Workers' Efforts (worker + effort)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

On-the-job leisure as a cause of asymmetric observed-effort distributions

David L. DickinsonArticle first published online: 18 SEP 200
When employers observe imperfect measures of worker effort, theorists typically assume that observed effort is unimodal and symmetrically distributed. Though observable effort may be distributed in different ways within a work day, for example, available field data on these effort distributions are rare. The symmetry assumption is largely untestable as a result. This paper presents empirical data from two experimental work environments that question the validity of such assumptions. For these piece-rate work environments the author finds that observed effort is significantly negatively-skew (i.e. modal>mean effort). The author's hypothesis is that on-the-job leisure causes this skewness in observed effort distributions. There are both theoretical and practical implications of this asymmetry. Some implications from the theoretical agency literature that we discuss include: self-selection into rank-order tournaments, optimal wage spreads in rank-order tournaments, and optimal wage contracts with asymmetric information. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Wage-fixing Behaviour of Managers in Australia

Judith Rich
Researchers have conducted surveys of firms in an attempt to test various theories of wage rigidity. The survey of Australian firms reported in this paper found strong support for the view that hiring and training costs are important reasons why employers do not reduce wages, consistent with the surveys of Blinder and Choi (1990), Bewley (1995, 1999) and Kaufman (1984). All the surveys find pervasive support for the notion of fairness as an explanation for wage rigidity. Qualified support was found for the idea that fear of unemployment motivates worker effort. [source]

From ,welfare without work' to ,buttressed liberalization': The shifting dynamics of labor market adjustment in France and Germany

Scholars blame this disease on dysfunctional political arrangements, deep insider-outsider cleavages and failed systems of social partnership. As a result, the two countries are said to be more or less permanently mired in a context of high unemployment that is highly resistant to remediation. This article departs from this conventional wisdom in two important respects. First, it argues that France and Germany have undertaken major reforms of their labor market policies and institutions during the past decade and remediated many of their longstanding employment traps. Second, it shows that the political arrangements that adherents of the ,welfare without work' thesis identify as reasons for sclerosis have evolved quite dramatically. The article supports these arguments by exploring some of the most significant recent labor market reforms in the two countries, as well as the shifting political relationships that have driven these changes. In both countries, recent labor market reforms have followed a trajectory of ,buttressed liberalization'. This has involved, on the one hand, significant liberalization of labor market regulations such as limits on overtime and worker protections such as unemployment insurance. On the other hand, it has entailed a set of supportive, ,buttressing' reforms involving an expansion of active labor market policies and support for workers' efforts to find jobs. The article concludes that these developments provide reasons for optimism about the countries' economic futures and offer important lessons about how public policy can confront problems of labor market stagnation. [source]

Child Welfare Workers and Michigan's Family Court Legislation: The Relationship Between Policy and Practice

ABSTRACT Michigan created a family court in 1998, combining in a single court jurisdiction over most family law cases. This study examines the child welfare workers' role in creating the family court, the family court's impact on child welfare workers' practice, and child welfare workers' efforts to educate other professionals on the potential benefits of the family court system. This study found that child welfare workers were not actively involved in the creation of the family court and have not aggressively sought to educate other professionals regarding the family court's potential. Further, though child welfare workers' reception of the family court has largely been positive (or at least neutral), child welfare workers must take greater advantage of the family court system to improve the effectiveness of their practice. [source]

Mazes, Conflict, and Paradox: Tools for Understanding Chronic Pain

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 3 2009
Cary A. Brown PhD
Abstract This article presents an argument for framing chronic pain within a complex adaptive systems (CAS) paradigm. The first aim of this article is to demonstrate how chronic pain can be framed as a CAS and how paradox, one of the core characteristics of a CAS, exists within the chronic pain experience. The second aim is to illustrate how paradox exists at multiple levels within the health care encounter and ongoing experience of chronic pain. Finally, the article will use the example of interactions at the patient/clinician level to illustrate how health care workers' efforts to deal with issues emergent from the range of paradoxes have for the most part been ineffective, and at times harmful, to persons experiencing chronic pain. This article uses the example of chronic pain to explore how the manner in which health care providers and patients recognize and deal with paradoxes can either worsen the pain experience or help generate creative new ways to manage the chronic pain condition. The CAS principles discussed in this article hold application across a range of chronic conditions for which a traditional biomedical paradigm proves insufficient. [source]