Widespread Areas (widespread + area)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Distinct pattern of microglial response, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the aged rat brain after excitotoxic damage

O. Campuzano
Abstract Microglial and inflammatory responses to acute damage in aging are still poorly understood, although the aged brain responds differently to injury, showing poor lesion outcome. In this study, excitotoxicity was induced by intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate in adult (3,4 months) and aged (22,24 months) rats. Cryostat brain sections were processed for the analysis of microglial response by lectin histochemistry and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by immunohistochemistry and confocal analysis. Aged injured animals showed more widespread area of microglial response at 12 hr postlesion (hpl) and greater microglia/macrophage density at 3 days postlesion (dpl). However, aged reactive microglia showed prevalence of ramified morphologies and fewer amoeboid/round forms. Aged injured animals presented a diminished area of COX2 expression, but a significantly larger density of COX2+ cells, with higher numbers of COX2+ neurons during the first 24 hpl and COX2+ microglia/macrophages later. In contrast, the amount of COX2+ neutrophils was diminished in the aged. iNOS was more rapidly induced in the aged injured striatum, with higher cell density at 12 hpl, when expression was mainly neuronal. From 1 dpl, both the iNOS+ area and the density of iNOS+ cells were reduced in the aged, with lower numbers of iNOS+ neurons, microglia/macrophages, neutrophils, and astrocytes. In conclusion, excitotoxic damage in aging induces a distinct pattern of microglia/macrophage response and expression of inflammatory enzymes, which may account for the changes in lesion outcome in the aged, and highlight the importance of using aged animals for the study of acute age-related insults. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

CO2 Laser Treatment of Epidermal Nevi: Long-Term Success

Sarah Boyce MD
background. Epidermal nevi have been notoriously difficult to treat due to their large size and often conspicuous location. Variable results have been obtained with different laser treatments, and scarring and/or incomplete removal is typical after excisional or other destructive modalities. objective. To outline the successful use of a short-pulsed CO2 laser in the long-term eradication of epidermal nevi in three patients. methods. Three females (ages 15,19) presented with extensive grouped verrucous papules and plaques on the face, trunk, and extremities. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to vaporize the lesions using a 500 mJ pulse energy, 3 mm spotsize, and 7 watts of power. results. All lesions healed without incident. No lesional recurrence was observed 10 to 13 months after treatment except in one small area on the ankle in one patient. conclusions. Carbon dioxide laser vaporization of epidermal nevi provides good clinical effect and offers unique advantages for the treatment of these lesions, including effective intraoperative hemostasis with excellent lesional visualization. It is also possible to treat widespread areas in one laser treatment session. While the results of this series clearly show the benefit of CO2 laser treatment, epidermal nevi may not always respond so favorably, due in part to the variability in their depths of involvement. [source]

Skin bleaching: highlighting the misuse of cutaneous depigmenting agents

OE Dadzie
Abstract Hydroquinone and other cutaneous depigmenting agents are widely used by dermatologists to treat pigmentary disorders. On 29 August 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a monograph in the US Federal Register proposing to ban all hydroquinone products that have not been approved via a New Drug Application process. Reports in the scientific literature on the occurrence of exogenous ochronosis, in relation to the use of hydroquinone, was one of the concerns expressed by the FDA in relation to this agent. However, a review of the English-language scientific literature reveals that most of the reported cases of hydroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis occurs in Africa, where the cultural practice of skin bleaching is highly prevalent. Skin bleaching is the practice of applying hydroquinone and/or other depigmenting agents to specific or widespread areas of the body, the primary function being to lighten normally dark skin. This practice typically occurs in men and women with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. It is a dangerous practice associated with a diverse range of side-effects, including mercury poisoning. Thus, this current discussion within the dermatological community on the safety of hydroquinone provides a unique opportunity to raise awareness about skin bleaching. [source]

Apparent density of the primate calcaneo-cuboid joint and its association with locomotor mode, foot posture, and the "midtarsal break"

Matthew G. Nowak
Abstract Primates use a range of locomotor modes during which they incorporate various foot postures. Humans are unique compared with other primates in that humans lack a mobile fore- and midfoot. Rigidity in the human foot is often attributed to increased propulsive and stability requirements during bipedalism. Conversely, fore- and midfoot mobility in nonhuman primates facilitates locomotion in arboreal settings. Here, we evaluated apparent density (AD) in the subchondral bone of human, ape, and monkey calcanei exhibiting different types of foot loading. We used computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry and maximum intensity projection (MIP) maps to visualize AD in subchondral bone at the cuboid articular surface of calcanei. MIPs represent 3D volumes (of subchondral bone) condensed into 2D images by extracting AD maxima from columns of voxels comprising the volumes. False-color maps are assigned to MIPs by binning pixels in the 2D images according to brightness values. We compared quantities and distributions of AD pixels in the highest bin to test predictions relating AD patterns to habitual locomotor modes and foot posture categories of humans and several nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primates exhibit dorsally positioned high AD concentrations, where maximum compressive loading between the calcaneus and cuboid likely occurs during "midtarsal break" of support. Humans exhibit less widespread areas of high AD, which could reflect reduced fore- and midfoot mobility. Analysis of the internal morphology of the tarsus, such as subchondral bone AD, potentially offers new insights for evaluating primate foot function during locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Aplasia cutis congenita with skull defect in a monozygotic twin after exposure to methimazole in utero

Hideyuki Iwayama
Abstract BACKGROUND: Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a condition in which localized or widespread areas of skin are absent at birth. Defective lesions show complete absence of all layers of skin, occasionally extending to skull or dura. ACC is etiologically heterogeneous; many different etiologies including teratogens have been documented. CASE: We describe the first reported case of a monozygotic twin with ACC after exposure to methimazole in utero. The female patient was born at 36 weeks gestation as the first child of monozygotic twins. The mother received methimazole between the 11th and 17th weeks of pregnancy because of transient hyperthyroidism. The second child did not have ACC. The patient had defects of the scalp, skull, and dura (7 5 cm) on the sagittal line of the parieto-occipital region. No other malformations were noted. The scalp defect has been treated daily with sterile physiological saline and petrolatum dressing in addition to intravenous antibiotics. Trafermin, a recombinant human fibroblast growth factor, was sprayed from day 6 to promote epithelialization of the scalp defect. On day 21, she had high fever due to infection of the defect lesion, which was controlled by povidone iodine dressing and intravenous antibiotics. The defect of the scalp was well healed after 6 weeks, but the skull defect remained unclosed. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a rare case of a monozygotic twin with ACC and skull defect after methimazole exposure in utero. The findings of our case suggest that methimazole is a potential teratogen of ACC. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]