X Mental Retardation Protein (x + mental_retardation_protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of X Mental Retardation Protein

  • fragile x mental retardation protein

  • Selected Abstracts

    Epilepsy in fragile X syndrome

    Elizabeth Berry-Kravis MD PhD
    Epilepsy is reported to occur in 10 to 20% of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). A frequent seizure/EEG pattern in FXS appears to resemble that of benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC, benign rolandic epilepsy). To evaluate seizure frequency and type in a Chicago FXS cohort, data regarding potential seizure history were reviewed for 136 individuals with FXS (age range 2 to 51 years: 113 males and 23 females). Seizures occurred in 15 males (13.3%) and one female (4.3%): of these, 12 had partial seizures. EEG findings were available for 35 individuals (13 of 16 with seizures and 22 of 120 without seizures) and showed an epileptiform abnormality in 10 (77%) individuals with seizures and five (23%) individuals without seizures - the most common epileptiform pattern being centrotemporal spikes. Seizures were easily controlled in 14 of the 16 individuals with seizures. Many individuals, including all with centrotemporal spikes, had remission of seizures in childhood. The most common seizure syndrome resembled BFEC and this pattern had the best prognosis for epilepsy remission. Deficiency of FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein) appears to lead to increased neuronal excitability and susceptibility to epilepsy, but particularly seems to facilitate mechanisms leading to the BFEC pattern. [source]

    Translating nociceptor sensitivity: the role of axonal protein synthesis in nociceptor physiology

    Theodore J. Price
    Abstract The increased sensitivity of peripheral pain-sensing neurons, or nociceptors, is a major cause of the sensation of pain that follows injury. This plasticity is thought to contribute to the maintenance of chronic pain states. Although we have a broad knowledge of the factors that stimulate changes in nociceptor sensitivity, the cellular mechanisms that underlie this plasticity are still poorly understood; however, they are likely to involve changes in gene expression required for the phenotypic and functional changes seen in nociceptive neurons after injury. While the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional level has been studied extensively, the regulation of protein synthesis, which is also a tightly controlled process, has only recently received more attention. Despite the established role of protein synthesis in the plasticity of neuronal cell bodies and dendrites, little attention has been paid to the role of translation control in mature undamaged axons. In this regard, several recent studies have demonstrated that the control of protein synthesis within the axonal compartment is crucial for the normal function and regulation of sensitivity of nociceptors. Pathways and proteins regulating this process, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling cascade and the fragile X mental retardation protein, have recently been identified. We review here recent evidence for the regulation of protein synthesis within a nociceptor's axonal compartment and its contribution to this neuron's plasticity. We believe that an increased understanding of this process will lead to the identification of novel targets for the treatment of chronic pain. [source]

    Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for chemically-induced long-term potentiation of the hippocampus in adult mice

    Yuze Shang
    Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The animal model of FXS, Fmr1 knockout mice, have deficits in the Morris water maze and trace fear memory tests, showing impairment in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, results for synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP), a key cellular model for learning and memory, remain inconclusive in the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout mice. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is required for glycine induced LTP (Gly-LTP) in the CA1 of hippocampus. This form of LTP requires activation of post-synaptic NMDA receptors and metabotropic glutamateric receptors, as well as the subsequent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. However, paired-pulse facilitation was not affected by glycine treatment. Genetic deletion of FMRP interrupted the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, suggesting the possible role of FMRP in the regulation of the activity of ERK1/2. Our study provide strong evidences that FMRP participates in Gly-LTP in the hippocampus by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and that improper regulation of these signaling pathways may contribute to the learning and memory deficits observed in FXS. [source]

    Exceptional good cognitive and phenotypic profile in a male carrying a mosaic mutation in the FMR1 gene

    CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2007
    LCP Govaerts
    Fragile X (FRAX) syndrome is a commonly inherited form of mental retardation resulting from the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). It is caused by a stretch of CGG repeats within the fragile X gene, which can be unstable in length as it is transmitted from generation to generation. Once the repeat exceeds a threshold length, the FMR1 gene is methylated and no protein is produced resulting in the fragile X phenotype. The consequences of FMRP absence in the mechanisms underlying mental retardation are unknown. We have identified a male patient in a classical FRAX family without the characteristic FRAX phenotype. His intelligence quotient (IQ) is borderline normal despite the presence of a mosaic pattern of a pre-mutation (25%), full mutation (60%) and a deletion (15%) in the FMR1 gene. The cognitive performance was determined at the age of 28 by the Raven test and his IQ was 81. However, FMRP expression studies in both hair roots and lymphocytes, determined at the same time as the IQ test, were within the affected male range. The percentage of conditioned responses after delay eyeblink conditioning was much higher than the average percentage measured in FRAX studies. Moreover, this patient showed no correlation between FMRP expression and phenotype and no correlation between DNA diagnostics and phenotype. [source]