubules. The present study explored the influence of Akt/PKB on renal tubular phosphate transport. Methods:, The renal phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa was expressed in Xenopus oocytes with or without PKB/Akt and Na+ phosphate cotransport determined using dual electrode voltage clamp. Renal phosphate excretion was determined in Akt2/PKB, knockout mice (akt2,/,) and corresponding wild-type mice (akt2+/+). Transporter protein abundance was determined using Western blotting and phosphate transport by 32P uptake into brush border membrane vesicles. Results:, The phosphate-induced current in NaPi-IIa-expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly increased by the coexpression of Akt/PKB. Phosphate excretion [,mol per 24 h per g BW] was higher by 91% in akt2,/, than in akt2+/+ mice. The phosphaturia of akt2,/, mice occurred despite normal transport activity and expression of the renal phosphate transporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc and Pit2 in the brush border membrane, a significantly decreased plasma PTH concentration (by 46%) and a significantly enhanced plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (by 46%). Moreover, fractional renal Ca2+ excretion was significantly enhanced (by 53%) and bone density significantly reduced (by 11%) in akt2,/, mice. Conclusions:, Akt2/PKB, plays a role in the acute regulation of renal phosphate transport and thus contributes to the maintenance of phosphate balance and adequate mineralization of bone. [source]

Localization and functional characterization of the human NKCC2 isoforms

I. Carota
Abstract Aim:, Salt reabsorption across the apical membrane of cells in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle is primarily mediated by the bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/2Cl, cotransporter NKCC2. Three full-length splice variants of NKCC2 (NKCC2B, NKCC2A and NKCC2F) have been described. The NKCC2 isoforms have specific localizations and transport characteristics, as assessed for rabbit, rat and mouse. In the present study, we aimed to address the localization and transport characteristics of the human NKCC2 isoforms. Methods:, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and uptake studies in Xenopus oocytes were performed to characterize human NKCC2 isoforms. Results:, All three classical NKCC2 isoforms were detected in the human kidney; in addition, we found splice variants with tandem duplicates of the variable exon 4. Contrary to rodents, in which NKCC2F is the most abundant NKCC2 isoform, NKCC2A was the dominant isoform in humans; similarly, isoform-specific in situ hybridization showed high expression levels of human NKCC2A along the TAL. Compared to NKCC2B and NKCC2F, human NKCC2A had the lowest Cl, affinity as determined by 86Rb+ uptake studies in oocytes. All NKCC2 isoforms were more efficiently inhibited by bumetanide than by furosemide. A sequence analysis of the amino acids encoded by exon 4 variants revealed high similarities between human and rodent NKCC2 isoforms, suggesting that differences in ion transport characteristics between species may be related to sequence variations outside the highly conserved sequence encoded by exon 4. Conclusion:, The human NKCC2 is an example of how differential splicing forms the basis for a diversification of transporter protein function. [source]

Immunocytochemical study of activin type IB receptor (XALK4) in Xenopus oocytes

Akimasa Fukui
Studies have shown that the activin type IB receptor is specific for activin/nodal signaling. Activin is produced by follicle cells in the ovary, and is incorporated into the oocytes. Antisera against three peptides were prepared, encompassing the extracellular, intracellular and serine/threonine kinase domains of the Xenopus type IB activin receptor (XALK4). Immunocytochemistry was done using these antisera to investigate the distribution of XALK4 in the Xenopus ovary. All three antisera stained the mitochondrial cloud of Xenopus previtellogenic oocytes. Purified antibody against the intracellular domain also recognized the mitochondrial cloud. Immunoelectron microscopy localized XALK4 on the endoplasmic reticulum of the mitochondrial cloud, although not on mitochondria. [source]

Identification of germ plasm-associated transcripts by microarray analysis of Xenopus vegetal cortex RNA

Tawny N. Cuykendall
Abstract RNA localization is a common mechanism for regulating cell structure and function. Localized RNAs in Xenopus oocytes are critical for early development, including germline specification by the germ plasm. Despite the importance of these localized RNAs, only approximately 25 have been identified and fewer are functionally characterized. Using microarrays, we identified a large set of localized RNAs from the vegetal cortex. Overall, our results indicate a minimum of 275 localized RNAs in oocytes, or 2,3% of maternal transcripts, which are in general agreement with previous findings. We further validated vegetal localization for 24 candidates and further characterized three genes expressed in the germ plasm. We identified novel germ plasm expression for reticulon 3.1, exd2 (a novel exonuclease-domain encoding gene), and a putative noncoding RNA. Further analysis of these and other localized RNAs will likely identify new functions of germ plasm and facilitate the identification of cis -acting RNA localization elements. Developmental Dynamics 239:1838,1848, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Xenopus Lefty requires proprotein cleavage but not N-linked glycosylation to inhibit nodal signaling

Joby J. Westmoreland
Abstract The Nodal and Nodal-related morphogens are utilized for the specification of distinct cellular identity throughout development by activating discrete target genes in a concentration-dependant manner. Lefty is a principal extracellular antagonist involved in the spatiotemporal regulation of the Nodal morphogen gradient during mesendoderm induction. The Xenopus Lefty proprotein contains a single N-linked glycosylation motif in the mature domain and two potential cleavage sites that would be expected to produce long (XleftyL) and short (XleftyS) isoforms. Here we demonstrate that both isoforms were secreted from Xenopus oocytes, but that XleftyL is the only isoform detected when embryonic tissue was analyzed. In mesoderm induction assays, XleftyL is the functional blocker of Xnr signaling. When secreted from oocytes, vertebrate Lefty molecules were N-linked glycosylated. However, glycan addition was not required to inhibit Xnr signaling and did not influence its movement through the extracellular space. These findings demonstrate that Lefty molecules undergo post-translational modifications and that some of these modifications are required for the Nodal inhibitory function. Developmental Dynamics 236:2050,2061, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Individual variation and hormonal modulation of a sodium channel , subunit in the electric organ correlate with variation in a social signal

He Liu
Abstract The sodium channel ,1 subunit affects sodium channel gating and surface density, but little is known about the factors that regulate ,1 expression or its participation in the fine control of cellular excitability. In this study we examined whether graded expression of the ,1 subunit contributes to the gradient in sodium current inactivation, which is tightly controlled and directly related to a social behavior, the electric organ discharge (EOD), in a weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus. We found the mRNA and protein levels of ,1 in the electric organ both correlate with EOD frequency. We identified a novel mRNA splice form of this gene and found the splicing preference for this novel splice form also correlates with EOD frequency. Androgen implants lowered EOD frequency and decreased the ,1 mRNA level but did not affect splicing. Coexpression of each splice form in Xenopus oocytes with either the human muscle sodium channel gene, hNav1.4, or a Sternopygus ortholog, smNav1.4b, sped the rate of inactivation of the sodium current and shifted the steady-state inactivation toward less negative membrane potentials. The translational product of the novel mRNA splice form lacks a previously identified important tyrosine residue but still functions normally. The properties of the fish , and coexpressed ,1 subunits in the oocyte replicate those of the electric organ's endogenous sodium current. These data highlight the role of ion channel , subunits in regulating cellular excitability. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

Characterization and expression of ATP P2X4 receptor from embryonic chick skeletal muscle

Xuenong Bo
Abstract Previous pharmacological experiments have indicated the existence of ATP P2X receptors in chick embryonic skeletal muscles. In this study we cloned a P2X4 -like cDNA encoding a protein of 385 amino acids, which shares 75% and 76% identity with rat and human P2X4 receptors, respectively. Functional studies of this cP2X4 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes showed that ATP induced a fast inward current, which was partially desensitized upon prolonged application of ATP. The ATP-induced currents were concentration-dependent, with an EC50 of 9.5 ,M. Adenosine 5,- O -(thio)triphosphate and 2-methylthioATP very weak agonists. ,,,-methyleneATP was almost inactive. In contrast to their potentiating effects on recombinant rat P2X4 receptors, both suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2,,4,-disulfonic acid partially blocked ATP-induced currents. TrinitrophenylATP was able to block ATP-induced response completely, with an IC50 of 4.7 ,M. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that cP2X4 mRNAs were mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, brain, and gizzard of day 10 chick embryos. Lower levels of expression were also detected in liver, heart, and retina. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that cP2X4 mRNAs were expressed in the brain, spinal cord, notochord, gizzard, and skeletal muscle. The physiological functions of cP2X4 receptors in embryonic skeletal muscle remain unclear at present. Drug Dev. Res. 53:22,28, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A New Chrna4 Mutation with Low Penetrance in Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2003
Tobias Leniger
Summary: Purpose: To identify and characterize the mutation(s) causing nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in a German extended family. Methods: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes were screened by direct sequencing. Once a CHRNA4 mutation was identified, its biophysical and pharmacologic properties were characterized by expression experiments in Xenopus oocytes. Results: We report a new CHRNA4 mutation, causing a ,4-T265I amino acid exchange at the extracellular end of the second transmembrane domain (TM). Functional studies of ,4-T265I revealed an increased ACh sensitivity of the mutated receptors. ,4-T265I is associated with an unusual low penetrance of the epilepsy phenotype. Sequencing of the TM1-TM3 parts of the 1 known nAChR subunits did not support a two-locus model involving a second nAChR sequence variation. Conclusions: nAChR mutations found in familial epilepsy are not always associated with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. ,4-T265I is the first nAChR allele showing a markedly reduced penetrance consistent with a major gene effect. The low penetrance of the mutation is probably caused by unknown genetic or environmental factors or both. [source]

,-Conotoxin CVIB differentially inhibits native and recombinant N- and P/Q-type calcium channels

Leonid Motin
Abstract ,-Conotoxins are routinely used as selective inhibitors of different classes of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in excitable cells. In the present study, we examined the potent N-type VGCC antagonist ,-conotoxin CVID and non-selective N- and P/Q-type antagonist CVIB for their ability to block native VGCCs in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and recombinant VGCCs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. ,-Conotoxins CVID and CVIB inhibited depolarization-activated whole-cell VGCC currents in DRG neurons with pIC50 values of 8.12 ± 0.05 and 7.64 ± 0.08, respectively. Inhibition of Ba2+ currents in DRG neurons by CVID (, 66% of total) appeared to be irreversible for >,30 min washout, whereas Ba2+ currents exhibited rapid recovery from block by CVIB (, 80% within 3 min). The recoverable component of the Ba2+ current inhibited by CVIB was mediated by the N-type VGCC, whereas the irreversibly blocked current (, 22% of total) was attributable to P/Q-type VGCCs. ,-Conotoxin CVIB reversibly inhibited Ba2+ currents mediated by N- (CaV2.2) and P/Q- (CaV2.1), but not R- (CaV2.3) type VGCCs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The ,2,1 auxiliary subunit co-expressed with CaV2.2 and CaV2.1 reduced the sensitivity of VGCCs to CVIB but had no effect on reversibility of block. Determination of the NMR structure of CVIB identified structural differences to CVID that may underlie differences in selectivity of these closely related conotoxins. ,-Conotoxins CVIB and CVID may be useful as antagonists of N- and P/Q-type VGCCs, particularly in sensory neurons involved in processing primary nociceptive information. [source]

Distribution and functional characterization of human Nav1.3 splice variants

R. Thimmapaya
Abstract The focus of the present study is the molecular and functional characterization of four splice variants of the human Nav1.3 , subunit. These subtypes arise due to the use of alternative splice donor sites of exon 12, which encodes a region of the , subunit that resides in the intracellular loop between domains I and II. This region contains several important phosphorylation sites that modulate Na+ channel kinetics in related sodium channels, i.e. Nav1.2. While three of the four Nav1.3 isoforms, 12v1, 12v3 and 12v4 have been previously identified in human, 12v2 has only been reported in rat. Herein, we evaluate the distribution of these splice variants in human tissues and the functional characterization of each of these subtypes. We demonstrate by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that each subtype is expressed in the spinal cord, thalamus, amygdala, cerebellum, adult and fetal whole brain and heart. To investigate the functional properties of these different splice variants, each , subunit isoform was cloned by RT-PCR from human fetal brain and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Each isoform exhibited functional voltage-dependent Na+ channels with similar sensitivities to tetrodotoxin (TTX) and comparable current amplitudes. Subtle shifts in the V1/2 of activation and inactivation (2,3 mV) were observed among the four isoforms, although the functional significance of these differences remains unclear. This study has demonstrated that all four human splice variants of the Nav1.3 channel , subunit are widely expressed and generate functional TTX-sensitive Na+ channels that likely modulate cellular excitability. [source]

Functional characterization of a neuropeptide F-like receptor from Drosophila melanogaster

Guoping Feng
Abstract A cDNA clone encoding a seven-transmembrane domain, G-protein-coupled receptor (NPFR76F, also called GPCR60), has been isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. Deletion mapping showed that the gene encoding this receptor is located on the left arm of the third chromosome at position 76F. Northern blotting and whole mount in situ hybridization have shown that this receptor is expressed in a limited number of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems of embryos and adults. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this receptor is related to vertebrate neuropeptide Y receptors. This Drosophila receptor shows 62,66% similarity and 32,34% identity to type 2 neuropeptide Y receptors cloned from a variety of vertebrate sources. Coexpression in Xenopus oocytes of NPFR76F with the promiscuous G-protein G,16 showed that this receptor is activated by the vertebrate neuropeptide Y family to produce inward currents due to the activation of an endogenous oocyte calcium-dependent chloride current. Maximum receptor activation was achieved with short, putative Drosophila neuropeptide F peptides (Drm-sNPF-1, 2 and 2s). Neuropeptide F-like peptides in Drosophila have been implicated in a signalling system that modulates food response and social behaviour. The identification of this neuropeptide F-like receptor and its endogenous ligand by reverse pharmacology will facilitate genetic and behavioural studies of neuropeptide functions in Drosophila. [source]

Characterization of Zebrafish Cx43.4 Connexin and its Channels

T. Desplantez
Connexins (Cx) form intercellular junctional channels which are responsible for metabolic and electrical coupling. We report here on the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of zebrafish connexin zfCx43.4, an orthologue of mammalian and avian Cx45, and the electrophysiological properties of junctional channels formed by this protein. The investigations were performed on transfected COS-7 cells or HeLa cells. Using site-directed antibodies, zfCx43.4 cDNA (GenBank accession no. X96712) was demonstrated to code for a protein with a Mr of 45 000. In transfected cells, zfCx43.4 was localized in cell-cell contact areas as expected for a gap junction protein. zfCx43.4 channels were shown to transfer Lucifer Yellow. The multichannel currents were sensitive to the transjunctional voltage (Vj). Their properties were consistent with a two-state model and yielded the following Boltzmann parameters for negative/positive Vj: Vj,0= -38.4/41.9 mV; gj,min= 0.19/0.18; z = 2.6/2.3. These parameters deviate somewhat from those of zfCx43.4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes and from those of Cx45, an orthologue of zfCx43.4, expressed in mammalian cells or Xenopus oocytes. Conceivably, the subtle differences may reflect differences in experimental methods and/or in the expression system. The single channel currents yielded two prominent levels attributable to a main conductance state (,j,main= 33.2 ± 1.5 pS) and a residual conductance state (,j,residual= 11.9 ± 0.6 pS). [source]

Identification of the structural determinant responsible for the phosphorylation of G-protein activated potassium channel 1 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 21 2009
Carmen Müllner
Besides being activated by G-protein ,/, subunits, G-protein activated potassium channels (GIRKs) are regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Back-phosphorylation experiments have revealed that the GIRK1 subunit is phosphorylated in vivo upon protein kinase A activation in Xenopus oocytes, whereas phosphorylation was eliminated when protein kinase A was blocked. In vitro phosphorylation experiments using truncated versions of GIRK1 revealed that the structural determinant is located within the distant, unique cytosolic C-terminus of GIRK1. Serine 385, serine 401 and threonine 407 were identified to be responsible for the incorporation of radioactive 32P into the protein. Furthermore, the functional effects of cAMP injections into oocytes on currents produced by GIRK1 homooligomers were significantly reduced when these three amino acids were mutated. The data obtained in the present study provide information about the structural determinants that are responsible for protein kinase A phosphorylation and the regulation of GIRK channels. Structured digital abstract ,,MINT-7260296, MINT-7260317, MINT-7260333, MINT-7260347, MINT-7260361, MINT-7260270: PKA-cs (uniprotkb:P00517) phosphorylates (MI:0217) Girk1 (uniprotkb:P63251) by protein kinase assay (MI:0424) [source]

Xenopus Rbm9 is a novel interactor of XGld2 in the cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
Catherine Papin
During early development, control of the poly(A) tail length by cytoplasmic polyadenylation is critical for the regulation of specific mRNA expression. Gld2, an atypical poly(A) polymerase, is involved in cytoplasmic polyadenylation in Xenopus oocytes. In this study, a new XGld2-interacting protein was identified: Xenopus RNA-binding motif protein 9 (XRbm9). This RNA-binding protein is exclusively expressed in the cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes and interacts directly with XGld2. It is shown that XRbm9 belongs to the cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex, together with cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB), cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and XGld2. In addition, tethered XRbm9 stimulates the translation of a reporter mRNA. The function of XGld2 in stage VI oocytes was also analysed. The injection of XGld2 antibody into oocytes inhibited polyadenylation, showing that endogenous XGld2 is required for cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Unexpectedly, XGld2 and CPEB antibody injections also led to an acceleration of meiotic maturation, suggesting that XGld2 is part of a masking complex with CPEB and is associated with repressed mRNAs in oocytes. [source]

Isolation and characterization of the Xenopus HIVEP gene family

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2004
Ulrike Dürr
The HIVEP gene family encodes for very large sequence-specific DNA binding proteins containing multiple zinc fingers. Three mammalian paralogous genes have been identified, HIVEP1, - 2 and - 3, as well as the closely related Drosophila gene, Schnurri. These genes have been found to directly participate in the transcriptional regulation of a variety of genes. Mammalian HIVEP members have been implicated in signaling by TNF-, and in the positive selection of thymocytes, while Schnurri has been shown to be an essential component of the TGF-, signaling pathway. In this study, we describe the isolation of Xenopus HIVEP1, as well as partial cDNAs of HIVEP2 and - 3. Analysis of the temporal and spatial expression of the XHIVEP transcripts during early embryogenesis revealed ubiquitous expression of the transcripts. Assays using Xenopus oocytes mapped XHIVEP1 domains that are responsible for nuclear export and import activity. The DNA binding specificity of XHIVEP was characterized using a PCR-mediated selection and gel mobility shift assays. [source]

Casein kinase 2 specifically binds to and phosphorylates the carboxy termini of ENaC subunits

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2002
Haikun Shi
A number of findings have suggested the involvement of protein phosphorylation in the regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). A recent study has demonstrated that the C tails of the , and , subunits of ENaC are subject to phosphorylation by at least three protein kinases [Shi, H., Asher, C., Chigaev, A., Yung, Y., Reuveny, E., Seger, R. & Garty, H. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 13539,13547]. One of them was identified as ERK which phosphorylates ,T613 and ,T623 and affects the channel interaction with Nedd4. The current study identifies a second protein kinase as casein kinase 2 (CK2), or CK-2-like kinase. It phosphorylates ,S631, a well-conserved serine on the , subunit. Such phosphorylation is observed both in vitro using glutathione-S-transferase,ENaC fusion proteins and in vivo in ENaC-expressing Xenopus oocytes. The , subunit is weakly phosphorylated by this protein kinase on another residue (,T599), and the C tail of , is not significantly phosphorylated by this kinase. Thus, CK2 may be involved in the regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel. [source]

Selectivity of lynx proteins on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

B. Yang
Abstract Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Two lynx proteins (Nl-lynx1 and Nl-lynx2) have been identified in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, which act as modulators on insect nAChRs. In the present study, two lynx proteins were found to act on the triplet receptor Nl,1/Nl,2/,2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes, increasing agonist-evoked macroscopic currents, but not changing agonist sensitivity and desensitization properties. Nl-lynx1 and Nl-lynx2 increased Imax (maximum responses) of acetylcholine to 4.85-fold and 2.40-fold of that of Nl,1/Nl,2/,2 alone, and they also increased Imax of imidacloprid to 2.57-fold and 1.25-fold. Although, on another triplet nAChRs Nl,3/Nl,8/,2, Nl-lynx2 increased Imax of acetylcholine and imidacloprid to 3.63-fold and 2.16-fold, Nl-lynx1 had no effects on Imax of either acetylcholine or imidacloprid. The results demonstrate the selectivity of lynx proteins for different insect nAChR subtypes. This selectivity was also identified in native N. Lugens. Co-immunoprecipitation was found between Nl,1/Nl,2-containing receptors and both Nl-lynx1 and Nl-lynx2, but was only found between Nl,3/Nl,8-containing receptors and Nl-lynx2. When the previously identified Nl,1Y151S and Nl,3Y151S mutations were included (Nl,1Y151S/Nl,2/,2 and Nl,3Y151S/Nl,8/,2), the increase in Imax of imidacloprid, but not acetylcholine, caused by co-expression of Nl-lynx1 and Nl-lynx2 was more noticeable than that of their wildtype counterparts. Taken together, these data suggest that two modulators, Nl-lynx1 and Nl-lynx2, might serve as an influencing factor in target site insensitivity in N. lugens, such as Y151S mutation. [source]

Pharmacological characterization of cis -nitromethylene neonicotinoids in relation to imidacloprid binding sites in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

X. Xu
Abstract Neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, are selective agonists of the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and extensively used in areas of crop protection and animal health to control a variety of insect pest species. Here we describe that two cis -nitromethylene neonicotinoids (IPPA152002 and IPPA152004), recently synthesized in our laboratory, discriminated between the high and low affinity imidacloprid binding sites in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a major insect pest of rice crops in many parts of Asia. [3H]imidacloprid has two binding sites with different affinities (Kd value of 0.0035 ± 0.0006 nM for the high-affinity site and 1.47 ± 0.22 nM for the low-affinity site). Although the cis -nitromethylene neonicotinoids showed low displacement ability (Ki values of 0.15 ± 0.03 µM and 0.42 ± 0.07 µM for IPPA152002 and IPPA152004, respectively) against [3H]imidacloprid binding, low concentrations (0.01 µM) of IPPA152002 completely inhibited [3H]imidacloprid binding at its high-affinity site. In Xenopus oocytes co-injected with cRNA encoding Nl,1 and rat ,2 subunits, obvious inward currents were detected in response to applications of IPPA152002 and IPPA152004, although the agonist potency is reduced to that of imidacloprid. The previously identified Y151S mutation in Nl,1 showed significant effects on the agonist potency of IPPA152002 and IPPA152004, such as a 75.8% and 70.6% reduction in Imax, and a 2.4- and 2.1-fold increase in EC50. This data clearly shows that the two newly described cis -nitromethylene neonicotinoids act on insect nAChRs and like imidacloprid, discriminated between high and low affinity binding sites in N. lugens native nAChRs. These compounds may be useful tools to further elucidate the pharmacology and nature of neonicotinoid binding sites. [source]

A cardiac sodium channel mutation identified in Brugada syndrome associated with atrial standstill

N. Takehara
Abstract., Takehara N, Makita N, Kawabe J, Sato N, Kawamura Y, Kitabatake A, Kikuchi K (Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa; Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Newark, NY, USA). A cardiac sodium channel mutation identified in Brugada syndrome associated with atrial standstill (Case Report). J Intern Med 2004; 255: 137,142. Mutations in the cardiac Na+ channel gene SCN5A are responsible for multiple lethal ventricular arrhythmias including Brugada syndrome and congenital long QT syndrome. Here we report a case of Brugada syndrome with ST elevation in the right precordial and inferior leads accompanied by atrial standstill and spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. Atrial standstill and J wave elevation were provoked by procainamide. Genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation (R367H) in SCN5A. The resultant mutant Na+ channel was nonfunctional when expressed heterologously in Xenopus oocytes. Our study suggests that genetic defects in SCN5A may be associated with atrial standstill in combination with ventricular arrhythmias. [source]

Regions of the amino terminus of the P2X1 receptor required for modification by phorbol ester and mGluR1, receptors

Hairuo Wen
Abstract The potentiation of P2X1 receptor currents by phorbol ester (PMA) treatment and stimulation of mGluR1, receptors was sensitive to inhibition of novel forms of protein kinase C. Potentiation was also reduced by co-expression of an amino terminal P2X1 receptor minigene. Cysteine point mutants of residues Tyr16 -Gly30 were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Peak current amplitudes to ATP for Y16C, T18C and R20C mutants were reduced, however this did not result from a decrease in surface expression of the channels. The majority of the mutants showed changes in the time-course of desensitization of ATP evoked currents indicating the important role of this region in regulation of channel properties. PMA and mGluR1, potentiation was abolished for the mutants Y16C, T18C, R20C, K27C and G30C. Minigenes incorporating either Y16C, K27C, V29C or G30C still inhibited PMA responses. However D17C, T18C or R20C mutant minigenes were no longer effective suggesting that these residues are important for interaction with regulatory factors. These results demonstrate that the conserved YXTXK/R sequence and a region with a conserved glycine residue close to the first transmembrane segment contribute to PMA and GPCR regulation of P2X1 receptors. [source]

Amino acids outside of the loops that define the agonist binding site are important for ligand binding to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

Zewen Liu
Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of several kinds of insecticides. Based on the mutagenesis studies of Torpedo californica nAChRs and solved structure of a molluscan, glial-derived soluble ACh-binding protein, a model of the agonist site was constructed with contributing amino acids from three distinct loops (A, B, and C) of the , subunits and another three loops (D, E, and F) of the non-, subunits. According to this model, most insect nAChR subunits can form the functional heteromeric or homomeric receptors. Actually, insect subunits themselves did not form any functional receptor at various combinations as yet, and only part of them can form the functional receptors with vertebrate non-, subunits. These findings suggested that the agonist binding for insect nAChRs was not only contributed by those key amino acids in six loops, but also some unidentified amino acids from other regions. In our previous studies on nAChRs for Nilaparvata lugens, a target-site mutation (Y151S) was found within two , subunits (Nl,1 and Nl,3). In Drosophila S2 cells and Xenopus oocytes, Nl,1 can form functional receptors with rat ,2 subunit. However, the same thing was not observed in Nl,3. In the present paper, by exchanging the corresponding regions between Nl,1 and Nl,3 to generate different chimeras, amino acid residues or residue clusters in the regions outside the six loops were found to play essential roles in agonist binding, especially for the amino acid clusters between loop B and C. This result indicated that the residues in the six loops could be necessary, but not enough for the activity of agonist binding. [source]

EAAT4 phosphorylation at the SGK1 consensus site is required for transport modulation by the kinase

Jeyaganesh Rajamanickam
Abstract EAAT4 (SLC1A6) is a Purkinje-Cell-specific post-synaptic excitatory amino acid transporter that plays a major role in clearing synaptic glutamate. EAAT4 abundance and function is known to be modulated by the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) 1 but the precise mechanism of kinase action has not been defined yet. The present work aims to identify the molecular mechanism of EAAT4 modulation by the kinase. The EAAT4 sequence bears two putative SGK1 consensus sites (at Thr40 and Thr504) at the amino and carboxy terminus that are conserved among species. Expression studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that EAAT4-mediated [3H] glutamate uptake and cell surface abundance are enhanced by co-expression of SGK1. Disruption of the SGK1 phosphorylation site at threonine 40 (T40AEAAT4) or of both phosphorylation sites (T40AT504AEAAT4) abrogated the effect of SGK1 on transporter function and expression. SGK1 modulates several transport proteins via inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. Co-expression of Nedd4-2 inhibited wild-type EAAT4 but not the T40AT504AEAAT4 mutant. Besides, RNA interference-mediated reduction of endogenous Nedd4-2 (xNedd4-2) expression increased the activity of the transporter. In conclusion, maximal glutamate transport modulation by SGK1 is accomplished by direct EAAT4 stimulation and to a lesser extent by inhibition of intrinsic Nedd4-2. [source]

The ,-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease binds to membrane lipids but does not bind to the ,7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

David H. Small
Abstract Accumulation of the amyloid protein (A,) in the brain is an important step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism by which A, exerts its neurotoxic effect is largely unknown. It has been suggested that the peptide can bind to the ,7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (,7nAChR). In this study, we examined the binding of A,1-42 to endogenous and recombinantly expressed ,7nAChRs. A,1-42 did neither inhibit the specific binding of ,7nAChR ligands to rat brain homogenate or slice preparations, nor did it influence the activity of ,7nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Similarly, A,1-42 did not compete for ,-bungarotoxin-binding sites on SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing ,7nAChRs. The effect of the A,1-42 on tau phosphorylation was also examined. Although A,1-42 altered tau phosphorylation in ,7nAChR-transfected SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of the peptide was unrelated to ,7nAChR expression or activity. Binding studies using surface plasmon resonance indicated that the majority of the A, bound to membrane lipid, rather than to a protein component. Fluorescence anisotropy experiments indicated that A, may disrupt membrane lipid structure or fluidity. We conclude that the effects of A, are unlikely to be mediated by direct binding to the ,7nAChR. Instead, we speculate that A, may exert its effects by altering the packing of lipids within the plasma membrane, which could, in turn, influence the function of a variety of receptors and channels on the cell surface. [source]

Post-translational regulation of EAAT2 function by co-expressed ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 is impacted by SGK kinases

Christoph Boehmer
Abstract The human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)2 is the major glutamate carrier in the mammalian CNS. Defective expression of the transporter results in neuroexcitotoxicity that may contribute to neuronal disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) 1 is expressed in the brain and is known to interact with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 to modulate membrane transporters and ion channels. The present study aimed to investigate whether SGK isoforms and the related kinase, protein kinase B (PKB), regulate EAAT2. Expression studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that glutamate-induced inward current (IGLU) was stimulated by co-expression of SGK1, SGK2, SGK3 or PKB. IGLU is virtually abolished by Nedd4-2, an effect abrogated by additional co-expression of either kinase. The kinases diminish the effect through Nedd4-2 phosphorylation without altering Nedd4-2 protein abundance. SGKs increase the transporter maximal velocity without significantly affecting substrate affinity. Similar to glutamate-induced currents, [3H] glutamate uptake and cell surface abundance of the transporter were increased by the SGK isoforms and down-regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In conclusion, all three SGK isoforms and PKB increase EAAT2 activity and plasma membrane expression and thus, may participate in the regulation of neuroexcitability. [source]