World Population (world + population)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts


ABSTRACT The global value of the biotechnology industry is now estimated at 17 billion dollars, with over 1300 firms involved as of the year 2000.2 It has been said that ,What we are witnessing is nothing less than a new kind of gold rush, and the territory is the body.' As in previous gold rushes, prospectors are flooding into unexplored and ,wide open' territories from all over the world, with possible ramifications for exploitation of Third World populations. These territories are also the Wild West of bioethics insofar as the law has very little hold on them: existing medical and patent law, such as the Moore and Chakrabarty cases, exert little control over powerful economic interests in both the United States and Europe. In the absence of a unified and consistent law on property in the body, the focus is increasingly on refining the consent approach to rights in human tissue and the human genome, with sensitive and promising developments from the Human Genetics Commission and the Department for International Development consultation on intellectual property. These developments incorporate the views of vulnerable genetic communities such as Native Americans or some Third World populations, and should be welcomed because they recognise the power imbalance between such groups and First World researchers or firms. However, they also highlight the continued tension about what is really wrong with commodifying human tissue or the human genome. Where's the injustice, and can it be solved by a more sophisticated consent procedure? [source]

Population-specific deviations of global human craniometric variation from a neutral model

John H. Relethford
Abstract Past studies have revealed that much of human craniometric variation follows a neutral model of population relationships. At the same time, there is evidence for the influence of natural selection in having shaped some global diversity in craniometrics. In order to partition these effects, and to explore other potential population-specific influences, this article analyzes residuals of craniometric distances from a geographically based neutral model of population structure. W.W. Howells' global craniometric data set was used for these analyses, consisting of 57 measurements for 22 populations around the world, excluding Polynesia and Micronesia because of the relatively recent settlement of these regions. Phenotypic and geographic distances were derived between all pairs of populations. Three-dimensional multidimensional scaling configurations were obtained for both distance matrices, and compared using a Procrustes rotation method to show which populations do not fit the geographic model. This analysis revealed three major deviations: the Buriat, Greenland Inuit, and Peru. The deviations of the Buriat and Greenland Inuit appear to be related to long-term adaptation to cold environments. The Peruvian sample is more similar to other New World populations than expected based on geographic distance alone. This deviation likely reflects the evolutionarily recent movement of human populations into South America, such that these populations are further from genetic equilibrium. This same pattern is seen in South American populations in a comparative analysis of classical genetic markers, but not in a comparative analysis of STR loci, perhaps reflecting the higher mutation rate for the latter. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic, geographic, and environmental correlates of human temporal bone variation

Heather F. Smith
Abstract Temporal bone shape has been shown to reflect molecular phylogenetic relationships among hominoids and offers significant morphological detail for distinguishing taxa. Although it is generally accepted that temporal bone shape, like other aspects of morphology, has an underlying genetic component, the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors is unclear. To determine the impact of genetic differentiation and environmental variation on temporal bone morphology, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to evaluate temporal bone variation in 11 modern human populations. Population differences were investigated by discriminant function analysis, and the strength of the relationships between morphology, neutral molecular distance, geographic distribution, and environmental variables were assessed by matrix correlation comparisons. Significant differences were found in temporal bone shape among all populations, and classification rates using cross-validation were relatively high. Comparisons of morphological distances to molecular distances based on short tandem repeats (STRs) revealed a significant correlation between temporal bone shape and neutral molecular distance among Old World populations, but not when Native Americans were included. Further analyses suggested a similar pattern for morphological variation and geographic distribution. No significant correlations were found between temporal bone shape and environmental variables: temperature, annual rainfall, latitude, or altitude. Significant correlations were found between temporal bone size and both temperature and latitude, presumably reflecting Bergmann's rule. Thus, temporal bone morphology appears to partially follow an isolation by distance model of evolution among human populations, although levels of correlation show that a substantial component of variation is unexplained by factors considered here. Am J Phys Anthropol 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Weight changes following the initiation of new anti-hyperglycaemic therapies

G. A. Nichols
Objective:, The objective of this study was to quantify 1-year weight gain associated with the initiation of sulphonylurea (SU), metformin, insulin and thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy in a representative real world population of type 2 diabetic patients. Research Design and Methods:, The study population was 9546 members of Kaiser Permanente North-west (KPNW) who initiated an anti-hyperglycaemic drug between 1996 and 2002 and continued use of that drug for at least 12 months without adding other therapies. Change in weight was calculated as the annualized difference between baseline and follow-up weight and was adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics. We then compared the weight changes observed in patients newly initiating SU, metformin, insulin and TZD therapies. Results:, After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics that might affect weight change, metformin initiators lost an average of 2.4 kg while all other groups gained weight. SU initiators gained the least (1.8 kg), followed by insulin initiators (3.3 kg) and TZD subjects (5.0 kg). All comparisons were highly statistically significant. Conclusions:, In an observational study of 1-year weight changes following the initiation of SUs, metformin, insulin or TZDs, we found similar but somewhat smaller weight changes than those previously reported in clinical trials. Our observed weight changes could not be explained by the many other factors we tested and seemed to apply across the full spectrum of diabetes patients. Our report provides valuable information that will allow the patient and clinician to anticipate, and perhaps address, expected weight changes that accompany the initiation of anti-hyperglycaemic drugs. [source]

Glucose intolerance and associated factors in Mongolia: results of a national survey

J. Suvd
Abstract Aims Prevalence of glucose intolerance,diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT),and of related conditions such as obesity and hypertension, was studied in six population samples in Mongolia in 1999. Methods Diagnosis of glucose intolerance was made on the basis of 2-h blood glucose concentration, according to criteria recommended by the latest report of a WHO Expert Group. Results Crude prevalence of diabetes was 2.9% (2.6% in men and 3.2% in women). Prevalence of IGT was 10.2% (9.3% in men and 10.8% in women). Age standardization to the standard world population of Segi resulted in a total sample prevalence of 3.1% for diabetes and 9.2% for IGT. Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance differed according to district of residence. Approximately one-third of the subjects with diabetes were diagnosed prior to the survey. Of those who were diagnosed previously, approximately one-half were not under any form of treatment. Subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance were older, more obese and had higher blood pressure and prevalence of hypertension than those with normoglycaemia. One-half of men and almost one-half of women were hypertensive. Three-quarters of the diabetic subjects were hypertensive. One-third of all subjects were centrally obese. Considering the conditions of principal interest,glucose intolerance, hypertension and obesity,one-half of all subjects demonstrated one or more of these conditions. Central obesity was the most common condition, followed by hypertension and then glucose intolerance. Central obesity and hypertension was the most common combination (17% of all subjects) and 4% exhibited all three conditions. Conclusions Non-communicable diseases are already a threat to public health in Mongolia. Although the prevalence of diabetes is not high by international standards, the relatively high prevalence of IGT suggests that the situation may deteriorate in the future in the absence of concerted action to prevent and control diabetes and related conditions. [source]

Prevalence and determinants of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in a Canarian Caucasian population , comparison of the 1997 ADA and the 1985 WHO criteria.

The Guía Study.
Summary Aims To estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in a Canarian population according to the 1997 ADA and the 1985 WHO criteria; and to study the cardiovascular risk factors associated with these categories. Methods A total of 691 subjects over 30 years old were chosen in a random sampling of the population (stratified by age and sex). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed (excluding known diabetic patients) and lipids were determined in the fasting state. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were performed, and history of smoking habits and medications was recorded. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 15.9% (1997 ADA) and 18.7% (1985 WHO); the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance was 8.8 and 17.1%, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes (Segi's standard world population) for the population aged 30,64 years was 12.4% (1985 WHO). The risk factors significantly associated with diabetes (1997 ADA and 1985 WHO) were age, body mass index; waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and mean blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol. Age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were associated with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance; triglycerides were also associated with impaired fasting glucose. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance in Guía is one of the highest among studied Caucasian populations. The new 1997 ADA criteria estimate a lower prevalence of diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose also had a lower prevalence than impaired glucose intolerance and the overlap of these categories was modest. [source]

The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

T. He
ABSTRACT Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic,active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance. [source]

Trends in oesophageal cancer incidence and mortality in Europe

Cristina Bosetti
Abstract To monitor recent trends in mortality from oesophageal cancer in 33 European countries, we analyzed the data provided by the World Health Organization over the last 2 decades, using also joinpoint regression. For selected European cancer registration areas, we also analyzed incidence rates for different histological types. For men in the European Union (EU), age-standardized (world population) mortality rates were stable around 6/100,000 between the early 1980s and the early 1990s, and slightly declined in the last decade (5.4/100,000 in the early 2000s, annual percent change, APC = ,1.1%). In several western European countries, male rates have started to level off or decline during the last decade (APC = ,3.4% in France, and ,3.0% in Italy). Also in Spain and the UK, which showed upward trends in the 1990s, the rates tended to level off in most recent years. A levelling of rates was observed only more recently in countries of central and eastern Europe, which had had substantial rises up to the late 1990s. Oesophageal cancer mortality rates remained comparatively low in European women, and overall EU female rates were stable around 1.1,1.2/100,000 over the last 2 decades (APC = ,0.1%). In northern Europe a clear upward trend was observed in the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, and in Denmark and Scotland incidence of adenocarcinoma in men is now higher than that of squamous-cell carcinoma. Squamous-cell carcinoma remained the prevalent histological type in southern Europe. Changes in smoking habits and alcohol drinking for men, and perhaps nutrition, diet and physical activity for both sexes, can partly or largely explain these trends. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Awareness and determinants of family planning practice in Jimma, Ethiopia

A. T. Beekle rgn
Background:, The continuing growth of the world population has become an urgent global problem. Ethiopia, like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, is experiencing rapid population growth. Currently, the country's population is growing at a rate of 3%, one of the highest rates in the world and if it continues unabated, the population will have doubled in 23 years, preventing any gain in the national development effort. Aim:, To determine the level and determinants of family planning awareness and practice in one Ethiopian town. Methodology:, A quantitative study using a descriptive survey design was conducted in Jimma University Hospital. Discussion:, The findings revealed that the knowledge and practice of modern contraception methods was low. Most women's contraceptive knowledge and practice was influenced by socio-cultural norms such as male/husband dominance and opposition to contraception, and low social status of women. A lack of formal education for women was identified as a key factor in preventing change in the patterns of contraceptive knowledge and use by women in this part of Ethiopia. Conclusion:, The support and encouragement for women and men to enter and complete formal education is essential in bringing about a cultural and social change in attitude towards the economic and social value of family planning. This study and others suggest that education can address the imbalance in decision making about contraception and the role of women in society generally. [source]

Benchmarking productive efficiency of selected wheat areas in Pakistan and India using data envelopment analysis,

Naeem M. Malana
MEG (/DEA); analyse comparative; productivité de l'irrigation; productivité; blé; Pakistan; Inde Abstract Food demand is bound to increase significantly in future as a result of a growing world population. As a large proportion of the available land and water resources have been developed, there is limited scope for further increase in the use of these resources. Thus future increases in food production will originate from improvements in performance of existing agriculture rather than development of new resources. It is anticipated that wheat demand in the South Asia will rise significantly in future. In order to increase production and overcome diminishing water availability for irrigation, performance of wheat farms must increase. This paper describes the process of benchmarking the productive efficiency of wheat in selected areas of Pakistan and India. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate and rank productivity performance of wheat growing areas in both countries based on three inputs: irrigation (m3,ha,1), seed (kg,ha,1) and fertiliser use (kg,ha,1). The results of analysis show that DEA is an effective tool for analysing and benchmarking productive efficiency of agricultural units. Ranking of productive efficiency based on three inputs is also shown to differ significantly from that based on a single resource (irrigation). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. La demande de nourriture est appelée à augmenter de façon significative du fait de la croissance de la population mondiale. Une forte proportion des ressources en terre et en eau ayant déjà été utilisée, leur potentiel d'accroissement est faible. La production supplémentaire de nourriture devra donc venir de l'amélioration des performances de l'agriculture plutôt que du développement de nouvelles ressources. Il est prévu que la demande de blé en Asie du Sud-Est augmente significativement dans le future. Afin d'augmenter la production et de surmonter la raréfaction de l'eau pour l'irrigation, la performance de la culture du blé doit progresser. Cet article décrit le processus d'analyse comparative appliquée à la productivité de certaines zones à blé du Pakistan et de l'Inde. La Méthode d'Enveloppe Graphique (MEG) est utilisée pour évaluer et classer les productivités des zones à blé de ces deux pays sur la base de trois intrants: l'irrigation (m3/ha), les semences (kg/ha) et les engrais (kg/ha). Les résultats de l'analyse montrent que la MEG est un outil efficace pour l'analyse comparative des productivités d'exploitations agricoles. Le classement des productivités à partir de trois intrants est également différent de celui obtenu à partir d'une seule ressource (l'irrigation). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Addressing the unanswered questions in global water policy: a methodology framework,

Charlotte de Fraiture
Demande et fourniture de l'eau et de la nourriture au niveau globale 1995,2025; modélisation globale; politique globale sur l'eau; projections 2025 Abstract Are the available water resources sufficient to produce food for the growing world population while at the same time meet increasing municipal, industrial and environmental requirements? Projections for the year 2025, presented by different research groups at the second World Water Forum in The Hague, show an increase in global agricultural water use ranging from 4 to 17%. Estimates for the growth of total withdrawals, including domestic and industrial sectors, vary from 22 to 32%. This range is the result of differences in model structure and assumptions. Although these analyses were instrumental in raising awareness concerning the extent of present and future water scarcity problems, they raise many questions, which remain largely unanswered. The questions relate to the impact of water- and food-related policies on global and regional water scarcity, food production, environment and livelihoods through the year 2025. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) embarked on a joint modeling exercise to address these questions. This paper lays out the issues and discusses the methodology. During the 18th ICID Congress in July 2002 at Montreal, preliminary results will be presented. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. RÉSUMÉ Est-ce que les ressources en eau disponible sont suffisantes pour produire la nourriture pour une population mondiale qui s'accroît, et satisfaire en même temps les besoins municipaux, industriels et environnementaux? Les projections faites pour l'an 2025 par différents groupes de chercheurs lors du 2ème Forum Mondial de l'Eau à la Haye montrent une augmentation de 4 à 17% dans l'utilisation globale de l'eau agricole. Les estimations pour l'augmentation des prélèvements, y compris les secteurs domestiques et industriels, varient de 22 à 32%. Cette portée est le résultat des différences dans la structure des modèles. Quoique ces analyses permettent de sensibiliser le peuple sur les problèmes actuels et futurs de la disponibilité de l'eau, elles soulèvent de nombreuses questions qui restent non-résolues en bonne part. Ces questions concernent l'impact aux niveaux régionau et globau des politiques sur l'eau et la nourriture, la production alimentaire, l'environnement et les moyens d'existence et sources de revenu vers l'an 2025. L'Institut International de Recherche sur la Politique Alimentaire (IFPRI) et l'Institut International de Gestion d'Eau (IWMI) préparent conjointement un modèle pour traiter toutes ces questions non-résolues. Le rapport en question identifie toutes ces questions et discute la méthodologie. Au 18ème Congrès de Montréal en juillet 2002, les résultats préliminaires seront présentés. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On Population Growth and Technological Change: Selectivity Bias in Historical Analysis

Jean-Paul Chavas
This paper investigates the relationship between population growth and technological change. After an historical overview of the evolution of world population, alternative models of population growth are examined. They include a Malthusian model, a model of endogenous technological change, and a model of population growth that allows for switching regimes between Malthusian resource limitation and endogenous technological change. The regime-switching model stresses the potential for a biased interpretation of historical data. While there is strong empirical evidence supporting endogenous technical change, it is argued that the Malthusian scenario should not be overlooked even if the odds of facing it are low. [source]

Green chemistry for the second generation biorefinery,sustainable chemical manufacturing based on biomass

James H Clark
The material needs of society are reaching a crisis point. The demands of a growing and developing world population will soon exceed the capacity of our present fossil resource based infrastructure. In particular, the chemical industry that underpins most industries needs to respond to these challenges. The chemical manufacturing and user industries face an unprecedented range and intensity of drivers for change, the greatest of which, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) has yet to bite. In order to address the key issues of switching to renewable resources, avoiding hazardous and polluting processes, and manufacturing and using safe and environmentally compatible products, we need to develop sustainable and green chemical product supply chains. For organic chemicals and materials these need to operate under agreed and strict criteria and need to start with widely available, totally renewable and low cost carbon,the only source is biomass and the conversion of biomass into useful products will be carried out in biorefineries. Where these operate at present, their product range is largely limited to simple materials (e.g. cellulose), chemicals (e.g. ethanol) and bioenergy/biofuels. Second generation biorefineries need to build on the need for sustainable chemical products through modern and proven green chemical technologies such as bioprocessing, controlled pyrolysis, catalysis in water and microwave activation, in order to make more complex molecules and materials on which a future sustainable society will be based. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Food Security in China and Contingency Planning: the Significance of Grain Reserves

Hendrik J. Bruins
China is inhabited by ca 20 percent of the world population, but has only 7 percent of global arable land and only 6.6 percent of global freshwater resources. These unfavourable relationships between population size and the basic resources for food production , soil and water , require careful food security and contingency planning by the Chinese authorities. The country has been remarkably successful in raising its food production since 1949 at a faster rate (400 percent) than the increase in its population (240 percent). This has basically been achieved by increasing the yields per unit area with enhanced fertilizer use, as the total size of arable land has been decreasing in recent years. Though China attempts to be largely self-sufficient in food grain production, two possible contingency scenarios are suggested that might cause grave problems: (1) severe multi-annual drought; (2) reduced chemical fertilizer manufacturing. If Chinese food production would drop as a result by, say, 33 percent, famine, the dreaded scourge throughout Chinese history, might recur. A shortage of ca 150 million tons of food grains cannot easily be buffered by the volume of food grains annually traded on the world market, ca 240 million tons. Much of this amount tends to be committed already to traditional buyers, as most countries in the world have to import food grains. Cash reserves, therefore, may not guarantee food purchases, because global grain reserves are limited and declining. The formation and maintenance of large internal food grain reserves in China, common in its tradition and ancient history, seem the only realistic contingency planning strategy to avert famine in case of a severe decline in its food production in future crisis years. [source]

Gastric cancer: Worldwide burden and prevention opportunities

Gastric cancer is a major worldwide problem in developing and developed countries. It contributes substantially to the economic medical resource burden and population mortality in many countries. The absolute numbers of new cases of death are expected to increase significantly over the next decades because of the enlarging and aging of the world population. The putative factors are better understood today, and control of these factors, together with screening can help prevent this cancer from becoming an increasing burden to society. [source]

Basal ganglia pathology in schizophrenia: dopamine connections and anomalies

Emma Perez-Costas
J. Neurochem. (2010) 113, 287,302. Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of anti-psychotic drugs. In this review, we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. [source]

WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Céline Mercier
Abstract, The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and monitoring changes regarding resources for persons with intellectual disabilities and their families in countries with the lowest levels of income in the world. After consultation with experts in the field of ID, a questionnaire and its accompanying glossary were developed. This questionnaire was completed by national respondents from 147 countries, areas, and territories that are WHO members (response rate of 74.6% corresponding to 94.6% of the world population). Cross-tabulations were calculated according to WHO region that the countries belong to as well as their levels of income. The data from the Atlas-ID allowed for documenting similarities and differences among the poorest and the richest countries of the world in relation to ID. The most striking differences pertain to the areas of information, judicial protection, government benefits, financing, availability, and access to services. The Atlas-ID allowed the identification of similarities and differences in resources and services between the four World Bank categories of countries income, and it demonstrated the extent of unmet needs in low-income and low-middle-income countries, as well as some critical gaps between these countries and the high-level income countries. [source]

Cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure: Development of a HPLC method and comparison of matrices

Guilherme Oliveira Petersen
Abstract Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid,liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax® XDB C8), isocratic pump (0.5,mL/min of water,methanol,sodium acetate (0.1,M),ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0,mL of citric acid (0.034,M) and 5.0,mL of triethylamine for each liter) and HPLC-UV detection (261,nm). The analytical procedure proved to be sensitive, selective, precise, accurate and linear (r>0.99) in the range of 5,500.0,ng/mL for cotinine. 2-Phenylimidazole was used as the internal standard. The LOD was 0.18,ng/mL and the LOQ was 5.0,ng/mL. All samples from smoking volunteers were collected simultaneously to establish a comparison between serum, plasma, and urine. The urinary cotinine levels were normalized by the creatinine and urine density. A significant correlation was found (p<0.01) between all matrices. Results indicate that the urine normalization by creatinine or density is unnecessary. This method is considered reliable for determining cotinine in serum and plasma of smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke exposure. [source]

CAP reform, competitiveness and sustainability

Séan Rickard
Abstract Franz Fischler has recently published his proposals for (further) reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In summary they amount to an attempt to achieve an agricultural industry that is not only more competitive and profitable but also ecologically and environmentally sustainable. For Franz Fischler, sustainability is defined as more than the effective conservation and regeneration of natural resources; it also involves sustaining the presumed contribution of farming to rural development. This latter objective is the focus of the newly introduced second pillar of the CAP and can be interpreted as an attempt to arrest the steady decline in the number of smaller-sized farm businesses. Franz Fischler has pointed to the widespread support for these three objectives across EU populations and, subject to WTO constraints on trade distorting policies, the right of every society to choose its own agricultural policy. However, the analysis of the reform's objectives contained in this paper is that they form an irreconcilable trinity and ultimately policy makers will have to choose between a competitive industry and the protection of smaller farm businesses. This paper argues that in reality there is no choice. Globalisation will both drive and demand a more productive and competitive food chain in order to meet the demands of rising affluence and a burgeoning world population. It also argues that the industrialisation of farming is not automatically in conflict with the conservation and regeneration of natural resources. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Quantifying the ,hidden' lactose in drugs used for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions

Summary Background, Lactose intolerance affects 70% of the world population and may result in abdominal and systemic symptoms. Treatment focuses predominantly on the dietary restriction of food products containing lactose. Lactose is the most common form of excipient used in drug formulations and may be overlooked when advising these patients. Aim, To identify and quantify the amount of lactose in medications used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and to identify ,lactose-free' preparations. Methods, Medications used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders were identified from the British National Formulary (BNF). Their formulation including excipients was obtained from the Medicines Compendium. The lactose content and quantity in selected medications was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results, A wide range of medications prescribed for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions contain lactose. We have quantified the lactose content in a selection of medications using HPLC. Lactose is present in amounts that may contribute towards symptoms. Lactose-free alternatives were also identified. Conclusions, Lactose is present in a range of medications and may contribute towards symptoms. This may not be recognized by the prescribing doctor as excipients are not listed in the BNF, and the quantity of lactose is not listed on the label or in the accompanying manufacturer's leaflet. [source]

Refined analysis of genetic variability parameters in hepatitis C virus and the ability to predict antiviral treatment response

J. M. Cuevas
Summary., Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 3% of the world population. The chronicity of hepatitis C seems to depend on the level of genetic variability. We have recently (Torres-Puente et al., J Viral Hepat, 2008; 15: 188) reported genetic variability estimates from a large-scale sequence analysis of 67 patients infected with HCV subtypes 1a (23 patients) and 1b (44 patients) and related them to response, or lack of, to alpha-interferon plus ribavirin treatment.. Two HCV genome regions were analysed in samples prior to antiviral therapy, one compressing the three hypervariable regions of the E2 glycoprotein and another one including the interferon sensitive determining region and the V3 domain of the NS5A protein. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity measures showed a clear tendency to higher genetic variability levels in nonresponder than in responder patients. Here, we have refined the analysis of genetic variability (haplotype and nucleotide diversity, number of haplotypes and mutations) by considering their distribution in each of the biologically meaningful subregions mentioned above, as well as in their surrounding and intervening regions. Variability levels are very heterogeneous among the different subregions, being higher for nonresponder patients. Interestingly, significant differences were detected in the biologically relevant regions, but also in the surrounding regions, suggesting that the level of variability of the whole HCV genome, rather than exclusively that from the hypervariable regions, is the main indicator of the treatment response. Finally, the number of haplotypes and mutations seem to be better discriminators than haplotype and nucleotide diversity, especially in the NS5A region. [source]

Review article: lactose intolerance in clinical practice , myths and realities

Summary Background, Approximately 70% of the world population has hypolactasia, which often remains undiagnosed and has the potential to cause some morbidity. However, not everyone has lactose intolerance, as several nutritional and genetic factors influence tolerance. Aims, To review current clinical practice and identify published literature on the management of lactose intolerance. Methods, PubMed was searched using the terms lactose, lactase and diet to find original research and reviews. Relevant articles and clinical experience provided the basis for this review. Results, Lactose is found only in mammalian milk and is hydrolysed by lactase in the small intestine. The lactase gene has recently been identified. ,Wild-type' is characterized by lactase nonpersistence, often leading to lactose intolerance. Two genetic polymorphisms responsible for persistence have been identified, with their distribution concentrated in north Europeans. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea. Diagnosis is most commonly by the lactose hydrogen breath test. However, most people with hypolactasia, if given appropriate advice, can tolerate some lactose-containing foods without symptoms. Conclusion, In clinical practice, some people with lactose intolerance can consume milk and dairy foods without developing symptoms, whereas others will need lactose restriction. [source]

Traditional Chinese herbal medicines for treatment of liver fibrosis and cancer: from laboratory discovery to clinical evaluation

John M. Luk
Abstract Liver disease afflicts over 10% of the world population. This includes chronic hepatitis, alcoholic steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which are the most health-threatening conditions drawing considerable attention from medical professionals and scientists. Patients with alcoholism or viral hepatitis are much more likely to have liver cell damage and cirrhosis, and some may eventually develop HCC, which is unfortunately, and very often, a fatal malignancy without cure. While liver surgery is not suitable in many of the HCC cases, patients are mostly given palliative support cares or transarterial chemoembolization or systemic chemotherapies. However, HCC is well known to be a highly chemoresistant tumour, and the response rate is <10,20%. To this end, alternative medicines are being actively sought from other sources with hopes to halt the disease's progression or even eliminate the tumours. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has begun to gain popularity worldwide for promoting healthcare as well as disease prevention, and been used as conventional or complementary medicines for both treatable and incurable diseases in Asia and the West. In this article, we discuss the laboratory findings and clinical trial studies of Chinese herbal medicines (particularly small molecule compounds) for the treatment of liver disease ranging from fibrosis to liver cancer. [source]

Burden of disease related to Parkinson's disease in Spain in the year 2000

Esther Cubo MD
Abstract We measured the burden caused by Parkinson's disease (PD) in Spain during the year 2000 and compared it against PD burden worldwide and in the European A subregion. Burden of disease (BoD) is an important factor in health policy. Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as a measure of BoD is the result of adding years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD). The burden of PD (BPD) has not been studied in Spain. YLL were obtained from the Spanish death certificates and YLD from the estimated number of incident PD cases and the average PD duration. PD disability was calculated, using the Disability Weights for Diseases in the Netherlands. Prior PD DALY data for Europe and the world were obtained from the 2001 World Health Organization World Health Report. A discount rate of 3% and age-weighting modulation factor with K = 1 were used. In Spain, PD generated 67,582 DALY, comprising 6,351 (9.4%) YLL and 61,231 (90.6%) YLD. Most PD DALY (57.5%) occurred in the population 60 to 74 years of age. When PD DALY estimates were adjusted using the world population in 2000, Spain registered a PD DALY rate of 84 per 100,000 population, higher than both the world and European A subregion rates (24 and 35 per 100,000 population, respectively). PD burden in Spain in 2000 was high, with disability being the major contributing factor. Although BPD in Spain was greater than both world and European A subregion BPD, these differences should nevertheless be interpreted with caution. © 2005 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Malaria and oral health

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2008
FJ Owotade
Half of the world population resides in malaria-prone areas, and the disease is responsible for more than a million deaths annually. This is apart from the economic impact of the disease through resources expended towards treatment and prevention and the loss of manpower. In addition to the overt clinical signs and symptoms, the association of malaria with other diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infection has been described. However few studies have attempted to investigate its relationship to oral diseases. This review provides an overview of the relevance of malaria to the mouth and adjacent structures. The need for further research is also emphasized. [source]

Persistence of growth stunting in a Peruvian high altitude community, 1964,1999

Ivan G. Pawson
The growth of children living in Nuñoa, a Peruvian high-altitude community, was studied over a 35-year period using data collected in 1964 and 1999. There had been evidence of a secular trend in growth in the mid-1980s, but this was before a period of sociopolitical upheaval lasting until the late 1990s partly linked to the activities of the Shining Path group and the Peruvian government's response. Anthropometric data for 576 children examined in 1964,1966 were compared with data from 361 children examined in 1999. Data were converted to Z Scores using NCHS/WHO reference standards. Compared with the 1964 cohort, boys in 1999 had marginally greater height Z Scores, but among females, the trend was reversed. Stunting prevalence had decreased from 1964 levels, but still approached 60% in both sexes, among the highest rates recorded for a modern world population. The prevalence of low weight for height was less than expected, possibly because of the compensatory effect of enlarged chest diameter. This anatomical feature may represent the effect of chronic hypoxic stress, causing growth of the chest cavity at the expense of growth in height. In view of modest improvements during the late 1980s in this population, we believe that the relatively poor growth status of children a decade later may result from food disruption associated with later political instability. Compared with children in a nearby community, which benefits from the socioeconomic infrastructure associated with a large copper mine, Nuñoa children continue to fare relatively poorly. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Sub-Saharan Africa's Future: A US National Intelligence Council Conference Report

Article first published online: 23 MAR 200
The US National Intelligence Council's 2020 Report, Mapping the Global Future, was issued in December 2004. It presented an assessment of geopolitical trends and set out some speculative scenarios for global development over the next 15 years. Excerpts were carried in the Documents section of PDR 31, no. 1. A follow-up conference in 2005 brought together a group of US experts on Africa to explore likely trends and drivers of change in sub-Saharan Africa over the same period, partly in the light of the Report's treatment of that region. Part of the NIC's summary of the conference discussions is reproduced below. (Omitted sections discuss globalization, terrorism, democratization, foreign influences, and religion. The full summary is available at It is notable that the topic of population, which once would have figured heavily in such prognostications, nowhere appears in the conference deliberations. Yet the region's population growth is still rapid,and is plausibly a major driver of change. In the UN's medium projections, sub-Saharan Africa's population, estimated at 906 million in 2005, will more than double by 2050, its share of world population rising from 12 percent to 19 percent. In the 15-year time frame of the NIC it will likely grow by 200 million. Those numbers are of course tenuous, contingent on the expectations they embody about the timing of the region's transition to low death and birth rates (and specifically in their assessment of the future course of the AIDS epidemic),which in turn will be influenced by many of the factors that the NIC conferees considered. [source]

Surrender to the Market: Thoughts on Anthropology, The Body Shop, and Intellectuals,

Rohan Bastin
The direction of anthropology over the last century is tied to the shifts from colonialism to postcolonialism and from modernism to postmodernism. These shifts have seen the thoroughgoing incorporation of the world population into the economic, political and juridical domain established through the last throes of colonialism and the transmutations of capitalism and the State. Anthropology, a discipline whose history shows close and regular links with colonial government, also transforms in association with the world it describes and partly creates. Two dominant trends in contemporary anthropology,applied consultancy and historicist self-reflexivity,are compared for the ways they represent the transmutation, which is characterised, following Fredric Jameson as ,the surrender to the market'. In this way it is asserted that just as the discipline had hitherto revealed its links to colonialism, it now reveals its links to globalisation through a form of commodified self-obsession. To illustrate this quality the paper considers the global chain of cosmetics stores, The Body Shop, as an example of ,late capitalism' and the moral juridical framework of globalisation. Finally, it treats these developments in anthropology as more generally affecting intellectuals and knowledge production through the promotion of intellectual ,silence'. [source]

Cutaneous melanoma in New Zealand: 2000,2004

Jennifer J. C. Liang
Abstract Background:, In 2004, we published data on the trends in New Zealand (NZ) cutaneous melanoma (CM) for the period 1995,1999. The present report documents the trends in the next period from 2000 to 2004. Method:, Data were obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry by way of a computerized search of CM ICD-10 (172) codes from 2000 to 2004. Only one registration per person was made to avoid including patients with metastatic melanoma. The exclusion criteria were: incorrect or absent data; benign naevi; and melanoma in situ. Incidence rates were age standardised to the Segi world population. Results:, The total study population was 8262 patients. There was no increase found in the overall incidence rate over the time period, but men had a statistically higher overall incidence rate (P= 0.0002) and thicker CMs (P= 0.003) compared with women. This gender difference was particularly marked in those patients aged greater than 59 years. Breslow thickness increased from 0.7 to 0.8 mm. The incidence rates varied quite significantly among District Health Boards, with Taranaki having the highest rate (70.3/100 000/year) and Southland had the lowest rate (20.1/100 000). Overall, NZ had a CM incidence rate of 41.2/100 000/year). Conclusion:, The current study confirmed that NZ has the highest overall CM incidence rate in the world. Elderly men (>59 years old) have the highest risk of developing melanoma. The increase in melanoma thickness with its associated higher mortality risk is of grave concern. [source]

Cancer curriculum in the Asia,Pacific: Opportunities and challenges in the age of globalization

Abstract With the rising incidence and prevalence of cancer in Asia,Pacific, the need for adequate cancer education of medical graduates in the region has become particularly urgent. There are 769 medical schools across the Asia,Pacific region in 33 countries serving over 60% of the world population in very diverse socioeconomic environments. This paper discusses some of the challenges for medical education in the Asia,Pacific in light of increasing globalization of health care, including the need to develop global standards in the area of diverse resources and health care priorities. It also points out emerging opportunities including online learning, telemedicine and collaborative educational initiatives across the region. [source]