Xenopus Laevis Embryos (xenopus + laevi_embryo)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Hydrocolloid Coating of Xenopus laevis Embryos

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 3 2000
N. Kampf
A novel technology for coating single cells and embryos with thin hydrocolloid (water-soluble polymer) films has been invented and patented. Coating is different from entrapment and immobilization in that the coating around the cell is thinner, comprising only a small fraction of the cell or embryo's diameter. Xenopus laevis embryos were coated with thin films of low-methoxy pectin (LMP), alginate, and ,- and ,-carrageenans. These gums have different compositions and structures and as such created different coatings around the fertilized cells. All coated embryos appeared to develop normally, similar to noncoated embryos. Elemental detection by ICP-AES spectroscopy revealed that the embryo can control the diffusion of excess ions to which it is exposed during the coating process. The coatings delayed hatching by 18,24 h. Consequently, at hatch the embryos were at a more developed stage than their noncoated counterparts. The hydrocolloid coating reduced the thickness of the natural jelly coating (JC). With the ,-carrageenan coating, percent hatch was maximal, while with LMP it was minimal, as a result of the films' mechanical properties and thicknesses. LMP and alginate created smoother coatings than the carrageenans. Potential interactions between the coating and the natural JC are hypothesized. Overall, coatings appear to be a suitable tool for laboratories interested in performing longer-term experiments with embryos. [source]


Repulsive guidance of axons of spinal sensory neurons in Xenopus laevis embryos: Roles of Contactin and notochord-derived chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans

DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 7 2005
Naoko Fujita
An immunoglobulin superfamily neuronal adhesion molecule, Contactin, has been implicated in axon guidance of spinal sensory neurons in Xenopus embryos. To identify the guidance signaling molecules that Contactin recognizes in tailbud embryos, an in situ binding assay was performed using recombinant Contactin-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein (Contactin-AP) as a probe. In the assay of whole-mount or sectioned embryos, Contactin-AP specifically bound to the notochord and its proximal regions. This binding was completely blocked by either digestion of embryo sections with chondroitinase ABC or pretreatment of Contactin-AP with chondroitin sulfate A. When the spinal cord and the notochord explants were co-cultured in collagen gel, growing Contactin-positive spinal axons were repelled by notochord-derived repulsive activity. This repulsive activity was abolished by the addition of either a monoclonal anti-Contactin antibody, chondroitin sulfate A or chondroitinase ABC to the culture medium. An antibody that recognizes chondroitin sulfate A and C labeled immunohistochemically the notochord in embryo sections and the collagen gel matrix around the cultured notochord explant. Addition of chondroitinase ABC into the culture eliminated the immunoreactivity in the gel matrix. These results suggest that the notochord-derived chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan acts as a repulsive signaling molecule that is recognized by Contactin on spinal sensory axons. [source]


Cloning and characterization of voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunits in Xenopus laevis during development

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 11 2009
Brittany B. Lewis
Abstract Voltage-gated calcium channels play a critical role in regulating the Ca2+ activity that mediates many aspects of neural development, including neural induction, neurotransmitter phenotype specification, and neurite outgrowth. Using Xenopus laevis embryos, we describe the spatial and temporal expression patterns during development of the 10 pore-forming alpha1 subunits that define the channels' kinetic properties. In situ hybridization indicates that CaV1.2, CaV2.1, CaV2.2, and CaV3.2 are expressed during neurula stages throughout the neural tube. These, along with CaV1.3 and CaV2.3, beginning at early tail bud stages, and CaV3.1 at late tail bud stages, are detected in complex patterns within the brain and spinal cord through swimming tadpole stages. Additional expression of various alpha1 subunits was observed in the cranial ganglia, retina, olfactory epithelium, pineal gland, and heart. The unique expression patterns for the different alpha1 subunits suggests they are under precise spatial and temporal regulation and are serving specific functions during embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2891,2902, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Isolation and characterization of Xenopus Hey-1: A downstream mediator of Notch signaling

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 4 2002
M.S. Rones
Abstract Regulation of Notch signaling likely occurs, at least in part, at the level of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that function downstream of Suppressor of Hairless (Su(H)) in the Notch pathway. To begin to characterize modulation of Notch signaling during organogenesis, we examined the bHLH transcription factor, XHey-1 (hairy related-1) in early Xenopus laevis embryos. XHey-1 is expressed in numerous tissues during early development including the somites, head, embryonic kidneys, and heart. Importantly, the expression of XHey-1 was significantly altered in response to perturbation of Notch signaling by means of inducible constructs that served to either activate or suppress Notch signaling through Su(H) in a temporally controlled manner. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Hydrocolloid Coating of Xenopus laevis Embryos

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 3 2000
N. Kampf
A novel technology for coating single cells and embryos with thin hydrocolloid (water-soluble polymer) films has been invented and patented. Coating is different from entrapment and immobilization in that the coating around the cell is thinner, comprising only a small fraction of the cell or embryo's diameter. Xenopus laevis embryos were coated with thin films of low-methoxy pectin (LMP), alginate, and ,- and ,-carrageenans. These gums have different compositions and structures and as such created different coatings around the fertilized cells. All coated embryos appeared to develop normally, similar to noncoated embryos. Elemental detection by ICP-AES spectroscopy revealed that the embryo can control the diffusion of excess ions to which it is exposed during the coating process. The coatings delayed hatching by 18,24 h. Consequently, at hatch the embryos were at a more developed stage than their noncoated counterparts. The hydrocolloid coating reduced the thickness of the natural jelly coating (JC). With the ,-carrageenan coating, percent hatch was maximal, while with LMP it was minimal, as a result of the films' mechanical properties and thicknesses. LMP and alginate created smoother coatings than the carrageenans. Potential interactions between the coating and the natural JC are hypothesized. Overall, coatings appear to be a suitable tool for laboratories interested in performing longer-term experiments with embryos. [source]