Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Willingness

  • consumer willingness
  • employee willingness
  • greater willingness
  • participant willingness
  • patient willingness
  • people willingness
  • public willingness

  • Selected Abstracts

    "A WILLINGNESS TO LISTEN TO EACH SIDE": The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee, 1991,2010

    C. Timothy McKeown
    abstract The 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act authorized establishment of an advisory committee to carry out a long list of specific duties. Chartered on August 20, 1991, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee has held 42 meetings over the subsequent 19 years. The review committee's responsibilities include monitoring the summary, inventory, and repatriation process; facilitating the resolution of disputes; compiling an inventory of culturally unidentifiable human remains and recommending specific actions for their disposition; consulting with the Secretary of the Interior in the development of regulations; and submitting an annual report to Congress. This paper examines the review committee's establishment and activities and assesses its effectiveness. [source]

    Survival and oviposition of a western corn rootworm variant feeding on soybean

    Timothy R. Mabry
    Abstract The role of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril (Fabaceae), in the circumvention of crop rotation was evaluated by observing the effects of soybean herbivory on western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) survival and oviposition. Field collected D. virgifera adults resistant to annual rotation of corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poaceae), and soybean were given the opportunity to feed on a soybean pre-treatment diet prior to diet combinations of corn, soybean, and/or water. The number of days that the adults survived after removal of the diet combinations was used as a measure of insect vigor and diet quality. Willingness to feed on a soybean foliage pre-treatment did not indicate greater ability to benefit nutritionally from soybean herbivory. Adult D. virgifera previously feeding on corn, soybean, or water survived starvation for 8.3 ± 0.15 days, 5.1 ± 0.13 days, and 3.9 ± 0.14 days, respectively. Diabrotica virgifera recover from 2 days of starvation or poor diet if subsequently given access to corn tissues for 2 days. Eggs were laid within 1 day of access to poor diet or starvation. Other D. virgifera, captured as they flew from a cornfield into a soybean field, were maintained on soybean foliage or only water until they died. Of the beetles with access to soybean foliage, 24% fed within 24 h after capture and survived 1 day longer than insects given only water. Only 20% of these D. virgifera were able to lay eggs without consuming additional corn prior to death. Few D. virgifera enter soybean fields capable of immediate oviposition. Female reproductive status and diet quality influence the likelihood of oviposition following exposure to stress. The effects of soybean herbivory may contribute to the proximate mechanism of resistance to crop rotation. [source]

    Managing functional flexibility in a passenger transport firm

    Mandy van der Velde
    In this study we focus on how a Dutch passenger transport firm managed the functional flexibility of employees when it had to become more flexible due to increased competition. Specifically, we examine the relationships between the personal characteristics of employees and their work perceptions on the one hand and their functional flexibility on the other. Our results show that functional flexibility consists of two dimensions, willingness and ability to be flexible, and that work perceptions are more closely related to the willingness, rather than the ability, to be flexible. Willingness to be flexible was positively related to need for growth, tendency for innovation, organisational support and negatively to task formalisation. Ability to be flexible was related to need for growth, tendency for innovation and general self-efficacy. The implications for management are then discussed. [source]

    Willingness to communicate: can online chat help?1

    Mark Freiermuth
    This study compared the experiences of small groups of female Japanese university students communicating in English to solve tasks using online chat with those who solved the same tasks in face-to-face settings using spoken language. The groups were compared using a counterbalanced research design so that the nine groups consisting of four participants each took part in solving tasks in both the online mode and the traditional face-to-face setting. Data gathered from questionnaires, along with an analysis of the discourse produced by students, led to the conclusion that under the conditions in the study, online chatting provided a more comfortable environment, enhancing students' willingness to communicate. Regarding benefits to the language teacher, online chat provides another fruitful tool to enhance interaction in the target language. [source]

    Willingness to consume and produce transgenic bananas in Costa Rica

    Francisco X. Aguilar
    Abstract An exploratory study of the willingness to produce and consume transgenic bananas was carried out in Costa Rica. Transgenic crops are plants with novel genes incorporated into their genome through the use of genetic engineering techniques. Farm managers' opinions were gathered using faxed questionnaires while final consumers' opinions were obtained through personal intercept interviews. Consumers expressed a lack of knowledge about transgenic crops and had received non-favour but also non-negative information through the media about their adoption. The results of a probit regression model show that, other things being equal, younger, wealthier consumers, with higher levels of education, with smaller households are more likely to consume transgenic bananas. All producers included in the study consider they would adopt a new transgenic variety. Producers' willingness to pay for such a variety would depend on its capacity to reduce pest management costs and is estimated to range between $500 and $999 per hectare. This study stresses the potential for development and adoption of a new transgenic variety that would alleviate the current issues faced by banana farmers. On the other hand, final consumers should be better informed on the nature of such products, their benefits and risks. [source]

    Attitudes of intensive care nurses towards brain death and organ transplantation: instrument development and testing

    Jung Ran Kim BN MClinN DipN RN
    Aims., This paper reports the development and testing of an instrument assessing attitudes of Korean intensive care unit nurses. Background., Reluctance by healthcare professionals to identify brain-dead patients as a potential donor is one reason for a shortfall in transplantable organs in all countries. Organ donation from brain-dead patients is a particularly contentious issue in Korea, following recent legal recognition of brain death within the cultural context of Confucian beliefs. Method., A 38-item instrument was developed from the literature and key informant interviews, and validated by an expert panel and a pilot study. A survey was conducted with Korean intensive care unit nurses (n = 520) from October 2003 to January 2004. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine construct validity. Item-to-total correlations and Cronbach's coefficient alpha were used to determine the scale's internal consistency and unidimensionality. Results., The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = 0·88). Principal component analysis yielded a four-component structure: Discomfort, Enhancing quality of life, Willingness to be a donor and Rewarding experience. Overall, Korean intensive care unit nurses showed positive attitudes towards organ transplantation, despite some mixed feelings. Conclusion., The attitude scale was reliable and valid for this cohort. Areas were identified where professional development may enhance positive attitudes towards organ transplantation from brain-dead donors. Effective education for intensive care unit nurses is necessary to increase the organ donor pool in Korea. Further research could test the instrument with other populations. [source]

    Determinants of the Willingness of Belgian Farmers to Participate in Agri-environmental Measures

    Isabel Vanslembrouck
    This paper explores the willingness of Belgian farmers to participate in two voluntary agri-environmental policies. Farmers' contingent behaviour is analysed on the basis of survey data. Derivations based on a conceptual micro-economic model indicate that decision subject and decision maker characteristics are important for farmers' participation. The model is empirically tested through the specification and estimation of a probit model. Consistency is found between the theoretical framework and the empirical results indicating that both the expected effect on farm production and the farmers' environmental attitude, which is more positive among younger and better educated farmers, are significant determinants of the acceptance rate of agri-environmental policies. Other variables which influence participation decisions are farm size and previous experience of farmers themselves or of neighbouring farmers with agri-environmental measures. [source]

    Selective Abortion for Down Syndrome: The Relation Between the Quality of Intergroup Contact, Parenting Expectations, and Willingness to Terminate

    Karen L. Lawson
    This study examines the links between familiarity with individuals with Down syndrome (DS), perceptions of parenting a child with DS, and willingness to consider selective termination subsequent to a fetal diagnosis of DS. Within a sample of childless young adults (N = 280), those reporting personal familiarity indicated both more positive attitudes toward parenting a child with DS and more certainty that they would not abort following a prenatal diagnosis. In further support of contact theory, the quality of the past intergroup interactions moderated these findings. The potential role of negative stereotypes in selective-abortion decision making and implications for prenatal counseling protocols are discussed. [source]

    Perceived Risk and Worry: The Effects of 9/11 on Willingness to Fly,

    Rochelle L. Bergstrom
    Most decision-making models rely on affect-free variables to understand the decisions that people make. We tested an affectively-loaded variable,worry,as a predictor of decision making in an affectively laden context: willingness to fly after 9/11. College students rated their willingness to fly to New York City or Washington, DC, in a study conducted 34 days after 9/11. They also recorded their beliefs about the likelihood that more terrorist attacks would occur, the severity of such attacks if they were to occur, and how much they worried about flying. Finally, they made these estimates for similar others. Results showed that worry was the most powerful predictor of one's own and similar others' willingness to fly. These findings suggest that models of how people make decisions may sometimes need to take feelings into account. [source]

    Similarities and Differences Between African Americans' and European Americans' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Willingness to Communicate About Organ Donation,

    Susan E. Morgan
    While little is known about African Americans' attitudes and knowledge about organ donation, even less is known about how African Americans' attitudes, values, and beliefs affect their behavior and behavioral intentions regarding organ donation; or how African Americans' views are similar to or different from those of European Americans. Adults working 2 sites of a national corporation were randomly selected to complete a survey about organ donation willingness, intention to sign an organ donor card, knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation, and level of altruism. Results indicate that African Americans differ significantly from Whites on several individual attitude and knowledge items. However, the basic relationship between knowledge, attitudes, values, and behaviors regarding organ donation between the 2 groups appears the same. Furthermore, these results indicate that future organ donation promotion campaigns must focus on increasing basic knowledge and countering myths about organ donation for both populations. [source]

    Structural Solutions to Social Dilemmas: A Field Study on Commuters' Willingness to Fund Improvements in Public Transit,

    Jeffrey A. Joireman
    The present field study examined commuters'(N= 152) willingness to fund improvements in public transit. Consistent with Samuelson's (1993; Samuelson & Messick, 1995) multiattribute evaluation model of structural change in social dilemmas, support for the transit plan was higher when it was perceived to be (a) effective at reducing congestion and pollution, (b) personally beneficial, and (c) fair in terms of taxes and benefits. Also consistent with predictions, these relationships were moderated by individual differences in social value orientation (MClintock, 1968) and the consideration of future consequences (CFC; Strathman, Gleicher, Boninger, & Edwards, 1994). Prosocials responded more to the perceived fairness of the plan, while proselfs responded more to the plan's effectiveness in reducing congestion. Low CFCs responded more to the plan's personal benefits and effectiveness in reducing congestion, while high CFCs responded more to the plan's effectiveness in reducing pollution. [source]

    Public Attitudes About Government Involvement in Expressive Controversies

    Jennifer L. Lambe
    The purpose of this study is to identify segments of the public in terms of their attitudes about the permissibility of government censorship. Secondary analysis is conducted on 3 existing data sets that included J. L. Lambe's Willingness to Censor (WTC) scale (2002). Cluster analysis identifies 3 groups with different conceptions of the proper role of the government with regard to expressive controversies: Protectors who want the government to proactively ensure expression is permitted, censors who want the government to restrict expression when another social goal is at stake, and allowers who want the government simply to stay out of such controversies. [source]

    Expressive Responses to News Stories About Extremist Groups: A Framing Experiment

    Michael P. Boyle
    With the tension between national security and civil liberties as a backdrop, this study examines responses to news coverage of activist groups. This 2 × 2 experiment presented participants with news stories about government efforts to restrict the civil liberties of an "extremist" individual or group (news frame) advocating for a cause supported or opposed by the respondent (cause predisposition). Willingness to take expressive action was greatest for individual-framed stories about a cause opposed by the respondent and for group-framed stories about a cause supported by the respondent. We contend that when reporters frame stories about extremist groups around individuals, fewer people will speak out in favor of causes they agree with and more will rally against causes they oppose. [source]

    Willingness to pay for a hearing aid: comparing the payment scale and open-ended question

    Janneke P. C. Grutters MSc
    Abstract Rationale & objectives, Different question formats elicit different willingness-to-pay (WTP) results, but there is no consensus on which method elicits the most valid WTP. In spite of the methodological controversies, WTP is a potentially valuable tool in health economics to value health services. Our general objective was to provide additional evidence on the validity of two WTP elicitation formats: the open-ended question and the payment scale. Methods, We elicited WTP for a hearing aid among hearing aid users (n = 108), using both a payment scale and an open-ended question. We compared the results from both formats. We tested criterion validity by comparing both formats with the actual out-of-pocket payment. Construct validity was tested by examining whether WTP was consistent with positive income elasticity. Results, The WTP results elicited with the payment scale and open-ended question were not statistically significantly different. Both formats showed good criterion validity, although the open-ended question showed a stronger association with the actual out-of-pocket payment. The open-ended format showed better construct validity, as it was influenced by family income. Conclusion, The results of the present study showed that the open-ended question was more valid than the payment scale question. We, therefore, recommend that in future WTP studies on hearing aids the open-ended question is used to directly elicit WTP values. The same recommendation may apply to other studies where respondents are familiar with costs or payments for the intervention under evaluation. [source]

    Consumer Awareness and Willingness to Pay for High-Pressure Processing of Ready-to-Eat Food

    Doris T. Hicks
    ABSTRACT:, Commercial, nonthermal processing of food, such as high hydrostatic-pressure processing (HPP), has increased. The safety and quality of foods produced by HPP has not been well communicated to the public. An online, nationwide consumer survey was implemented to assess awareness of alternative food processing technologies, consumer food safety attitudes and knowledge, and willingness to pay (WTP) for HPP products. The consumer survey was administered by ZoomerangÔ, an online survey clearinghouse. The survey was completed by 1204 adults. Frequencies and crosstabs were calculated on Zoomerang and SPSS used for one-way ANOVA and chi-square analyses. The survey assessed knowledge of HPP, attitudes about new food processing techniques, WTP for HPP foods and demographics. Overall, many demographic characteristics reflected U.S. census population. While traditional methods, that is, canning, freezing, and microwaving were all well recognized by over 80% of respondents, only 8% recognized HPP. Trends indicated an increase in age, education, and income reflected greater food safety knowledge. Regardless of demographics, no survey respondent exhibited knowledge mastery (80%). Given an explanation of HPP and its benefits, 39% of respondents indicated they would be WTP an additional cost, with higher income and education having the most impact. Majority of respondents indicated a WTP of $0.25 to $0.50 regardless of the value of the food product. More respondents were WTP slightly more for a more expensive product. New technologies often encounter a stumbling block in consumer acceptance and processing costs. A consumer's WTP, once they were informed, could encourage industry to look favorably on this technology. [source]

    The Marginal Costs and Benefits of Redistributing Income and the Willingness to Pay for Status

    The effect of status on aggregate welfare is ambiguous for marginal reforms that redistribute income. If average consumption falls, the change in relative consumption increases household utility but reinforces the decrease in household labor supply, raising welfare cost. For parameterizations of the model developed here, reforms which lower average consumption increase aggregate welfare. Numerical calculations show that status increases marginal welfare cost and marginal net benefit for a demogrant reform. Redistributing to high income households may increase aggregate welfare depending on the definition of average consumption and if the willingness to pay for status increases with income. [source]

    Patient attitudes to topical antipsoriatic treatment with calcipotriol and dithranol

    Tf Poyner
    Abstract Objective Assessment of patient preference for antipsoriatic treatment with calcipotriol ointment or short-contact dithranol cream. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight psoriatic patients treated with calcipotriol (n = 138) or dithranol (n = 120) for up to 3 months, assessed the acceptability of treatment, overall satisfaction with treatment, their treatment preference using the ,willingness to pay' principle and selected their treatment of choice. Results Overall satisfaction with calcipotriol was significantly better (72.7%, dithranol 60.3%; odds ratio 1.75, 95% CI 1.03, 2.99: P = 0.04). Patients considered calcipotriol a more acceptable treatment than dithranol in its appearance, smell, non-irritancy, method and ease of application and lack of staining. Dithranol was considered less sticky than calcipotriol. Patients were ,willing to pay' a mean of £12.16 monthly for calcipotriol and £10.66 monthly for dithranol. ,Willingness to pay' did not correlate well with overall treatment satisfaction and was not correlated with household income. Calcipotriol was the preferred treatment of choice (calcipotriol 63%, dithranol 24%). Conclusion Patients with psoriasis prefer treatment with calcipotriol ointment over short-contact dithranol cream. [source]

    Multiculturalism and the Willingness of Citizens to Defer to Law and to Legal Authorities

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 4 2000
    Tom R. Tyler
    A key problem in trying to manage diverse societies is finding social policies that will be acceptable to all individuals and groups. Studies suggest that this problem may not be as intractable as is often believed, since people's acceptance of policies is shaped to an important degree by the fairness of the procedures used by authorities to make policy. When policies are fairly made, they gain widespread support, even among those who may feel that the consequences of the policy for them or their group are undesirable or even unfair. These findings support an optimistic view of the ability of authorities to manage diverse societies. On the other hand, research suggests that the ability of procedural justice to bridge differences among individuals and groups may not be equally strong under all conditions. People's willingness to accept policies is more influenced by procedural justice judgments when they identify with the society that the authorities represent and view them as representing a group of which they are members. They are less influenced by procedural justice judgments when they identify more strongly with subgroups than with society and/or view the authorities as representatives of a group to which they do not belong. [source]

    Willingness to Communicate in the Second Language: Understanding the Decision to Speak as a Volitional Process

    Previous research has devoted a great deal of attention to describing the long-term patterns and relationships among trait-level or situation-specific variables. The present discussion extracts kernels of wisdom, based on the literatures on language anxiety and language learning motivation, that are used to frame the argument that choosing to initiate communication at a particular moment in time can be conceptualized as a volitional (freely chosen) process. The result is a degree of willingness to communicate (WTC) with the potential to rise and fall rapidly as the situation changes. Previous research based on both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is described that demonstrates the complexity of the processes involved in creating WTC. It is argued that methodologies must be adapted to focus upon the dynamic process of choosing to initiate or avoid second language communication when the opportunity arises. [source]

    Willingness of dentists in Jordan to treat HIV-infected patients

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 5 2005
    M El-Maaytah
    Reluctance of dentists to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients represents a major concern. Many efforts have been extended towards the documentation of the extent of this reluctance and speculation of factors that influence it. Objectives:, Assess the willingness of dentists in Jordan to treat HIV-infected patients. Materials and methods:, Two hundred and forty-two general dental practices were surveyed for their willingness to provide treatment of toothache and routine dental care of an HIV-infected individual. Results:, Only 15% of the dental practices were willing to provide such care. Willingness to provide treatment did not seem to be influenced by financial factors or the local prevalence of HIV disease. Conclusion:, Present data suggest that HIV-infected individuals will have difficulty in obtaining dental health care in Jordan. [source]

    Willingness to express emotion: The impact of relationship type, communal orientation, and their interaction

    Margaret S. Clark
    This research examines the effects of relationship type (close vs. business), a personality variable (dispositional communal orientation), and the interaction of these two variables on individuals' willingness to express emotions to relationship partners. Results supported our predictions that (a) people are willing to express more emotion in relationships likely to be high in communal strength than in relationships likely to be low in communal strength, (b) individuals high in communal orientation are willing to express more emotion than those who are low in communal orientation, and (c) relationship type and communal orientation interact to influence willingness to express two emotions that reveal weakness and vulnerability (fear and anxiety). Specifically, communal orientation had little effect on willingness to express fear and anxiety in business relationships, whereas high relative to low communal orientation was associated with willingness to express more fear and anxiety within close relationships. [source]

    Rock and a Hard Place: Public Willingness to Trade Civil Rights and Liberties for Greater Security

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 5 2009
    Our research examines the implications of political beliefs for the relationship between preferences for freedom and security. We briefly situate the relationship in historical context and relate it to today's struggle with terrorism. Then we examine the influence of political beliefs on normative preferences for how liberty and security should be related and for perceptions of how they currently are being balanced. Using original data from a national Internet survey of more than 3,000 respondents, we examine causal relationships among core, domain, and policy context beliefs for preferences about balancing freedom and security. [source]

    Public Budget Choices and Private Willingness to Pay

    Efficient allocation of public funds depends upon good information about citizens' values. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how citizens' values can be obtained by eliciting marginal willingness to tradeoff (MWTTO) ratios for public spending categories and linking these ratios to individual, private willingness to pay. The link enables estimation of the willingness to pay for an expansion to any of the budget categories based on the elicited willingness to pay and the marginal willingness to tradeoff ratios. Tradeoff ratios and willingness to pay are estimated for public budget categories in Kentucky based on a representative sample surveyed by mail and the web in 2007. Estimates show that individuals are willing to pay the most for an expansion to educational services, followed by health care. [source]

    Patient Willingness to Pay for a Kidney for Transplantation

    D. K. Herold
    While kidney transplantation is the most cost-effective treatment available for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and affords patients with the best quality of life, the current supply of kidneys does not meet the demand. A potential solution to increasing the supply is to compensate living donors for a kidney. The purpose of this study was to describe ESRD patient willingness to pay for a kidney. Using a self-administered survey, 107 patients in 31 U.S. states completed the survey. The quantitative method and descriptive survey design employed descriptive, correlational, nonparametric and multivariate statistical tests to evaluate the data. Of participants, 78.5% were willing to pay for a kidney; there were significant correlations between gender, health status, household income, preferred source of a kidney and willingness to pay. Men, patients with poor and fair health status and those with household incomes ,$50 000 were more willing to pay. Step-wise regression analysis found price and doctor's influence accounting for 52% of variance in willingness to pay. As price increased and doctor's opinion mattered, willingness to pay increased. This study supports development of additional studies with larger sample sizes and patients on kidney transplant waiting lists. [source]

    Organ Donation: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice in Lagos, Nigeria

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 8 2006
    Olumuyiwa O. Odusanya
    Abstract:, A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation and transplant in Lagos, Nigeria. The study sample was selected through a multistaged sampling technique. The survey instrument was a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and twenty-eight subjects participated in the study. The mean age was 31.1 ± 2.1 years. Two hundred and fifty-six (60%) were aware of organ donation. Renal failure was the most commonly identified indication for transplant. One hundred and twenty-seven (30%) subjects were willing to donate an organ. Knowledge about organ donation was significantly higher among those with tertiary level of education (P = 0.000). Willingness to donate an organ showed a significant relationship with younger age (P = 0.002), but not with gender (P = 0.47) or educational status (P = 0.09). There is a need to increase awareness about organ donation in Lagos, Nigeria. [source]

    Effects of Information on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Golden Rice

    Dinah Pura T. Depositario
    D44 We examine the effects of information on consumer bidding behavior using a uniform-price auction with four units supply for golden rice. Our findings show that mean willingness to pay (WTP) bids are highest under positive information, followed by no information, negative information, and unexpectedly lowest with two-sided information. Participants might have put more weight on the negative when faced with both positive and negative information. There is also a minor difference in WTP with respect to the reference price between positive information and no information. Furthermore, the marginal effect on WTP of positive information vis-à-vis no information is minimal. This suggests that the positive information faced by consumers might not be compelling enough to drastically increase WTP bids for a genetically modified product such as golden rice. [source]

    Where to Focus Efforts to Improve Overall Ratings of Care and Willingness to Return: The Case of Tuscan Emergency Departments

    Chiara Seghieri PhD
    Abstract Objectives:, Both regression and optimization models were used to identify an efficient combination of aspects of care (e.g., comfort of waiting room) necessary to improve global emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction. The approach, based on patient survey data, tends to favor aspects of care with large regression coefficients and those whose current performance is low, because improvements produce a greater effect on global satisfaction. Methods:, The authors used ED patient satisfaction survey data collected between September and October 2007 from a random sample of 5,277 adult patients who visited 43 EDs in Tuscany, Italy. Ordinal logistic regression models were run to predict overall ratings of care and willingness to return using 20 independent variables (i.e., aspects of care). An optimization model was run to increase these two global items to a maximum of 15%. This model minimizes the total combined percentage increase of the aspects of care. Models using all cases (n = 5,277), cases from local hospitals (n = 4,264), and cases from teaching hospitals (n = 1,013) were run. Results:, Four aspects selected by the optimization algorithm were in all models: "satisfaction with waiting time,""comfort of the waiting room,""professionalism of physicians" (technical skills), and "level of collaboration between physicians and nursing staff." Most aspects needed a 15% increase to comply with the percentage increases set for the global satisfaction items. The model found that to increase overall ratings of care by 1, 2, or 8%, hospitals would need to focus only on one aspect: "level of collaboration between physicians and nursing staff." The total number of variables increased to six when the improvement in overall ratings of care was set at 15%. To increase 3 or 5% willingness to return, the optimization algorithm found that 6 or 14 aspects, respectively, are needed. An increase of 6% or more was unfeasible. Conclusions:, This approach is only somewhat efficient, as a cost structure is absent. The optimization model assumes that the cost to increase each aspect by 1% is equivalent. By applying this modeling technique we have demonstrated that, at least, two elements are important to consider when developing efficient improvement strategies to increase global satisfaction: 1) the current level of satisfaction of the aspects of care and 2) the importance ascribed to the aspects of care. A third element, the cost to increase the aspects of care, might also be important. However, the impact of this element on the optimal solution is currently unknown. [source]

    Nurse-Midwives' Experiences with Planned Home Birth: Impact on Attitudes and Practice

    BIRTH, Issue 4 2009
    Saraswathi Vedam RM, SciD(h.c.)
    ABSTRACT: Background: Health care providers' attitudes toward maternity care options influence the nature of informed decision-making discussions and patient choice. A woman's choice of birth site may be affected by her provider's opinion and practice site. The objectives of this study were to describe American nurse-midwives' attitudes toward, and experiences with, planned home birth, and to explore correlates and predictors of their attitudes toward planned home birth as measured by the Provider Attitudes towards Planned Home Birth (PAPHB) scale.Methods: A survey instrument, which incorporates the PAPHB and assesses demographic, education, practice, personal experience, and external barrier variables that may predict attitudes toward planned home birth practice, was completed by 1,893 nurse-midwives. Bivariate analysis identified associations between variables and attitudes. Linear regression modeling identified predictors of attitudes.Results: Variables that significantly predicted favorable attitudes to planned home birth were increased clinical and educational experiences with planned home birth (p < 0.001), increased exposure to planned home birth (p < 0.001), and younger age (p < 0.001). External barriers that significantly predicted less favorable attitudes included financial (p = 0.03) and time (p < 0.001) constraints, inability to access medical consultation (p < 0.001), and fear of peer censure (p < 0.001). Willingness to practice in the home was correlated with factors related to nurse-midwives' confidence in their management abilities and beliefs about planned home birth safety.Conclusions: The results suggest that nurse-midwives' choice of practice site and comfort with planned home birth are strongly influenced by the nature and amount of exposure to home birth during professional education or practice experiences, in addition to interprofessional, logistic, and environmental factors. Findings from this research may inform interdisciplinary education and collaborative practice in the area of planned home birth. [source]

    Union Mobilization: A Consideration of the Factors Affecting the Willingness of Union Members to Take Industrial Action

    Donna M. Buttigieg
    Drawing on mobilization theory, this article seeks to identify the factors that shape the willingness of union members to take industrial action. The study utilized data from a large-scale survey (N = 1,111) carried out in a financial services union during the renegotiation of a collective bargaining contract. The results suggested that individuals were more willing to engage in industrial action when they experienced a sense of injustice or unfairness in the employment relationship and when they held a collectivist orientation to work. Moreover, their propensity to take industrial action was greater when they considered that their union was an effective instrument of power. Workplace representatives were also important, particularly when they were seen as being responsive to their members' needs in situations of perceived injustice. The implications for mobilization theory and for union strategy are discussed. [source]

    An Examination of the Disparity Between Hypothetical and Actual Willingness to Pay Using the Contingent Valuation Method: The Case of Red Kite Conservation in the United Kingdom

    Michael Christie
    This paper reports the findings of a field experiment that explores the criterion validity of the contingent valuation (CV) method. The empirical experiment examined the disparity between hypothetical and actual willingness to pay (WTP) bids for Red Kite conservation in Wales. Hypothetical WTP was elicited using an open-ended CV instrument, while the actual WTP value was determined from actual donations to the Welsh Kite Trust,a charity set up to aid the conservation of Red Kites in Wales. The survey results indicate that hypothetical WTP was three times greater than the mean value of actual donations; this finding is consistent with a number of other criterion validity experiments. However, we also demonstrate equality of hypothetical and actual WTP among those who actually express a payment amount. Further investigations identify that an underlying cause of this disparity stems from the respondents of the CV survey overstating their intention of pay. This observation has potentially significant implication for CV design in that it suggests that the emphasis in design should be placed much more fully on initially determining whether people would actually pay at all. Le présent article présente les résultats d'une expérience sur le terrain qui a exploré la validité de critère de la méthode d'évaluation contingente (CV). L'expérience empirique a examiné l'écart entre la volonté de payer (VDP) hypothétique et réelle pour la conservation du milan royal dans le pays de Galles. La VDP hypothétique a été obtenue en utilisant un questionnaire ouvert pour effectuer l'évaluation contingente (CV), tandis que la valeur de la VDP réelle a été déterminée d'après les dons réels versés àThe Welsh Kite Trust, organisation caritative créée pour la conservation du milan royal au pays de Galles. Les résultats du sondage ont indiqué que la VDP hypothétique était trois fois supérieures à la valeur moyenne des dons réels; ce résultat rejoint ceux d'autres expériences sur la validité de critère. Cependant, nous avons aussi démontré une égalité entre la VDP hypothétique et réelle des personnes qui ont exprimé le montant du don. Des sondages ultérieurs ont montré qu'une des causes sous-jacentes de cet écart venait du fait que les répondants avaient exagéré leur intention de payer. Cette observation a une implication potentielle importante pour la conception d'évaluation contingente puisqu'elle laisse supposer que l'accent mis sur la conception devrait plutôt être mis sur la détermination initiale de l'intention des personnes à payer ou non. [source]