Xenopus Development (xenopus + development)

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Selected Abstracts

XBtg2 is required for notochord differentiation during early Xenopus development

Kaoru Sugimoto
The notochord is essential for normal vertebrate development, serving as both a structural support for the embryo and a signaling source for the patterning of adjacent tissues. Previous studies on the notochord have mostly focused on its formation and function in early organogenesis but gene regulation in the differentiation of notochord cells itself remains poorly defined. In the course of screening for genes expressed in developing notochord, we have isolated Xenopus homolog of Btg2 (XBtg2). The mammalian Btg2 genes, Btg2/PC3/TIS21, have been reported to have multiple functions in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation but their roles in early development are still unclear. Here we characterized XBtg2 in early Xenopus laevis embryogenesis with focus on notochord development. Translational inhibition of XBtg2 resulted in a shortened and bent axis phenotype and the abnormal structures in the notochord tissue, which did not undergo vacuolation. The XBtg2-depleted notochord cells expressed early notochord markers such as chordin and Xnot at the early tailbud stage, but failed to express differentiation markers of notochord such as Tor70 and 5-D-4 antigens in the later stages. These results suggest that XBtg2 is required for the differentiation of notochord cells such as the process of vacuolar formation after determination of notochord cell fate. [source]

Membrane dynamics of cleavage furrow closure in Xenopus laevis

Michael V. Danilchik
Abstract Epithelial membrane polarity develops early in Xenopus development, with membrane inserted along the earliest cleavage furrows by means of localized exocytosis. The added surface constitutes a new basolateral domain important for early morphogenesis. This basolateral surface becomes isolated from the outside by furrow closure, a zippering of adjacent apical,basolateral margins. Time-lapse microscopy of membrane-labeled embryos revealed two distinct kinds of protrusive activity in furrow closure. Early in furrowing, protrusive activity was associated with purse-string contractility along the apical,basolateral margins. Later in furrow progression, a basolateral protrusive zone developed entirely within the new membrane domain, with long motile filopodia extending in contractile bands from the exposed surfaces. Filopodia interacting with opposing cell surfaces across the cleavage furrow appeared to mediate blastomere,blastomere adhesion, contact spreading and lamellipodial protrusion. Interference with these dynamic activities prevented furrow closure, indicating a basic role for both marginal and basolateral protrusive activities in early embryogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 237:565,579, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

XSUMO-1 is required for normal mesoderm induction and axis elongation during early Xenopus development

Akira Yukita
Abstract The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a member of the ubiquitin-like protein family, and SUMO conjugation (SUMOylation) resembles ubiquitination. Despite many SUMOylation target proteins being reported, the role of this system in vertebrate development remains unclear. We inhibited the function of Xenopus SUMO-1 (XSUMO-1) using a morpholino antisense oligo against XSUMO-1 (XSUMO-1-MO) to clarify the role of SUMOylation. XSUMO-1-MO inhibited normal axis formation in embryos and elongation of activin-treated animal caps. The expression of several mesoderm markers was reduced by XSUMO-1-MO. We measured activin-like activity by using a reporter construct containing a multimer of activin-responsive elements from the Goosecoid promoter, [DE(6x)Luc]. This assay showed that XSUMO-1-MO directly inhibited activin/nodal signaling. Furthermore, XSUMO-1-MO inhibited ectopic axis formation induced by XSmad2, and XSmad2/4 mRNA could not rescue the axis elongation defect induced by XSUMO-1-MO. These results suggested that XSUMO-1 is required for normal axis elongation, at least partly mediating activin/nodal signaling. Developmental Dynamics 236:2757,2766, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Proprotein convertase genes in Xenopus development

Sylvia Nelsen
Abstract Proprotein convertases (PCs) are a family of serine endoproteases that proteolytically activate many precursor proteins within various secretory pathway compartments. Loss-of-function studies have demonstrated a critical role for these proteases in embryonic patterning and adult homeostasis, yet little is known about how substrate selectivity is achieved. We have identified Xenopus orthologs of three PCs: furin, PC6, and PC4. In addition to previously described isoforms of PC6 and furin, four novel splice isoforms of PC6, which are predicted to encode constitutively secreted proteases, and a putative transmembrane isoform of PC4 were identified. Furin and PC6 are expressed in dynamic, tissue-specific patterns throughout embryogenesis, whereas PC4 transcripts are restricted primarily to germ cells and brain in adult frogs. Developmental Dynamics 233:1038,1044, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Matrix metalloproteinase genes in Xenopus development

Michael Harrison
The original article to which this Erratum refers was published in Developmental Dynamics 231:214,220 Developmental Dynamics(2004) 231(1) 214,220 [source]

Disease-associated casein kinase I , mutation may promote adenomatous polyps formation via a Wnt/,-catenin independent mechanism

I-Chun Tsai
Abstract The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for embryonic development and is dysregulated in multiple cancers. Two closely related isoforms of casein kinase I (CKI, and ,) are positive regulators of this pathway. We speculated that mutations in the autoinhibitory domain of CKI,/, might upregulate CKI,/, activity and hence Wnt signaling and increase the risk of adenomatous polyps and colon cancer. Exons encoding the CKI, and CKI, regulatory domains were sequenced from DNA obtained from individuals with adenomatous polyps and a family history of colon cancer unaffected by familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). A CKI, missense mutation, changing a highly conserved residue, Arg324, to His (R324H), was found in an individual with large and multiple polyps diagnosed at a relatively young age. Two findings indicate that this mutation is biologically active. First, ectopic ventral expression of CKI,(R324H) in Xenopus embryos results in secondary axis formation with an additional distinctive phenotype (altered morphological movements) similar to that seen with unregulated CKI,. Second, CKI,(R324H) is more potent than wildtype CKI, in transformation of RKO colon cancer cells. Although the R324H mutation does not significantly change CKI, kinase activity in an in vitro kinase assay or Wnt/,-catenin signal transduction as assessed by a ,-catenin reporter assay, it alters morphogenetic movements via a ,-catenin-independent mechanism in early Xenopus development. This novel human CKI, mutation may alter the physiological role and enhance the transforming ability of CKI, through a Wnt/,-catenin independent mechanism and thereby influence colonic adenoma development. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]