Best Interests (best + interest)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Best Interests

  • child best interest
  • patient best interest

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Oren Goldhaber
    In child custody cases, courts will look to the best interests of a child to maintain visitation/custody rights only with the child's biological parent, not third parties. However, with a same-sex couple, it is inevitable that one parent will not be the biological parent. Thus, when that parent is in a mini-DOMA state, where same-sex couples from non-mini-DOMA states do not have to be recognized, that parent will be viewed as a third party and lose all visitation/custody rights if the couple separates. This note advocates that mini-DOMAs allow both the biological and nonbiological parents of a same-sex couple to have visitation/custody rights of their children if it would be in the best interest of the children to do so. [source]

    The ,Best Interests of the Child' and Parental Separation: on the ,Civilizing of Parents'

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 1 2005
    Robert Van Krieken
    The concept of the ,best interests of the child' is both pivotal in family law and yet essentially contested. This paper reflects on the concept's position within a number of longer-term histories , of the jurisprudence surrounding child custody, of the social construction of childhood, and of the emotional constitution of family life more broadly. The turn to a co-parenting model from the 1970s onwards and the rise of the concept of the ,civilized divorce' is analysed by drawing on Norbert Elias's analysis of ,processes of civilization' in Western social life. The paper argues that the post-separation co-parenting model is only partially explained as the outcome of political manoeuvring by particular social and professional groups; it should also be understood as part of longer-term trends in family life, emotional management, and the socio-legal construction of childhood, as part of the on-going ,civilizing of parents'. [source]

    Relevance of Cosmeceuticals to the Dermatologic Surgeon

    Harold J. Brody MD
    Background. The dermatologic surgeon is the dermatologist with special expertise in the surgical care of the health and beauty of the skin. Objectives, Methods, Results. There is no better arena for the use of topical regimens to preserve skin quality than in the time interval devoted to before and after care with respect to surgical procedures. Conclusion. Many of these regimens can be tailor devised with topical drugs and cosmeceuticals together in proper balance in the patient's best interest for affordable health care. HAROLD J. BRODY, MD, HAS INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Controversies in the management of the cutaneous T cell lymphomas

    John A. Zic
    ABSTRACT The primary cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) encompass all malignancies of the T cell where the skin is the primary organ of involvement. The diagnosis of a CTCL variant can be detoured by a number of obstacles including the slow evolution of the disease into a classic clinical and pathologic pattern. A realistic goal of early stage treatment is to reduce the likelihood of progression to a more advanced stage, not to achieve a cure. No studies have adequately compared the different systemic agents in patients with advanced CTCL so the clinician is left to act in the best interest of the patient with what evidence is available. When using the systemic agents, a "start low and go slow" strategy may offer patients several advantages. Dermatologists are uniquely trained to diagnose and to manage all but the most advanced stage patients with CTCL. [source]

    The CAP for Turkey?

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 2 2005
    Budgetary Implications, Potential Market Effects
    EU accession negotiations with Turkey are scheduled to start in October 2005. The period of accession negotiations will probably last for ten years or longer, but the effects of applying the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to Turkey are currently a controversial discussion in the EU. Effects of Turkish accession on EU agricultural markets are likely to be small. The EU would gain additional export opportunities for cereals and animal products. On the other hand, Turkish agricultural exports to the EU are projected to increase for only a few fruit and vegetable products. EU budgetary outlays for the application of the CAP to Turkey could total between £3.5 and £6.3 billion in 2015 , depending on whether direct payments are phased in or not , and £5.4 billion in 2025. Most of these outlays would be for direct payments to agricultural producers and that may not be in Turkey's best interest. This is because direct payments tend to be capitalized in land prices and may thus inhibit the necessary process of improving the Turkish agricultural structure. Transfers under the second pillar of the CAP may hold more interest for Turkey, because they can be targeted at improving productivity and thereby income. Projected outlays for the CAP take a backseat to projected transfers to Turkey under the structural policy of the EU. Les négociations sur l'adhésion de la Turquie à l'UE doivent commencer en octobre 2005. Les préliminaires vont sans doute durer au moins une dizaine d'années, mais les effets de l'application de la Politique Agricole Commune (PAC) à la Turquie font déjà l'objet de controverses au sein de l'UE. Sur les marchés, on s'attend à des effets plutôt faibles. L'UE gagnerait certaines possibilités d'exportation de céréales et de produits animaux. Par ailleurs, les exportations de la Turquie vers l'UE ne s'accroîtraient que pour quelques fruits et légumes. Les dépenses budgétaires totales qui résulteraient pour l'UE de l'application de la PAC à la Turquie se situeraient en 2015 entre 3,5 et 6,3 milliards d'Euros, selon que les paiements directs seront ou ne seront pas progressivement éliminés. Elles atteindraient 5,4 milliards en 2025. Il s'agirait pour l'essentiel de paiements directs aux producteurs agricoles, ce qui ne correspondrait pas forcément à l'intérêt bien compris de la Turquie. De fait, les paiements directs tendent àêtre capitalisés en valeurs foncières. Ils pourraient par conséquent inhiber le processus d'amélioration des structures, pourtant bien nécessaire. Les transferts liés au second pilier de la PAC pourraient être plus utiles, parce qu'ils peuvent être ciblés sur les accroissements de productivité et donc de revenus. C'est pourquoi il y a lieu d'envisager des transferts à la Turquie au titre des politiques d'amélioration de structures en arrière plan des budgets prévisionnels pour la PAC. Im Oktober 2005 sollen die EU-Beitrittsverhandlungen mit der Türkei beginnen. Diese Verhandlungen werden wahrscheinlich über einen Zeitraum von zehn Jahren oder länger geführt werden, die Auswirkungen der Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) auf die Türkei werden im Moment in der EU jedoch kontrovers diskutiert. Der EU-Beitritt der Türkei wird sich wahrscheinlich nur geringfügig auf die EU-Agrarmärkte auswirken. Die EU erhielte zusätzliche Exportmöglichkeiten für Getreide und tierische Erzeugnisse. Die Agrarexporte der Türkei in die EU hingegen würden vermutlich nur bei einigen wenigen Obstund Gemüseprodukten zunehmen. Durch die Anwendung der GAP auf die Türkei würde der EU-Haushalt im Jahr 2015 mit 3,5 bis 6,3 Milliarden Euro (je nachdem, ob die Direktzahlungen schrittweise eingeführt werden oder nicht) und im Jahr 2025 mit 5,4 Milliarden Euro belastet. Der grö,te Teil dieser Kosten entstünde aufgrund von Direktzahlungen an landwirtschaftliche Erzeuger. Dies dürfte für die Türkei nicht die bestmögliche Alternative darstellen, da Direktzahlungen zumeist in den Bodenpreisen kapitalisiert werden, wodurch der notwendige Prozess zur Verbesserung der türkischen Agrarstruktur ins Stocken geraten könnte. Transferleistungen im Rahmen der zweiten Säule der GAP dürften für die Türkei interessanter sein, da sie auf eine Produktivitätssteigerung ausgerichtet werden könnten, um so die Einkommenssituation zu verbessern. Die zu erwartenden Ausgaben für die GAP im Rahmen der Strukturpolitik der EU spielen im Vergleich zu den zu erwartenden Transferleistungen an die Türkei eine untergeordnete Rolle. [source]

    An Approach to Interdisciplinary Training in Postgraduate Education

    P Brodin
    Aims, A primary goal for clinical graduate training is to provide the student with the expertise required for specialist treatment in the actual discipline. At the same time there is an increasing need for a broader perspective on specialist care and the students should be aware of the limitations inherent in own specialty. In order to plan treatment in the best interest of the patient, and to be prepared to take part in treatments involving other specialties, the students should be exposed to interdisciplinary cooperation throughout the training. An approach to joint academic and clinical training with the purpose of providing graduate students with a broader perspective on specialist care is described and discussed. Material and methods, During their first year graduate students in the 7 different disciplines complete a joint Core Curriculum consisting of 8 different courses to stimulate a scientific approach to their profession and understanding of basic biologic mechanisms. To create a learning environment focusing on the development of interdisciplinary competence, a joint clinic has been established. Teams of students from different disciplines have been organized in order to establish ,partnership' for the treatment of patients with complex problems. The students also take part in the sessions held by a faculty Team of experts for assessment and treatment planning of referred patients with complex problems. Furthermore, faculty members conduct courses and seminars for students from other disciplines and students also participate in selected parts of the regular program in other disciplines. Results, Formal evaluation has so far been conducted for the Core Curriculum. Most students respond that they are satisfied with the courses, and the curriculum has also been adjusted based on the comments. The students report that treatment of patients in need of interdisciplinary treatment has been facilitated by having ,partners' in other disciplines. Participation in the Team of expert's sessions has been appreciated, and the attendance at interdisciplinary courses and seminars has been good. Conclusions, Based on the experience over the last 5 years, the interdisciplinary aspects of graduate training should be expanded to stimulate a holistic approach also to specialist treatment. [source]

    Empathy-induced altruism in a prisoner's dilemma II: what if the target of empathy has defected?

    C. Daniel Batson
    What if participants in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma know before making their decision that the other person has already defected? From the perspective of classic game theory, a dilemma no longer exists. It is clearly in their best interest to defect too. The empathy-altruism hypothesis predicts, however, that if they feel empathy for the other, then a dilemma remains: self-interest counsels defection; empathy-induced altruism counsels not. This motivational conflict should lead at least some empathically aroused individuals not to defect. To test this prediction, we placed 60 undergraduate women in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma in which they knew the other had already defected. Among those not induced to feel empathy, very few (0.05) did not defect in return. Among those induced to feel empathy for the other, almost half (0.45) did not defect. These results underscore the power of empathy-induced altruism to affect responses in a prisoner's dilemma. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
    Mary Eschelbach Hansen
    Just as the courts must consider the trade-off between the best interest of the child and parental rights in involuntary termination of parental rights, policy on international adoption must consider the trade-offs between the best interest of the child and the long-term interests of the nation. We argue that countries that suspend international adoptions do not maximize social welfare. A consistent national policy to maximize the well-being of the children and society at large would be to devote resources today to the oversight of international adoption in accord with child protections under the Hague Convention, while at the same time developing a domestic system of care that provides for the physical and developmental needs of orphaned children in the context of permanent families. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Oren Goldhaber
    In child custody cases, courts will look to the best interests of a child to maintain visitation/custody rights only with the child's biological parent, not third parties. However, with a same-sex couple, it is inevitable that one parent will not be the biological parent. Thus, when that parent is in a mini-DOMA state, where same-sex couples from non-mini-DOMA states do not have to be recognized, that parent will be viewed as a third party and lose all visitation/custody rights if the couple separates. This note advocates that mini-DOMAs allow both the biological and nonbiological parents of a same-sex couple to have visitation/custody rights of their children if it would be in the best interest of the children to do so. [source]

    A judicial,mental health partnership to heal young children in juvenile court

    Judge Cindy Lederman
    In this article, we describe the background and issues to be addressed related to dependent children in juvenile court. In an important effort to systematically examine developmental functioning and treatment needs in maltreated and violence-exposed young children, the Prevention and Evaluation of Early Neglect and Trauma (PREVENT) initiative of the Dependency Court Intervention Program for Family Violence, a national demonstration project in the Miami-Dade Juvenile Court, developed a program to evaluate all infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are adjudicated dependent by the court. The goal of the intervention is to raise awareness of the needs of infants and toddlers in juvenile court and to work toward healing the child. The PREVENT program involved the evolution of a judicial,mental health partnership designed to assist the court in making more informed decisions about the best interest of the child by adding scientific knowledge about development, prevention, intervention, evaluation, and treatment. The outcome of the partnership and multidisciplinary approach is illustrated through presenting a case vignette of a mother and baby showing the challenges and strengths of intervention. Finally, we consider overall outcomes of the intervention and directions for the future. [source]

    Consumer perspectives in adolescent ward design

    Alison Hutton MN
    Aims., The aim of the study was to gain an understanding of the environment and facilities that adolescents require in a purpose-built adolescent ward. Background., People who are hospitalized have limited control over their care and environment. The experience of hospitalization is also considered a highly stressful event. It is essential that patients have an opportunity to participate in the planning and design of ward environments in order to reduce their stress and better accommodate their treatment needs. Methods., An interpretative qualitative design was used. Seven chronically ill adolescents were asked to design their own ward in order to obtain consumer input about what the perceived necessary facilities for adolescent wards. Findings., The adolescents provided clear information about the facilities that should be incorporated into an adolescent ward to maintain their privacy and independence. Further research needs to be conducted seeking consumer input, especially if it can enhance the stay of adolescent patients while they are hospitalized. Relevance to clinical practice., Adolescent voice is more often than not represented by nurses, or other healthcare professionals in the patients' best interest. This practice acts on the assumption that the adult knows best and/or that adolescents are unable to articulate their own needs. Adolescent consumers contribute worthwhile recommendations to how a ward is run providing insight about their needs in the ward environment. [source]

    The Effect of the Size of the Military on Stock Market Performance in the United States and the UK

    William R. DiPietro
    SUMMARY This paper uses regression analysis to investigate the relationship between military expenditure and stock market performance for the United States and the United Kingdom. Specifically, the study applies the Bierens-Guo unit root procedures to ascertain the time series properties of the variables in the study. The standard OLS technique is employed to determine the influence of military expenditure on stock markets for the period 1914 through 2001. The results from the unit root tests indicate that the military expenditure, military personnel, stock market, and energy consumption series are level stationary. The results from the OLS equations suggest that military expenditure has significantly positive effect on stock market performance for the United States and the United Kingdom. The implication of this finding is that high-income class and people in power are less likely to oppose increases in military spending even though such expenditures are not in the best interest of the society. [source]

    Strong Societies, Wed Parties: Regime Change in Cuba and Venzula in the 1950s and Today

    Jauier Cowales
    ABSTRACT The literature on the origins of democratic institutions is split between bottom-up and top-down approaches. The former emphasize societal factors that press for democracy; the latter, rules and institutions that shape elites' incentives. Can these approaches be reconciled? This article proposes competitive political parties, more so than degrees of modernization and associationalism, as the link between the two. Competitive political parties enhance society's bargaining power with the state and show dominant elites that liberalization is in their best interest; the parties are thus effective conduits of democracy. In the context of party deficit, the prospects for democratization or redemocratization are slim. This is illustrated by comparing Cuba and Venezuela in the 1950s and 1330s. [source]

    When to commit in a serial supply chain with forecast updating

    Mark E. Ferguson
    Abstract Negotiations between an end product manufacturer and a parts supplier often revolve around two main issues: the supplier's price and the length of time the manufacturer is contractually held to its order quantity, commonly termed the "commitment time frame." Because actual demand is unknown, the specification of the commitment time frame determines how the demand risk is shared among the members of the supply chain. Casual observation indicates that most manufacturers prefer to delay commitments as long as possible while suppliers prefer early commitments. In this paper, we investigate whether these goals are always in the firm's best interest. In particular, we find that the manufacturer may sometimes be better off with a contract that requires an early commitment to its order quantity, before the supplier commits resources and the supplier may sometimes be better off with a delayed commitment. We also find that the preferred commitment time frame depends upon which member of the supply chain has the power to set their exchange price. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics, 2003 [source]

    Masera G. Report of the committee on psychosocial issues of the international society of pediatric oncology (SIOP): Who can decide what is in a child's best interest?

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 1 2001
    A problem-solving approach.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Who can decide what is in a child's best interest?

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 6 2001
    A problem-solving approach
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,Irresponsible Lending' with a Better Informed Lender,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 532 2008
    Roman Inderst
    We present a simple model of personal finance in which an incumbent lender has an information advantage vis-à-vis both potential competitors and households. In order to extract more consumer surplus, a lender with sufficient market power may engage in ,irresponsible' lending, approving credit even if this is knowingly against a household's best interest. Unless rival lenders are equally well informed, competition may reduce welfare. This holds, in particular, if less informed rivals can free ride on the incumbent's superior screening ability. [source]

    The politicisation of migrant minors: Italo-Romanian geopolitics and EU integration

    AREA, Issue 2 2010
    Nick Mai
    The article will address the different political connotations achieved by Romanian young people's migration to Italy (Rome) and their involvement in illegal activities by drawing on the findings of a two-year (2006,2008) research project. The research took place during the final phase of negotiation of Romania's entry into the EU, and was aimed at understanding the nexus between young people's migration, their recourse to illegal activities and the role of social intervention. The article will argue that the (geo)political situation encompassing Romania's entry into the EU shaped the power dynamics and the discursive fields within which young migrants, institutions and NGOs acted according to their contrasting priorities and mandates, by deploying different strategic understandings of what constitutes ,the best interest of the child'. [source]

    Identifying and overcoming the potential barriers to the adoption of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery

    S. D. Schwaitzberg
    Abstract Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging innovative approach to performing minimally invasive surgical procedures. In its full potential, the concept of incisionless surgery will have mass appeal to patients. However, the barriers to adopting NOTES will have to be overcome before widespread acceptance of these techniques can occur. These potential barriers include infection, visceral leakage, difficulties in tissue manipulation, and increased cost. The history of surgical innovation has continuously overcome similar problems in other settings, and all of these potential obstacles are likely solvable. Training surgeons will be an additional barrier that will need to be overcome, but this obstacle will need to be approached differently than when laparoscopy was introduced, as standards are higher today for privileging and credentialing in most hospitals than 20 years ago. Alternative technologies that were not adopted prior to the introduction of NOTES may now appear more viable making the competitive environment more complex. Increased funding for comparative effectiveness studies and training for competency in innovation will also need original solutions, but are clearly in our patients' best interest. [source]

    F.L. McDougall and the Origins of the FAO

    John B. O'Brien
    This article evaluates the role of Frank Lidgett McDougall, Australian economist, businessman and public servant, in the creation of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). It traces McDougall's development from an advocate of preferential trade within the British Empire to his embrace of a broader, more internationalist, concept of nutrition. By the mid-1930s, McDougall's advocacy of policies to improve nutrition worldwide through "marrying health and agriculture" led to the Australian government's advocacy of such policies in the League of Nations. McDougall was successful in persuading Australian policy makers that proposals to improveworldwide nutritional levels were also in Australia's best interest, by increasing demand for Australian agricultural exports. Finally, McDougall's significant personal role in the establishment of the FAO is assessed as the culmination of his career as a major behind-the-scenes architect of public policy. [source]

    Collaboration between service users and professionals: Legitimate decisions in child protection , a Norwegian model

    CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 3 2005
    Elisabeth Willumsen
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to examine the conditions for achieving free and open communication in collaboration. The context is child protection where ,the best interest of the child' is at stake. First, a theoretical standard based on free and open communication and equal partnership (deliberation) is presented. Secondly, an explorative analysis is undertaken of the collaboration process between professionals and service users in two review groups regarding two young people, Jane and Tom, both of whom appear to have psychosocial ,problems, living, in, residential, care., Thirdly,, on, the, basis, of this analysis, recommendations on how to improve collaboration in review groups are made. The findings show that collaboration has several functions: formal decision-making, legitimate decision-making and learning. There is a need to clarify the purpose of collaboration and strengthen structural arrangements as well as develop guidelines for handling challenges at different levels. [source]

    Empowering looked-after children

    CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 2 2001
    Children's rights include the right to participation in decisions made about them. For looked-after children, this right is enshrined in the Children Act (England & Wales) 1989. This article reports the results of a study of children's views about their experience of being looked after and the degree of power that they felt they had to influence decision making. Their main areas of criticism were frequent changes of social worker, lack of an effective voice at reviews, lack of confidentiality and, linked to this, lack of a confidante. The findings are discussed in relation to recent policy changes. Specifically, the Looked After Children documentation and the Quality Protects initiative, by setting out uniform objectives and performance criteria, seem to restrict the freedom of local authority management and of social workers to respond to individual children's preferences, or to give weight to what the children themselves consider to be in their best interest. [source]

    Representing children's views and best interests in court: an international comparison

    CHILD ABUSE REVIEW, Issue 4 2005
    Andy Bilson
    Abstract This paper provides a comparison of a number of alternative models of international practice in relation to the appointment and organization of guardians ad litem and other children's representatives in child care and family proceedings. The paper notes that, in their attempts to address the need for children to have representation in matters affecting their welfare, English-speaking countries have tended to conflate the two salient Articles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, that is, Article 3, which deals with the child's best interests, and Article 12, which deals with their right to express their wishes and feelings. Where systems other than ,stand alone' legal representation have been put in place, the child's representative is charged with both assessing their best interests and, often as a secondary duty, communicating their views. The paper concludes that for some groups of children in public or private law proceedings, an advocate (rather than a best interest oriented guardian, and where necessary in addition to a legal representative) may enable better representation of the child in the courts and greater participation by children in legal proceedings, an increased role for children as citizens and a fuller implementation of their rights. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stock Price Reactions to the Repricing of Employee Stock Options,

    Barbara M. Grein
    Abstract We study whether the repricing of employee stock options is in the best interests of common shareholders by examining the excess stock returns associated with timely, noncontamin-ated repricing announcements made by Canadian firms. On the basis of three theories of why firms reprice, we develop competing predictions about the mean announcement-date excess stock return and the cross-sectional relations among excess stock returns, the estimated probability of repricing, and proxies for predictions from each theory. For a sample of 72 noncontaminated repricing announcements made by Canadian firms between November 1994 and July 2001, we find a reliably positive three-day announcement-date mean excess return of 4.9 percent. The results of our cross-sectional analyses suggest that the market responds favorably to repricings because they assist in retaining key employees even though, at the margin, they enable managers to extract rents from shareholders. We do not find sufficient statistically significant evidence to reliably conclude that repricings are done to realign employee incentives. [source]

    Optimal Board Monitoring in Family-owned Companies: Evidence from Asia

    En-Te Chen
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: We propose that high levels of monitoring are not always in the best interests of minority shareholders. In family-owned companies the optimal level of board monitoring required by minority shareholders is expected to be lower than that of other companies. This is because the relative benefits and costs of monitoring are different in family-owned companies. Research Findings/Insights: At moderate levels of board monitoring, we find concave relationships between board monitoring variables and firm performance for family-owned companies but not for other companies. The optimal level of board monitoring for our sample of Asian family-owned companies equates to board independence of 38 per cent, separation of the chairman and CEO positions, and establishment of audit and remuneration committees. Additional testing shows that the optimal level of board monitoring is sensitive to the magnitude of the agency conflict between the family group and minority shareholders and the presence of substitute monitoring. Theoretical/Academic Implications: This study shows that the effect of additional monitoring on agency costs and firm performance differs across firms with different ownership structures. Practitioner/Policy Implications: For policymakers, the results show that more monitoring is not always in the best interests of minority shareholders. Therefore, it may be inappropriate for regulators to advise all companies to follow the same set of corporate governance guidelines. However, our results also indicate that the board governance practices of family-owned companies are still well below the identified optimal levels. [source]


    ABSTRACT A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent ,players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. [source]

    PERSPECTIVE ARTICLE: Why do adaptive immune responses cross-react?

    Karen J. Fairlie-Clarke
    Abstract Antigen specificity of adaptive immune responses is often in the host's best interests, but with important and as yet unpredictable exceptions. For example, antibodies that bind to multiple flaviviral or malarial species can provide hosts with simultaneous protection against many parasite genotypes. Vaccinology often aims to harness such imprecision, because cross-reactive antibodies might provide broad-spectrum protection in the face of antigenic variation by parasites. However, the causes of cross-reactivity among immune responses are not always known, and here, we explore potential proximate and evolutionary explanations for cross-reactivity. We particularly consider whether cross-reactivity is the result of constraints on the ability of the immune system to process information about the world of antigens, or whether an intermediate level of cross-reactivity may instead represent an evolutionary optimum. We conclude with a series of open questions for future interdisciplinary research, including the suggestion that the evolutionary ecology of information processing might benefit from close examination of immunological data. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    Oren Goldhaber
    In child custody cases, courts will look to the best interests of a child to maintain visitation/custody rights only with the child's biological parent, not third parties. However, with a same-sex couple, it is inevitable that one parent will not be the biological parent. Thus, when that parent is in a mini-DOMA state, where same-sex couples from non-mini-DOMA states do not have to be recognized, that parent will be viewed as a third party and lose all visitation/custody rights if the couple separates. This note advocates that mini-DOMAs allow both the biological and nonbiological parents of a same-sex couple to have visitation/custody rights of their children if it would be in the best interest of the children to do so. [source]

    Language conflicts in the European Union

    On finding a politically acceptable, practicable solution for EU institutions that satisfies diverging interests
    Europäische Union; institutionelle Arbeitssprachen; Sprachinteressen; Sprachkonflikte For EU institutions, having a single internal working language , for which English is the only candidate , would be the most efficient solution and, to all appearances, in the best interests of each member state and language community whose language is excluded as a working language. However, for member states from the large non-anglophone language communities, such a solution seems barely acceptable and, in addition, would not correspond to the EU's official language policy on the preservation of language diversity. This is because "English only" is expected to inevitably transcend the borders of internal institutions and further limit the function of the remaining widely-spoken languages, especially as a lingua franca and in foreign language teaching. This contribution presents the conflict of interests between the smaller and the larger language communities in having only one or several institutional working languages for the EU and sketches out a possible solution which would serve both political and communicative demands. Für die EU-Institutionen w,re eine einzige interne Arbeitssprache, für die nur Englisch in Frage k,me, am effizientesten, und sie läge allem Anschein nach auch im Interesse derjenigen Mitgliedstaaten und Sprachgemeinschaften, deren Sprachen von den Arbeitssprachen ohnehin ausgeschlossen sind. Für die Mitgliedstaaten der großen Sprachgemeinschaften (außer Englisch) erscheint eine solche Lösung aber kaum akzeptabel, und sie entspräche auch nicht der offiziellen EU-Sprachenpolitik des Erhalts der Sprachenvielfalt. Es ist nämlich damit zu rechnen, dass "English only" unvermeidlich über die internen Institutionen hinaus wirken und die übrigen großen Sprachen funktional weiter einschränken würde, vor allem als Lingua franca und im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Der Beitrag stellt die Interessenskonflikte zwischen den kleineren und den größeren Sprachgemeinschaften der EU bezüglich nur einer oder aber mehrerer institutioneller Arbeitssprachen dar und skizziert eine mögliche Lösung, die sowohl politischen als auch kommunikativen Erfordernissen gerecht wird. [source]