Xa Activity (xa + activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Xa Activity

  • anti-factor xa activity

  • Selected Abstracts

    Purification and initial characterization of a novel protein with factor Xa activity from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules

    S. Lilla
    Abstract A novel protein with factor Xa-like activity was isolated from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar spicules by gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The protein had a mass of 20745.7 Da, as determined by mass spectrometry, and contained four Cys residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by de novo sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the primary structure of the protein and the cysteine residues linked by disulfide bridges. The positions of 24 sequenced tryptic peptides, including the N-terminal, were deduced by comparison with a homologous protein from the superfamily Bombycoidea. Approximately 90% of the primary structure of the active protein was determined. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inhalable liposomes of low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Shuhua Bai
    Abstract This study tests the feasibility of inhalable pegylated liposomal formulations of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for treatment of two clinical manifestations of vascular thromboembolism: deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Conventional distearoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) and long-circulating pegylated (DSPE,PEG-2000 and DSPE,PEG-5000) liposomes were prepared by hydration method. Formulations were evaluated for particle size, entrapment efficiency, stability, pulmonary absorption, anticoagulant, and thrombolytic effects in rats. Pulmonary absorption was monitored by measuring plasma antifactor Xa activity; anticoagulant and thrombolytic effects were studied by measuring reduction in thrombus weight and amount of dissolved radioactive clot in the blood, respectively. Pegylated liposomal were smaller and showed greater drug entrapment efficiency than conventional liposomes. All formulations produced an increase in pulmonary absorption and circulation time of LMWH upon first dosing. Three repeated dosings of conventional liposomes resulted in decreased half-life and bioavailability; no changes in these parameters were observed with pegylated liposomes. PEG-2000 liposomes were effective in reducing thrombus weight when administered every 48,h over 8 days. In terms of thrombolytic effects and dosing frequency, PEG-2000 liposomes administered via the pulmonary route at a dose of 100,U/kg were as effective as 50,U/kg LMWH administered subcutaneously. This paper suggests that inhalable pegylated liposomes of LMWH could be a potential noninvasive approach for DVT and PE treatment. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:4554,4564, 2010 [source]

    Nasal administration of low molecular weight heparin

    John Arnold
    Abstract The main objective of this study was to determine if the systemic absorption of therapeutic amounts of heparin was possible following nasal administration. Sprague-Dawley rats received nosedrops containing a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH) formulated with or without tetradecylmaltoside (TDM). TDM is a nonionic surfactant that has been previously shown to be a potent absorption enhancer in studies with peptide drugs. LMWH/UFH absorption was determined by measuring plasma anti-Factor Xa activity. The inclusion of 0.25% TDM in nasal formulations containing LMWH resulted in a significant increase in the Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) of anti-Factor Xa activity when compared to LMWH formulated in saline alone. The addition of TDM to a nasal formulation containing UFH resulted in a much smaller increase in the Cmax and the AUC of anti-Factor Xa activity. The absolute bioavailability of LMWH was increased from 4.0,,0.4% in the absence of TDM to 19,,0.3% in the presence of TDM. The reversibility of the absorption enhancing effect of TDM was studied by applying LMWH nasally 60 or 120 min after the enhancer. The effect of TDM on the nasal epithelia appeared to be rapidly reversible. In conclusion, nasal delivery of LMWH, but not UFH, was successful when an absorption enhancer was included to increase nasal permeability. 2002 Wiley-Liss Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:1707,1714, 2002 [source]

    Modulation of gastrointestinal permeability of low-molecular-weight heparin by L-arginine: in-vivo and in-vitro evaluation

    Nusrat Abbas Motlekar
    L-Arginine is the principal physiological precursor of nitric oxide (NO, a key neurotransmitter) that plays a versatile role in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the efficacy of L-arginine in enhancing intestinal absorption of ardeparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers and a rat model. Regional permeability studies using rat intestine were performed using a modified Ussing chamber. Cell viability in the presence of various concentrations of enhancer was determined by MTT assay. Furthermore, the eventual mucosal epithelial damage was histologically evaluated. LMWH formulated with L-arginine was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats and the absorption of LMWH was determined by measuring plasma anti-factor Xa activity. Higher ardeparin in-vitro permeability (,3 fold) compared with control was observed in the presence of 2% L-arginine. Regional permeability studies indicated predominant absorption in the colon region. Cell viability studies showed no significant cytotoxicity below 0.8% L-arginine. The oral bioavailability of ardeparin formulated with L-arginine (250 mg kg,1) was increased by ,2 fold compared with control. The formulation was well tolerated by the rats and no abnormal histopathological findings were observed in intestinal tissues of rats exposed to L-arginine. These results suggest that L-arginine may be useful in enhancing the intestinal absorption of LMWHs. [source]

    The inhibition of blood coagulation by heparins of different molecular weight is caused by a common functional motif,the C-domain

    R. Al Dieri
    Summary.,Background:,Heparins in clinical use differ considerably as to mode of preparation, molecular weight distribution and pharmacodynamic properties. Objectives:,Find a common basis for their anticoagulant action. Methods:,In 50 fractions of virtually single molecular weight (Mr), prepared from unfractionated heparin (UFH) and four low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), we determined: (i) the molar concentration of material (HAM) containing the antithrombin binding pentasaccharide (A-domain); (ii) the specific catalytic activity in thrombin and factor Xa inactivation; (iii) the capacity to inhibit thrombin generation (TG) and prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). We also calculated the molar concentration of A-domain with 12 sugar units at its non-reducing end, i.e. the structure that carries antithrombin activity (C-domain). Results:,The antithrombin activity and the effects on TG and APTT are primarily determined by the concentration of C-domain and independent of the source material (UFH or LMWH) or Mr. High Mr fractions (>15 000) are less active, probably through interaction with non-antithrombin plasma proteins. Anti-factor Xa activity is proportional to the concentration of A-domain, it is Ca2+ - and Mr-dependent and does not determine the effect on TG and APTT. Conclusion:,For any type of heparin, the capacity to inhibit the coagulation process in plasma is primarily determined by the concentration of C-domain, i.e. the AT-binding pentasaccharide with 12 or more sugar units at its non-reducing end. [source]

    Coagulation effects of low molecular weight heparin compared with heparin in dogs considered to be at risk for clinically significant venous thrombosis

    Kielyn C. Scott DVM
    Abstract Objective , Compare the effects of 3 anticoagulation protocols on anti-factor Xa activity (AXa). Design , Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Setting , University veterinary teaching hospital. Animals , Eighteen dogs considered to be at risk for venous thrombosis. Interventions , Each dog was randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups (n=6/group) and was treated for 24 hours: low-dose heparin (LDH), high-dose heparin (HDH), and dalteparin (DP). Dogs in the LDH group received a constant rate infusion (CRI) of unfractionated heparin (UFH) at 300 U/kg/d, the HDH group received a bolus of 100 U/kg of UFH IV, then a CRI of 900 U/kg/day, and the DP group received 100 U/kg DP SC at 0, 12, and 24 hours. Measurements and Main Results , A total of 54 samples for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and AXa assays were collected at 0, 4, and 28 hours. Six samples had an AXa >0.1 U/mL, 5 of those were from the HDH group at hour 4. Two samples from the HDH group at hour 4 had a prolonged aPTT (93 and 200 seconds) and the highest AXa (0.6 and 1.0 U/mL, respectively). Four additional dogs in the HDH group did not complete the study due to hemorrhage; none of the dogs completing the study showed signs of hemorrhage. Conclusions: Neither DP nor LDH increased AXa to values considered therapeutic in humans (0.5,1 and 0.35,0.75 U/mL, respectively), and both protocols appear to be inadequate to increase AXa in dogs with clinical illness. HDH increased AXa to this range in 2 of 6 dogs, but had unpredictable effects on aPTT and resulted in hemorrhage in some dogs. [source]

    Treatment of Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia with Individually Adjusted Heparin Dosing in Dogs

    S.E. Helmond
    Background: A major cause of death in dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is thromboembolism. Previous studies suggest unfractionated heparin (UH) is not effective in preventing thromboembolism in IMHA; however, subtherapeutic dosing could explain the seeming lack of efficacy. Hypothesis: Providing therapeutic plasma concentration of UH by individually adjusting doses based on antifactor Xa activity would improve survival in IMHA. Animals: Fifteen dogs with primary IMHA. Methods: Randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial. Dogs received standardized therapy for IMHA and either constant dose (CD) (150 U/kg SC) (n = 7) or individually adjusted dose (IAD) (n = 8) UH, monitored via an anti-Xa chromogenic assay, adjusted according to a nomogram. UH was administered every 6 hours until day 7, and every 8 hours thereafter. UH dose was adjusted daily in IAD dogs until day 7, weekly until day 28, then tapered over 1 week. Dogs were monitored for 180 days. Results: At day 180, 7 dogs in the IAD group and 1 in the CD group were alive (P= .01). Median survival time for the IAD group was >180 days, and 68 days for the CD group. Thromboembolic events occurred in 5 dogs in the CD group and 2 dogs in the IAD group. Doses of UH between 150 and 566 U/kg achieved therapeutic anti-Xa activity (0.35,0.7 U/mL). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: This study suggests that IAD UH therapy using anti-Xa monitoring reduced case fatality rate in dogs with IMHA when compared with dogs receiving fixed low dose UH therapy. [source]

    Oral, colonic-release low-molecular-weight heparin: an initial open study of Parnaparin-MMX for the treatment of mild-to-moderate left-sided ulcerative colitis

    Summary Background, Efficacy of heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment has been suggested. The multimatrix oral formulation MMX releases active drugs in the colon, avoiding systemic absorption. Parnaparin sodium is the LMWH chosen to be carried in the MMX formulation. Aim, To assess the safety of three different oral dosages (70, 140 and 210 mg once daily) of Parnaparin-MMX (CB-01-05) in left-sided ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods, Left-sided UC patients, with a mild-to-moderate relapse were enrolled. All patients received Parnaparin-MMX for 8 weeks. Clinical Activity Index (CAI), Disease Activity Index (DAI), Endoscopic Activity Index and IBD-QoL were assessed throughout the study. A strict clinical and laboratory follow-up, including assessment of anti-factor Xa activity, was performed. Clinical remission was defined as CAI <4. Results, Ten UC patients were enrolled. One patient retired for clinical deterioration. No relevant side effects, including either interference with haemostasis parameters or increased bleeding, were observed. At the end of the treatment, seven patients (70%) were in clinical remission, only one achieving endoscopic healing. Mean final CAI, DAI and IBD-QoL scores were significantly improved from baseline. Conclusions, Parnaparin-MMX appears to be a safe treatment option in mild-to-moderate UC. Controlled studies are warranted. [source]

    Long-term Management of an Implantable Left Ventricular Assist Device Using Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Antiplatelet Therapy: A Possible Alternative to Oral Anticoagulants

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 5 2007
    Bart Meuris
    Abstract:, Between January 2004 and December 2005, out of 14 patients with decompensated heart failure who were treated with an INCOR left ventricular assist device (Berlin Heart AG, Berlin, Germany), 10 patients were kept on a long-term regime of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and antiplatelet therapy. The treatment objective was bridge-to-transplantation. All patients received LMWH in therapeutic doses according to body weight, in combination with daily aspirin 160 mg, clopidogrel 75 mg, and three times dipyridamole 75 mg. Effectiveness of the low molecular weight regime was monitored through measurement of antifactor Xa activity (base and peak levels). Antiplatelet therapy was monitored through weekly platelet function tests. Within this group of 10 patients, six patients successfully received transplants and four patients died, the latest death after 405 days of INCOR support. Causes of death were sepsis, intestinal hemorrhage, acute right ventricular failure, and one major stroke. Long-term management of INCOR assist devices using a combination of LMWH and antiplatelet therapy is feasible. This treatment strategy can serve as an alternative to oral anticoagulants. [source]