Widespread Belief (widespread + belief)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Escaping Violence, Seeking Freedom: Why Children in Bangladesh Migrate to the Street

Alessandro Conticini
ABSTRACT In Bangladesh, as in many developing countries, there is a widespread belief amongst the public, policy makers and social workers that children ,abandon' their families and migrate to the street because of economic poverty. Ignoring and avoiding mounting evidence to the contrary, this dominant narrative posits that children whose basic material needs cannot be met within the household move to the street. This article explores this narrative through the analysis of detailed empirical research with children in Bangladesh. It finds that social factors lie behind most street migration and, in particular, that moves to the street are closely associated with violence towards and abuse of children within the household and local community. These findings are consistent with the wider literature on street migration from other countries. In Bangladesh, those who seek to reduce the flow of children to the streets need to focus on social policy, especially on how to reduce the excessive control and emotional, physical and sexual violence that occur in some households. Economic growth and reductions in income poverty will be helpful, but they will not be sufficient to reduce street migration by children. [source]

Should people with a history of an eating disorder work as eating disorder therapists?

Craig Johnston
Abstract Much recent attention has focused on the fitness to practise of health professionals. Patients expect their care to be provided by therapeutic staff who can give support and guidance without unhelpful subjective influence. On the other hand, those recovered from health problems expect their employment prospects to be free of discrimination. Eating disorder services increasingly encourage patient and public involvement in service design and monitoring but reservations are sometimes expressed about employing staff who have themselves suffered with an eating disorder. This survey canvassed the views of patients, carers and professionals on the suitability of employing people with a history of an eating disorder as therapists in the same field. With some reservations (mainly from professionals), there was a widespread belief that those who had recovered would have therapeutic advantages as a result of their experience. Therapists with a current eating disorder, however, were thought to lack objectivity and to be vulnerable. Current UK policies on employment appear unnecessarily discriminatory and stigmatizing. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Tourism and the state in Cuba: from the past to the future

Richard Sharpley
Abstract It has long been recognised that nature and extent of state intervention in tourism development closely reflects the prevailing political-economy and ideology within the destination state. This is certainly the case with Cuba which, since the 1959 revolution and despite the collapse of communism elsewhere, remains the world's only centrally-planned economy that boasts a significant international tourism sector. Tracing the development of tourism since 1959, this paper explores the relationship between the evolution of Cuba's political-economic structures and processes and their subsequent influence on the planning, control, development and ownership of tourism on the island. In particular, it considers the potential future of tourism in Cuba, challenging the widespread belief that, in a post-Castro era, the island's tourism sector faces a bright future. It concludes that, even with a potential move towards market reform, significant improvements will be required with respect to the quality, value and diversity of the island's tourism product. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Differences in reproductive timing among sponges sharing habitat and thermal regime

Ana Riesgo
Abstract. The reproductive cycles of four Mediterranean demosponges (Axinella damicornis, Corticium candelabrum, Raspaciona aculeata, and Chondrosia reniformis) were investigated during 2 consecutive years. Three of the species had annual gametogenic cycles characterized by a single peak of gamete production, but members of C. candelabrum showed continuous oocyte production during the 2 years. The relationship between gametogenic dynamics and seawater temperature varied substantially among species, contrary to the widespread belief that gamete production is associated with seasonal water warming. The annual temperature increase (in June) concurred with oocyte production only in C. reniformis, although maximum temperatures were simultaneous with the production of both oocytes in R. aculeata and sperm in C. reniformis. In contrast, the annual temperature decline in October was associated with both oogenesis in A. damicornis and spermatogenesis in R. aculeata. Spermatogenesis in A. damicornis started after a 5-month period of low-temperature values (December,April in 2004 and November,March in 2005). Likewise, in C. candelabrum, spermatogenesis started after a 3-month period of low-temperature values (November,February), a period concomitant with a slow increase in oocyte production. These findings reveal that sponge species that cooccur and share similar thermal regimes may differ substantially in their timing of gamete production. If we are to predict the future effects of climate change on marine benthic communities, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge of the species-specific relationship between timing of gametogenesis and temperature, at least for those sponges that are key species in benthic communities. [source]

Vitamin D Hormone Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis In Vivo by Decreasing the Pool of Osteoclast Precursors in Bone Marrow

Takeshi Shibata
Abstract Previous observations that vitamin D hormone induces the expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) ligand (RANKL), thereby stimulating osteoclastogenesis in vitro, led to the widespread belief that 1,,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,,25(OH)2D3] is a bone-resorbing hormone. Here, we show that alfacalcidol, a prodrug metabolized to 1,,25(OH)2D3, suppresses bone resorption at pharmacologic doses that maintain normocalcemia in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of osteoporosis. Treatment of OVX mice with pharmacologic doses of alfacalcidol does not increase RANKL expression, whereas toxic doses that cause hypercalcemia markedly reduce the expression of RANKL. When bone marrow (BM) cells from OVX mice were cultured with sufficient amounts of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL, osteoclastogenic activity was higher than in sham mice. Marrow cultures from alfacalcidol- or estrogen-treated OVX mice showed significantly less osteoclastogenic potential compared with those from vehicle-treated OVX mice, suggesting that the pool of osteoclast progenitors in the marrow of vitamin D-treated mice as well as estrogen-treated mice was decreased. Frequency analysis showed that the number of osteoclast progenitors in bone marrow was increased by OVX and decreased by in vivo treatment with alfacalcidol or estrogen. We conclude that the pharmacologic action of active vitamin D in vivo is to decrease the pool of osteoclast progenitors in BM, thereby inhibiting bone resorption. Because of its unusual activity of maintaining bone formation while suppressing bone resorption, in contrast to estrogens that depress both processes, vitamin D hormone and its bone-selective analogs may be useful for the management of osteoporosis. [source]

Citizen Response to Disasters: a Survey of Literature and Some Practical Implications

I. Helsloot
It is most likely that the modern citizen responds to disasters in the same fashion as his ancestor. Contrary to widespread belief, citizens do not panic in disaster situations. In fact, research into different aspects of citizen response shows that most citizens act in a rather rational way. Indeed, citizens often prove to be the most effective kind of emergency personnel. Disaster evaluations invariably show that most lives are actually saved by the ,average' citizen. On the other hand, it seems little can be done to improve citizen preparedness. A modern western citizen is not likely to invest time or money in preparing for ,acceptable' risks. The above results stem for the greater part from research already conducted as long ago as the nineteen-eighties. Limitations and implications however seem as yet unclear. One important limitation is the cultural bias in most studies. One important implication is that in western countries government should step in to improve citizen response by preparing to facilitate it in times of disaster. [source]

The Effect of Feeding Enrichment upon Reported Working Ability and Behavior of Kenneled Working Dogs

Samantha A. Gaines Ph.D.
Abstract:, It is widely recommended that kenneled dogs are provided with environmental enrichment such as toys or feeding devices. However, the adoption of enrichment for military working dogs is impeded by a widespread belief that it reduces their motivation to work. Handlers of 22 working German Shepherd dogs were asked to rate their dogs on 11 attributes pertaining to working ability, related behavioral traits, and health. Eight of the dogs were then provided with daily feeding enrichment for 4 months, while the remainder were given equivalent human attention. The same 11 traits were scored again following the enrichment period: 10 changed little over the period while handlers' reports of their dogs'Ability to learn from being rewarded increased significantly. Changes for all attributes were virtually identical in enriched and control dogs. We conclude that if correctly managed, feeding enrichment can be introduced to kenneled working dogs without any reported detrimental effects upon working ability, health, or behavior. [source]

Annotation: What do we know about sensory dysfunction in autism?

A critical review of the empirical evidence
Background:, Unusual responses to sensory stimuli are seen in many children with autism. Their presence was highlighted both in early accounts of autism and in more recent first-person descriptions. There is a widespread belief that sensory symptoms characterize autism and differentiate it from other disorders. This paper examines the empirical evidence for this assumption. Method:, All controlled experimental laboratory investigations published since 1960 were identified through systematic searches using Medline/PubMed and PsycInfo search engines. A total of 48 empirical papers and 27 theoretical or conceptual papers were reviewed. Results:, Sensory symptoms are more frequent and prominent in children with autism than in typically developing children, but there is not good evidence that these symptoms differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. Certain groups, including children with fragile X syndrome and those who are deaf-blind, appear to demonstrate higher rates of sensory symptoms than children with autism. In reviewing the evidence relevant to two theories of sensory dysfunction in autism, over- and under-arousal theory, we find that there is very little support for hyper-arousal and failure of habituation in autism. There is more evidence that children with autism, as a group, are hypo-responsive to sensory stimuli, but there are also multiple failures to replicate findings and studies that demonstrate lack of group differences. Conclusions:, The use of different methods, the study of different sensory modalities, and the changing scientific standards across decades complicate interpretation of this body of work. We close with suggestions for future research in this area. [source]