Widespread Concern (widespread + concern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Removing pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds from wastewater by photocatalysis

Omatoyo K Dalrymple
Abstract Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the increasing presence of emerging contaminants in the environment. Such compounds include a wide range of persistent organic chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds whose effects are poorly known, often because they have only begun to enter the environment and are showing up in wastewater treatment plants. The occurrence and behavior of these compounds in wastewater are key issues with regard to water reclamation and reuse. Treatment plants are now faced with the challenge of removing the compounds from their effluent before they enter natural waterways. In this regard, photocatalysis is a promising technology for wastewater treatment that offers many advantages over conventional and some advanced treatment options. The application of photocatalysis for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds for wastewater is comprehensively surveyed in this paper. This treatment technology is not intended to replace conventional systems but to supplement for higher-quality effluent. The assessment places emphasis on the process fundamentals, advantages, and disadvantages of the technology. It also focuses on the current limitations and future research needs. Copyright 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

The Quest for REALITY

DIALECTICA, Issue 1 2007
Paul Horwich
A widespread concern within philosophy has been, and continues to be, to determine which domains of discourse address real, robust, not-merely-deflationary facts, and which do not. But a threat to the legitimacy of this concern (together with the claims provoked by it) is the extreme lack of consensus amongst philosophers on the question of how to tell whether or not a given domain is oriented towards ,robust reality'. The present paper criticizes Kit Fine's attempt to settle that question. This discussion is followed by some considerations suggesting that there is no good answer to it, that (as the ,quietists' maintain) the notion of ,robust reality' is defective and ought to be abandoned. [source]

Fourteen to 17-year-olds' experience of ,risky' drinking,a cross-sectional survey undertaken in south-east England

Abstract In the UK, young people's alcohol consumption is considered an important social and health problem, and is the focus of government strategy and intervention. There is widespread concern that many young people are drinking in a ,risky' way. That is, they are often drinking large amounts of alcohol in a single session, in unsupervised locations. This small-scale, quantitative study used a shortened adaptation of the Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) to examine 14 , 17-year-olds' experience of ,risky' drinking. The results suggest that a major transition towards first ever drunkenness occurs between the ages of 14 and 15. Young people of this age are more likely to be getting very drunk in unsupervised, and potentially more harmful, locations. It is suggested that using this questionnaire could offer the potential to obtain a rapid and reliable indication of young people's propensity towards possible alcohol-related harm. [source]

Examining the technical efficiency of rice producers in Bangladesh

Kelvin Balcombe
Abstract Despite record national output in the early years of this decade there is widespread concern that rice yields in Bangladesh are below those attainable, and that given future population growth this may constrain achievement of food security and poverty reduction objectives. A frequent response to this problem is that farmers could close the gap between actual farm yields and potential yields identified in field trials if farmers who are technically inefficient could improve their current farming practices. This paper estimates and explains technical efficiency for a sample of rice farmers in Bangladesh employing Bayesian methods. The results provide insights into the distribution of technical efficiency and identify important influences on rice growing. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

"Moral Panic" or Pejorative Labelling?

Rethinking the Mazengarb Inquiry into Underage Sex in the Hutt Valley in 195
This article re-examines the interpretation of widespread concern over significant underage sex in the Hutt Valley, Wellington, which resulted in a government inquiry in 1954. It challenges the typical "moral panic" interpretive lens concerning the inquiry, arguing that the term obscures more than it reveals. The term focuses on reaction to the Hutt Valley affair but fails to address sufficiently the causative question of why such concern existed in the first place. The "moral panic" framing of the Hutt Valley incidents has failed to give adequate recognize that the developments were early indicators of increasing societal shifts that threatened long-held public views on sexuality; that manifest, societal, sexuality values changes in the next two decades showed that concerned people of 1954 were right within the framework of their worldview to have such concern; and that the so-called "moral panic" concern of 1954 already existed prior to the Hutt Valley disclosures. [source]

Evaluation of a training to improve management of pediatric overweight

Josephine Hinchman MPH Research Associate
Abstract Introduction: Despite widespread concern about pediatric obesity, health care professionals report low proficiency for identifying and treating this condition. This paper reports on the evaluation of pediatric overweight assessment and management training for clinicians and staff in a managed care system. The training was evaluated for its impact on assessment practices and utilization of management tools. Methods: A delayed-control design was utilized to measure the effects of two 60-minute interactive Continuing Medical education (CME) trainings for the pediatric health care teams. Chart abstraction was conducted at 0-, 3- and 6-months after training, recording the proportion of charts containing the recommended assessment methods and management tools. Results: The training was associated with a significant increase in the utilization of some tools and practices, including charting BMI-for-age percentile (p<0.001) and using a nutrition and activity self-history form (p<0.001). Overall, from baseline to 3-months post training, charting BMI-for-age percentiles increased from zero to 25.2% and utilization of the self-history form increased from zero to 35.3%. These increases were sustained at 6-months post training. Other tools guiding clinician counseling were less widely utilized, although a behavioral prescription pad was used with 20% of overweight patients. Discussion: A modest investment in clinician and staff training designed to be feasible in a clinical setting was associated with substantial increases in the use of appropriate tools and practices for the assessment and management of pediatric overweight. Such training may help to augment and improve the processes of pediatric health care delivery for addressing overweight. The training provides a viable model for future CME efforts in other health care settings. [source]

Genetic tracking of basking shark products in international trade

J. E. Magnussen
Abstract Mounting evidence that sharks are being over-fished to supply shark fin markets is causing widespread concern about the sustainability of these practices. The basking shark Cetorhinus maximus, whose fins command high market prices, has proven especially sensitive to exploitation. To prevent further population declines, this species is now protected in the territorial waters of several countries, and is listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) requiring monitoring of trade in its products by all parties to CITES. Tracking trade in basking shark products, however, is often hampered by difficulties in identifying shark products to species of origin. Here, we present the development and application of a streamlined genetic forensics assay that does not require DNA sequencing to identify basking shark products. The dual-primer, species-specific polymerase chain reaction strategy provides diagnostic redundancy for robustness in legal venues. It is also effective for identifying basking shark products regardless of geographic origin, an important consideration, given the global distribution of the species and international sourcing of fins to the trade. Application of the assay confirmed the presence of basking shark fins in the Hong Kong and Japan markets, and indicated an apparent relationship between the Chinese fin trader category ,Nuo Wei Tian Jiu' and fins from basking sharks. The assay was also used in a law enforcement investigation to document illegal trade in basking shark fins in the United States where this species is prohibited from harvest and trade. These trade detections suggest that the high market value of basking shark fins is continuing to drive the exploitation, surreptitious and otherwise, of this highly threatened species, underscoring the need for improved trade monitoring. The streamlined assay developed here can assist in monitoring and conservation on a worldwide scale. [source]

Detecting North American signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in riffles

Z. F. Gladman
Abstract 1.The spread of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) outside its natural range is of widespread concern due to the threats posed to native biodiversity. To date, there is no standard protocol for determining signal crayfish presence or absence in a watercourse. 2.For the purposes of this investigation, the crayfish detection ability of active sampling methods , hand-netting, electrofishing (one, two and three runs), kick sampling and Surber sampling , was tested at 30 sites along the River Clyde, southern central Scotland. 3.No single technique was successful in detecting crayfish in 100% of the sites known to contain crayfish and so the application of combinations of techniques was considered. The combination of techniques that resulted in a 100% detection rate was electrofishing (three runs) together with kick sampling. These results suggest that three-run electrofishing and kick sampling are the best candidates for incorporation into a crayfish detection protocol. 4.The mean time taken to apply electrofishing (three runs) was significantly greater than the mean time to apply kick sampling. Given the lower effort required for its application, kick sampling is recommended as the preliminary technique: if kick sampling yields a negative result, the application of electrofishing will decrease the chance of recording a false negative presence. If both kick sampling and electrofishing fail to detect crayfish, trapping may further decrease the risk of a false negative result. 5.These findings have assisted in the development of a crayfish detection protocol, which will be applied across Scotland to determine the current distribution of signal crayfish. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]