X Protein (x + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of X Protein

  • b virus x protein
  • hepatitis b virus x protein
  • virus x protein


  • Selected Abstracts


    Betulinic acid-mediated inhibitory effect on hepatitis B virus by suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase expression

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2009
    Dachun Yao
    The betulinic acid (BetA) purified from Pulsatilla chinensis (PC) has been found to have selective inhibitory effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV). In hepatocytes from HBV-transgenic mice, we showed that BetA substantially inhibited HBV replication by downregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression, with subsequent reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Also, the HBV X protein (HBx) is suppressed and translocated into the mitochondria followed by cytochrome c release. Further investigation revealed that SOD2 expression was suppressed by BetA-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein dephosphorylation at Ser133, which subsequently prevented SOD2 transcription through the cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding motif on the SOD2 promoter. SOD2 overexpression abolished the inhibitory effect of BetA on HBV replication, whereas SOD2 knockdown mimicked this effect, indicating that BetA-mediated HBV clearance was due to modulation of the mitochondrial redox balance. This observation was further confirmed in HBV-transgenic mice, where both BetA and PC crude extracts suppressed SOD2 expression, with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation in liver tissues followed by substantial HBV clearance. We conclude that BetA from PC could be a good candidate for anti-HBV drug development. [source]


    Hepatitis B virus X protein blunts senescence-like growth arrest of human hepatocellular carcinoma by reducing Notch1 cleavage,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Jiejie Xu
    One of the serious sequelae of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among all the proteins encoded by the HBV genome, hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is highly associated with the development of HCC. Although Notch1 signaling has been found to exert a tumor-suppressive function during HCC development, the mechanism of interaction between HBx expression and Notch1 signaling needs to be explored. In this study, we report that HBx expression in hepatic and hepatoma cells resulted in decreased endogenous protein levels of Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and messenger RNA levels of its downstream target genes. These effects were due to a reduction of Notch1 cleavage by HBx through the suppression of presenilin1 (Psen1) transcription rather than inhibition of Notch1 transcription or its ligands' expression. Through transient HBx expression, decreased ICN1 resulted in enhanced cell proliferation, induced G1-S cell cycle progression, and blunted cellular senescence in vitro. Furthermore, the effect of blunted senescence-like growth arrest by stable HBx expression through suppression of ICN1 was shown in a nude mouse xenograft transplantation model. The correlation of inhibited Psen1-dependent Notch1 signaling and blunted senescence-like growth arrest was also observed in HBV-associated HCC patient tumor samples. Conclusion: Our results reveal a novel function of HBx in blunting senescence-like growth arrest by decreasing Notch1 signaling, which could be a putative molecular mechanism mediating HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. (HEPATOLOGY 2010;) [source]


    Hepatitis B virus X protein affects S phase progression leading to chromosome segregation defects by binding to damaged DNA binding protein 1,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Silvia Martin-Lluesma
    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its role in the transformation process remains unclear. HBV encodes a small protein, known as HBx, which is required for infection and has been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here we show that HBx induces lagging chromosomes during mitosis, which in turn leads to formation of aberrant mitotic spindles and multinucleated cells. These effects require the binding of HBx to UV-damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), a protein involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation, and are unexpectedly attributable to HBx interfering with S-phase progression and not directly with mitotic events. HBx also affects S-phase and induces lagging chromosomes when expressed from its natural viral context and, consequently, exhibits deleterious activities in dividing, but not quiescent, hepatoma cells. Conclusion: In addition to its reported role in promoting HBV replication, the binding of HBx to DDB1 may induce genetic instability in regenerating hepatocytes and thereby contribute to HCC development, thus making this HBV,host protein interaction an attractive target for new therapeutic intervention. (HEPATOLOGY 2008.) [source]


    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) ligand, TCPOBOP, attenuates Fas-induced murine liver injury by altering Bcl-2 proteins,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Edwina S. Baskin-Bey
    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) modulates xeno- and endobiotic hepatotoxicity by regulating detoxification pathways. Whether activation of CAR may also protect against liver injury by directly blocking apoptosis is unknown. To address this question, CAR wild-type (CAR+/+) and CAR knockout (CAR,/,) mice were treated with the CAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and then with the Fas agonist Jo2 or with concanavalin A (ConA). Following the administration of Jo2, hepatocyte apoptosis, liver injury, and animal fatalities were abated in TCPOBOP-treated CAR+/+ but not in CAR,/, mice. Likewise, acute and chronic ConA-mediated liver injury and fibrosis were also reduced in wild-type versus CAR,/, TCPOBOP-treated mice. The proapoptotic proteins Bak (Bcl-2 antagonistic killer) and Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein) were depleted in livers from TCPOBOP-treated CAR+/+ mice. In contrast, mRNA expression of the antiapoptotic effector myeloid cell leukemia factor-1 (Mcl-1) was increased fourfold. Mcl-1 promoter activity was increased by transfection with CAR and administration of TCPOBOP in hepatoma cells, consistent with a direct CAR effect on Mcl-1 transcription. Indeed, site-directed mutagenesis of a putative CAR consensus binding sequence on the Mcl-1 promoter decreased Mcl-1 promoter activity. Mcl-1 transgenic animals demonstrated little to no acute liver injury after administration of Jo2, signifying Mcl-1 cytoprotection. In conclusion, these observations support a prominent role for CAR cytoprotection against Fas-mediated hepatocyte injury via a mechanism involving upregulation of Mcl-1 and, likely, downregulation of Bax and Bak. (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:252,262.) [source]


    The hepatitis B virus X protein promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 6 2007
    Di-Peng Ou
    Abstract The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which has a very high mortality rate due to high incidence of metastasis. It is unknown whether HBV contributes to HCC metastasis. In this report, we present clinical data obtained from HCC patients indicating that the expression of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HCC is associated with an increased expression of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and matrix metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2), which correlates with a poor prognosis. We further demonstrate experimentally that HBx upregulates MT1-MMP, which in turn induces MMP-2. Significantly, HBx-mediated MMP activation is associated with a marked increase of cell migration, as revealed by both wound-healing and transwell migration assays, suggesting that HBx may facilitate tumor cell invasion by upregulation of MMPs and subsequent destruction of the extracellular matrix. Together, our results support a model in which HBx contributes to HCC metastasis by upregulation of MMPs. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Replication efficiency and sequence analysis of full-length hepatitis B virus isolates from hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2002
    Xu Lin
    Abstract Prolonged replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in liver tissues of hepatitis B patients has been considered as an important risk factor for the development of malignancy. Few studies on full-length HBV sequencing in association with the replication efficiency of isolates from HCC tissues have been reported. To study the structural and functional genomics of HBV isolates from Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, full-length HBV genomes were amplified from 6 HBV-marker positive HCC tissues and used to transfect HepG2 cells. Five of 6 isolates showed high replicative efficiency. All isolates were of genotype C and "hot-spots" mutations were detected in the B cell and T helper (Th) cell epitopes of the envelope and the core region. In addition, the X region of 2 isolates contained a stop-codon mutation that was predicted to result in a truncated X protein. High replicative HBV immune escape mutants that persist in infected hepatocytes could be 1 of the important factors to initiate pathological processes for the development of HCC in Chinese patients. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Hepatitis B virus X protein: Searching for a role in hepatocarcinogenesis

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Chau-Ting Yeh
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates expression of calpain small subunit 1 via nuclear facter-,B/p65 in hepatoma cells

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    Feng Zhang
    Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is closely correlated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in which hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays crucial roles. HBx is believed to be a multifunctional oncoprotein. It has been reported that the calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4) is upregulated in the HCC tissues and involved in the metastasis of HCC. Therefore, we suppose that HBx may promote hepatoma cell migration through Capn4. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HBx on regulating Capn4 expression in human HCC cells. Our data showed that HBx could increase promoter activity of Capn4 and upregulate the expression of Capn4 at the levels of mRNA and protein in human hepatoma HepG2 (or H7402) cells using luciferase reporter gene assay, real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay and Western blot analysis. While, the RNA interference targeting HBx mRNA was able to abolish the upregulation. Interestingly, we found that the inhibition of nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) mediated by siRNA targeting NF-,B/p65 mRNA or PDTC (an inhibitor of NF-,B) could attenuate the upregulation of Capn4. While, HBx failed to increase the promoter activity of Capn4 in hepatoma cells when the putative NF-,B binding site of the Capn4 promoter was mutant, suggesting that NF-,B is involved in the activation of Capn4 mediated by HBx. In function, wound healing assay showed that HBx could significantly enhance the migration ability of HepG2 cells through upregulating Capn4. Thus, we conclude that HBx upregulate Capn4 through NF-,B/p65 to promote migration of hepatoma cells. J. Med. Virol. 82:920,928, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Comparison of full length sequences of hepatitis B virus isolates in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and asymptomatic carriers of Korea,

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Byung-Cheol Song
    Abstract Relatively few genomic sequences of Korean hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates are available. Moreover, no comparative study has been made between the full-length genomes of Korean HBV isolates and clinical status. To evaluate mutations in HBV isolates obtained from chronically infected HBV patients in terms of clinical significance, we determined the genomic sequences of HBV isolates obtained from three hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients (He52, He53, and He82) and from three asymptomatic carriers (He74, He100, and He127). A comparison of sequence variations showed that the HBV isolates from the three HCC patients showed higher frequencies of mutation than the isolates from the three asymptomatic carriers. Three characteristic mutation patterns were identified in the HBV isolates from the HCC patients, which distinguished the HBV isolates from the asymptomatic carriers. First, HBV isolates from the three HCC patients both had double mutations in a core promoter (T1762/A1764) and a precore mutation (A1896). Second, although these isolates belonged to genotype C, 11 amino acids deletions in the preS1 region, specific for HBV genotype D, were detected in the isolates of two HCC patients (He52 and He82). Third, mutations (I127T/N, K130M, and V131I) at three codons in the carboxy functional region of X protein were observed in isolates from all three HCC patients. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis based on the entire HBV sequences showed that all six isolates belonged to genotype C2, as do other Korean strains. J. Med. Virol. 75:13,19, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Expression of hepatitis B virus X protein is closely correlated with the high periportal inflammatory activity of liver diseases

    JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS, Issue 5 2001
    Y. M. Jin
    Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein is a multifunctional protein that exerts dual activity on cell proliferation and death. Although HBx is thought to be a major determinant that leads to hepatocellular carcinoma, its pathophysiological role in humans remains to be established. Attempts have been made to evaluate the role of HBx in liver specimens derived from patients with chronic B viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Among 25 paired liver specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma and corresponding nontumour liver tissues, HBx mRNA was hardly detected and was significantly lower than other HBV transcripts. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that expression of HBx protein was also lower than other HBV gene products. Interestingly, however, expression of HBx protein changed with the progression of chronic hepatitis. HBx was expressed in 5.0% of patients with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis but increased to 44.8% in chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis. In contrast, only one (3.7%) of 27 hepatocellular carcinomas showed HBx positivity whereas 29.6% of surrounding nontumour tissues was still HBx-positive. These results suggest that HBx may play a major role at the promotion stage of carcinogenesis. Noticeably, HBx-positive cells were preferentially localized in the periportal region of chronic hepatitis or periphery of cirrhotic nodules where high necroinflammatory activity was accompanied. We found a positive correlation between HBx expression and periportal inflammatory activity (P < 0.001). Thus, HBx may potentiate cell destruction and regeneration of liver that provide an opportunity for the accumulation of genetic mutations, which contribute to multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. [source]


    Hepatitis B viral X protein alters the biological features and expressions of DNA repair enzymes in LO2 cells

    LIVER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010
    Bin Cheng
    Abstract Objectives: This study aimed at examining the effects of hepatitis B viral X protein (HBx) on the biological features and the expression of DNA repair enzymes in non-tumour human hepatic LO2 cells in vitro. Methods: The HBx gene was transfected into LO2 cells to establish stably HBx-expressing LO2/HBx cells. The morphological features, cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and colony formation of LO2/HBx cells, vector-transfected LO2/pcDNA3.1 cells and unmanipulated LO2 cells were studied. The expressions of DNA repair enzymes and DNA oxidative stress-related 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection respectively. Results: In comparison with controls, significant morphological changes, faster growth, higher frequency of cells at the S phase, but lower at G0/G1 and M/G2 phases, a lower frequency of natural cell apoptosis and a higher percentage of colony formation were observed in the LO2/HBx cells. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of intracellular 8-OHdG and lower levels of human DNA glycosylase , (hMYH,) mRNA transcripts, but no significant change in human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), were detected in the LO2/HBx cells. Conclusions: Our data indicated that HBx promoted growth and malignant transformation of non-tumour hepatic LO2 cells in vitro, which was associated with the downregulation of hMYH, expression and accumulation of mutagenic DNA adduct 8-OHdG. [source]


    Identification of survival-related genes of the phosphatidylinositol 3,-kinase signaling pathway in glioblastoma multiforme

    CANCER, Issue 7 2008
    Yolanda Ruano BcSc
    Abstract BACKGROUND Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is essential for the identification of candidate prognostic markers, new putative therapeutic targets, and early detection strategies predictive of survival. METHODS The authors performed expression-profiling analyses in a series of primary GBMs by using complementary DNA microarrays. Validation of putative targets was performed in large series of GBMs by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The expression signature consisted of 159 up-regulated genes and 186 down-regulated genes. Most of these genes were involved in cell adhesion, signal transduction, cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Among the genes from the molecular signature, annexin 1 (ANXA1) and ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) were evaluated in wider series of GBMs. ANXA1 analysis carried out in different types of gliomas revealed exclusive overexpression in astrocytomas. Furthermore, survival analysis by using functional clusters of genes related with cancer and glioma biology revealed 7 genes involved in the PI3K-signaling pathway that presented a significant association with clinical outcome. Among these genes, positive expression of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) was associated significantly with better survival in a larger series of tumors. In addition, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was demonstrated in this set of GBMs. CONCLUSIONS The authors concluded that there is a significant role for PI3K pathway survival-related genes in patients with GBM, and putative prognostic markers associated with glioma tumorigenesis were identified. The detailed study of these candidate genes and the molecular pathways regulating PI3K activation reveal that they are promising targets for the clinical management of patients with glioma. Cancer 2008. 2008 American Cancer Society. [source]


    Hepatitis B virus pre-S mutants, endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatocarcinogenesis

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2006
    Hui-Ching Wang
    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been documented to cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the exact role of HBV in the development of HCC remains enigmatic. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the potential mechanism, including insertional mutagenesis of HBV genomes and transcriptional activators of HBV gene products such as hepatitis B x protein (HBx) and truncated middle S mutants. In the past few years, we have identified two types of large HBV surface antigens (LHBs) with deletions at the pre-S1 (,S1-LHBs) and pre-S2 (,S2-LHBs) regions in ground glass hepatocytes. The pre-S mutant LHBs are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and escape from immune attack. The pre-S mutants, particularly ,S2-LHBs, are increasingly prevalent in patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic HBV infection, ranging from 6% before the 3rd decade to 35% in the 6th decade. In HCC patients, the two pre-S mutants were detected in 60% of HCC patients, in the serum and in HCC tissues. Pre-S mutant LHBs can initiate ER stress to induce oxidative DNA damage and genomic instability. Furthermore, pre-S mutant LHBs can upregulate cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin A to induce cell cycle progression and proliferation of hepatocytes. In transgenic mice, the pre-S mutants can induce dysplasia of hepatocytes and development of HCC. In a nested control study, the presence of pre-S mutants carried a high risk of developing HCC in HBV carriers. In summary, the findings we describe in this review suggest a potential role for HBV pre-S mutants in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis, providing a model of viral carcinogenesis associated with ER stress. (Cancer Sci 2006; 97: 683,688) [source]