X Ray (x + ray)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inadvertent Positioning of Pacemaker Leads in the Pericardium

A patient had a dual chamber pacemaker with endocardial leads implanted chronically. The lead position on chest X ray and the ECG pattern indicated lead malposition, but a CT scan and transesophageal echocardiography were nondiagnostic. Venography indicated that both leads were in the mediastinal and pericardial space. (PACE 2003; 26:2039,2041) [source]

Development of an Echocardiographic Method for Choosing the Best Fitting Single-Pass VDD Lead

YIN, W.-H., et al.: Development of an Echocardiographic Method for Choosing the Best Fitting Single-Pass VDD Lead. To achieve stable single-lead VDD pacing, a selection of the electrode with the optimal distance between the lead tip and the floating atrial dipole (AV distance [AVD]) is important. The authors hypothesized that the size of the right heart chambers may affect atrial sensing, and that measurement of their internal dimension at end-diastole (RHIDd) in the apical four chamber view by transthoracic echocardiography may aid in choosing the proper AVD. Twenty-six consecutive cases that had undergone VDD pacer implantation using the conventional chest X ray were examined retrospectively by the echocardiographic method. The chest x-ray method properly selected a lead with optimal atrial sensing, defined as minimum P wave amplitude , 1.0 mV, for only 20 (77%) of 26 patients. By comparing these results with their respective RHIDd, a cut-off point of 13 cm was obtained that indicated a criterion for choosing the proper AVD. The indication was that if the RHIDd was , 13 cm, a lead with an AVD of 15.5/16 cm should have been used; if the RHIDd was < 13 cm, a lead with an AVD of 13/13.5 cm should have been chosen. Using the echocardiographic method, all six patients who had suboptimal atrial sensing could be identified and classified as having missized (four undersized; two oversized) permanent leads. In conclusion, the described method provides a promising preoperative assessment of the best fitting electrode length in single lead VDD pacing. A prospective study is ongoing to verify its applicability. [source]

Diagnosis and Management of Inadvertently Placed Pacing and ICD Leads in the Left Ventricle: A Multicenter Experience and Review of the Literature

Three patients from different centers with pacemaker or ICD leads endocardially implanted in the left ventricle are described. All leads, two ventricular pacing leads and one ICD lead, were inserted through a patent foramen ovale or an atrial septum defect. The diagnosis was made 9 months. 14 months, and 16 years, respectively, after implantation. All patients had right bundle branch block configuration during ventricular pacing. Chest X ray was suggestive of a left-sided positioned lead except in the ICD patient. Diagnosis was confirmed with echocardiography in all patients. One patient with a ventricular pacing lead presented with a transient ischcmic attack at 1-month postimplantation. During surgical repair of the atrial septum defect 14 months later, the lead was extracted and thrombus was attached to the lead despite therapy with aspirin. The other patients were asymptomatic without anticoagulation (9 months and 16 years after implant). No thrombus was present on the ICD lead at the time of the cardiac transplantation in one patient. We reviewed 27 patients with permanent leads described in the literature. Ten patients experienced thromboembolic complications, including three of ten patients on antiplatelet therapy. The lead was removed in six patients, anticoagulation with warfarin was effective for secondary prevention in the four remaining patients. In the asymptomatic patients, the lead was removed in five patients. In the remaining patients, 1 patient was on warfarin, 2 were on antiplatelet therapy, and in 3 patients the medication was unknown. After malposition was diagnosed, three additional patients were treated with warfarin. In conclusion, if timely removal of a malpositioned lead in the left ventricle is not preformed, lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin can be recommended as the first choice therapy and lead extraction reserved in case of failure or during concomitant surgery. [source]

The Diagnostic Dilemma of "Pseudopacemaker Spikes"

In a patient who sustained sudden collapse, later attributed to pulmonary embolization, an ECG during her evaluation demonstrated sinus tachycardia and stimulus artefacts at a rate of 250 per minute which did not capture the heart. Implanted pacemaker malfunction was considered the cause until a chest X ray showed a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) device, which was the source of the artefacts. In instances of rapid stimulus artefacts on the ECG that do not capture the heart, the presence of a TENS device should be considered. [source]

Radiation Burns as a Severe Complication of Fluoroscopically Guided Cardiological Interventions

Radiation-induced skin burns can be produced by high doses of fluoroscopic X rays. Though uncommon, such injuries can cause considerable distress to the patient and they can lead to deep ulcers requiring skin grafts. Factors that increase the chance of a burn can be readily identified and in nearly all instances they can be avoided or minimized. We discuss these issues and use case illustrations to point out how burns can be avoided. (J Interven Cardiol 2004;17:131,142) [source]

Low Back Pain in Older Adults: Are We Utilizing Healthcare Resources Wisely?

PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2006
Debra K. Weiner MD
ABSTRACT Objectives., 1) To examine recent change in prevalence and Medicare-associated charges for non-invasive/minimally invasive evaluation and treatment of nonspecific low back pain (LBP); and 2) to examine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilization appropriateness in older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Design., Two cross-sectional surveys of 1) national (1991,2002) and Pennsylvania (2000,2002) Medicare data; and 2) patients aged ,,65 years with CLBP. Setting., Outpatient data. Participants., Patients aged , 65 years with LBP. Measurements., Study 1: Outpatient national and Pennsylvania Part A Medicare data were examined for number of patients and charges for all patients, and for those with nonspecific LBP. Total number of visits and charges for imaging studies, physical therapy (PT), and spinal injections was also examined for Pennsylvania. Study 2: 111 older adults with CLBP were interviewed regarding presence of red flags necessitating imaging and history of having a lumbar MRI, neurogenic claudication (NC), and back surgery. Results., Study 1: Between 1991 and 2002, there was a 42.5% increase in total Medicare patients, 131.7% increase in LBP patients, 310% increase in total charges, and 387.2% increase in LBP charges. In Pennsylvania (2000,2002), there was a 5.5% increase in LBP patients and 33.2% increase in charges (0.2% for PT, 59.4% for injections, 41.9% for MRI/CT, and 19.3% for X rays). Study 2: None of the 111 participants had red flags and 61% had undergone MRIs (29% with NC, 24% with failed back surgery syndrome). Conclusion., LBP documentation and diagnostic studies are increasing in Medicare beneficiaries, and evidence suggests that MRIs may often be ordered unnecessarily. Injection procedures appear to account for a significant proportion of LBP-associated costs. More studies are needed to examine the appropriateness with which imaging procedures and non-invasive/minimally invasive treatments are utilized, and their effect on patient outcomes. [source]