Workers Experienced (worker + experience)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Cyclicality is a well-known and accepted fact of life in market-driven economies. Less well known or understood, however, is the phenomenon of amplification as one looks "upstream" in the industrial supply chain. We examine the amplification phenomenon and its implications through the lens of one upstream industry that is notorious for the intensity of the business cycles it faces: the machine tool industry. Amplification of demand volatility in capital equipment supply chains, e. g., machine tools, is particularly large relative to that seen in distribution and component parts supply chains. We present a system dynamics simulation model to capture demand volatility amplification in capital supply chains. We explore the lead-time, inventory, production, productivity, and staffing implications of these dynamic forces. Several results stand out. First, volatility hurts productivity and lowers average worker experience. Second, even though machine tool builders can do little to reduce the volatility in their order streams through choice of forecast rule, a smoother forecasting policy will lead companies to retain more of their skilled work force. This retention of skilled employees is often cited as one of the advantages that European and Japanese companies have had relative to their U. S. competitors. Our results suggest some insights for supply chain design and management: downstream customers can do a great deal to reduce the volatility for upstream suppliers through their choice of order forecast rule. In particular, companies that use smoother forecasting policies tend to impose less of their own volatility upon their supply base and may consequently enjoy system-wide cost reduction. [source]

Occupational fatalities, injuries, illnesses, and related economic loss in the wholesale and retail trade sector

Vern Putz Anderson PhD
Abstract Background The wholesale and retail trade (WRT) sector employs over 21 million workers, or nearly 19% of the annual average employment in private industry. The perception is that workers in this sector are generally at low risk of occupational injury and death. These workers, however, are engaged in a wide range of demanding job activities and are exposed to a variety of hazards. Prior to this report, a comprehensive appraisal of the occupational fatal and nonfatal burdens affecting the retail and wholesale sectors was lacking. The focus of this review is to assess the overall occupational safety and health burden in WRT and to identify various subsectors that have high rates of burden from occupational causes. Ultimately, these findings should be useful for targeted intervention efforts. Methods We reviewed Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2006 fatality, injury, and illness data for the WRT sector and provide comparisons between the WRT sector, its' subsectors, and private industry, which serves as a baseline. The BLS data provide both counts and standardized incidence rates for various exposures, events, and injury types for fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. In an effort to estimate the economic burden of these fatalities, injuries, and illnesses, a focused review of the literature was conducted. Results and Conclusion In 2006, WRT workers experienced 820,500 injuries/illnesses and 581 fatalities. The total case injury/illness rate for the retail sector was 4.9/100 FTE and for the wholesale sector 4.1/100 FTE. The WRT sector represents 15.5% of the private sector work population in 2006, yet accounts for 20.1% of nonfatal injuries and illnesses of the private sector. In 2003, the disparity was only 2% but increased to 3% in 2004 and 2005. Three WRT subsectors had injury/illness rates well above the national average: beer/wine/liquor (8.4/100); building materials/supplies (7.6/100); and grocery-related products (7.0/100). Occupational deaths with the highest rates were found in gasoline stations (9.8/100,000), convenience stores (6.1/100,000), and used car dealers (5.5/100,000). In terms of actual numbers, the category of food and beverage stores had 82 fatalities in 2006. Based on 1993 data, costs, both direct and indirect, in the WRT sector for fatal injuries were estimated to exceed $8.6 billion. The full economic loss to society and the family has not been adequately measured. Overexertion and contact with objects/equipment represent the top two events or exposures leading to injury or illness. Together they account for 57% of the events or exposures for nonfatal WRT injuries and illnesses. This sector is important because it is large and pervasive as a result, even a relatively small increase in injury rates and accompanying days away from work will have significant impact on working families and society. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:673,685, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Mortality of workers employed in shoe manufacturing: An update,

Everett J. Lehman MS
Abstract Background In the late 1970s, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health identified two shoe manufacturing facilities where workers experienced relatively "pure" exposures to toluene. A mortality study was conducted through December 31, 1982. An original study did not detect elevated leukemia mortality but did detect increased lung cancer mortality. The present study is an update of the mortality of the original cohort. Methods The study cohort consisted of workers employed 1 month or more between 1940 and 1979 at two Ohio shoe manufacturing plants. Vital status was ascertained through December 31, 1999. Results Seven thousand eight hundred twenty eight workers, contributing 300,777 person years, were available for analysis. An excess of lung cancer deaths persisted with additional years of follow-up (SMR,=,1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI),=,1.19,1.54). Trend tests did not indicate a positive trend between lung cancer risk and duration of employment. Mortality from leukemia was not significantly elevated in the updated analysis. Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between lung cancer mortality and exposure to chronic, low-levels of organic solvents. Although the strength of this conclusion was weakened by the lack of increasing lung cancer risk in relation to duration of employment, other studies have supported this association. Am. J. Ind. Med. 49:535,546, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Embodiment of discrimination and overseas nurses' career progression

John Aggergaard Larsen PhD
Aim and objectives., To examine empirically and in-depth how discriminatory attitudes and practices are experienced by overseas nurses and how the discrimination may affect their well-being and career progression and, furthermore, to apply the theoretical perspective of embodiment in understanding these processes. Background., The UK healthcare sector has, in recent years, relied on overseas-trained professionals to fill up vacancies in nursing and other professions. Research shows that overseas nurses claim that their UK colleagues, managers and patients express discriminatory, racist and xenophobic attitudes. Design and method., The paper provides an existential phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews with two overseas nurses. The data are drawn from a study of overseas-trained healthcare workers' experiences working and living in the UK. The two cases have been purposively selected to provide an illumination and discussion of personal experiences with discrimination, how individuals may respond to these and how their professional career is affected. Findings., Discrimination towards migrant workers may, at times, be experienced as ,blatant racism' or, in more subtle forms, as ,aversive racism'. It is demonstrated how such discrimination may impact on the afflicted person's sense of self, suggesting a theoretical model of the embodiment of discrimination. Discrimination not only works at an interpersonal and institutional level, but is a form of ,symbolic violence' that may be internalized to affect the person's ,habitus'; it can be resisted through meaning-making activity that explains and hence objectifies and embodies the experience in a way that allows individuals to positively influence their situation through agency. Conclusion., This article details how social and institutionalized discrimination in the UK healthcare sector may be internalized by overseas workers and affects their professional careers. Relevance to clinical practice., The study allows a theoretical reflection on the damage inflicted by discrimination, and it may contribute to the eradication of discriminatory practices and the development of necessary support and monitoring mechanisms. [source]

Role of work permits in teen workers' experiences

Linda Delp MPH
Abstract Background Work permits are required for working teenagers under 18 in 41 US states, but little is known about the work experience of those with work permits compared with those without such permits. This study examines job hazards, training, and knowledge of child labor laws reported by students in a predominantly Latino high school in Los Angeles and compares the responses of those who obtained work permits with those who did not. Methods Student responses to a 60 item questionnaire were supplemented with information from focus groups and a survey of work permits issued by the school. Results Students without work permits were more likely to perform hazardous tasks and to use certain types of dangerous equipment and less likely to receive health and safety training than those with permits. Conclusion Possible explanations for the findings and suggested areas in need of policy change or research are considered. Am. J. Ind. Med. 41:477,482, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]