Widespread Agreement (widespread + agreement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Refining Biodiversity Conservation Priorities

Bosque del Atlántico; percepción remota; priorización; SIG; sitios prioritarios para la conservación Abstract:,Although there is widespread agreement about conservation priorities at large scales (i.e., biodiversity hotspots), their boundaries remain too coarse for setting practical conservation goals. Refining hotspot conservation means identifying specific locations (individual habitat patches) of realistic size and scale for managers to protect and politicians to support. Because hotspots have lost most of their original habitat, species endemic to them rely on what remains. The issue now becomes identifying where this habitat is and these species are. We accomplished this by using straightforward remote sensing and GIS techniques, identifying specific locations in Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot important for bird conservation. Our method requires a regional map of current forest cover, so we explored six popular products for mapping and quantifying forest: MODIS continuous fields and a MODIS land cover (preclassified products), AVHRR, SPOT VGT, MODIS (satellite images), and a GeoCover Landsat thematic mapper mosaic (jpg). We compared subsets of these forest covers against a forest map based on a Landsat enhanced thematic mapper. The SPOT VGT forest cover predicted forest area and location well, so we combined it with elevation data to refine coarse distribution maps for forest endemic birds. Stacking these species distribution maps enabled identification of the subregion richest in threatened birds,the lowland forests of Rio de Janeiro State. We highlighted eight priority fragments, focusing on one with finer resolved imagery for detailed study. This method allows prioritization of areas for conservation from a region >1 million km2 to forest fragments of tens of square kilometers. To set priorities for biodiversity conservation, coarse biological information is sufficient. Hence, our method is attractive for tropical and biologically rich locations, where species location information is sparse. Resumen:,Aunque hay acuerdo generalizado sobre las prioridades de conservación a escalas mayores (i. e., sitios prioritarios para la conservación de la biodiversidad), los límites son muy gruesos como para definir metas de conservación prácticas. La refinación de la conservación de sitios prioritarios significa la identificación de localidades específicas (parches de hábitat individuales) de tamańo y escala realistas para ser protegidos por gestores y apoyados por políticos. Debido a que los sitios prioritarios han perdido la mayor parte de su hábitat original, las especies endémicas dependen del que permanece. Ahora el asunto es identificar donde están el hábitat y las especies. Logramos lo anterior mediante técnicas directas de percepción remota y de SIG para identificar localidades específicas importantes para la conservación de aves en el sitio prioritario Bosque del Atlántico en Brasil. Nuestro método requiere de un mapa regional de la cobertura forestal actual, así que exploramos seis productos populares para el mapeo y cuantificación de bosques: campos continuos MODIS y una cobertura de suelo MODIS (productos preclasificados), AVHRR, SPOT VGT, MODIS (imágenes de satélite) y un mosaico GeoCover Landsat thematic mapper (jpg). Comparamos subconjuntos de estas coberturas forestales con las de un mapa basado en un Landsat enhanced thematic mapper. La cobertura forestal SPOT VGT predijo bien la superficie y localización del bosque, así que lo combinamos con datos de altitud para refinar los mapas generales de distribución de aves endémicas de bosques. La sobreposición de estos mapas de distribución permitió la identificación de la subregión más rica en aves amenazadas,los bosques en bajíos del Estado de Río de Janeiro. Dimos relevancia a ocho fragmentos prioritarios, con atención en uno con imágenes de resolución fina para estudio en detalle. Este método permite la priorización de áreas para conservación de fragmentos de decenas de kilómetros cuadrados en una región >1 millón km2. La información biológica general es suficiente para definir prioridades de conservación de la biodiversidad. Por lo tanto, nuestro método es atractivo para localidades tropicales y biológicamente ricas, para las que la información sobre la ocalización de las especies es escasa. [source]

Problematizing religious truth: Implications for public education

Suzanne Rosenblith
The question motivating this paper is whether or not there can be standards governing the evaluation of truth claims in religion. In other areas of study , such as physics, math, history, and even value-laden realms like morality , there is some widespread agreement as to what constitutes good thinking. If such a standard existed in religion, then our approach to teaching religion would need to change. This paper, however, is a prelude to examining such a question. In it, we briefly explore whether or not religion should even be included in public education. After concluding that it should be, we then look at whether we should pursue questions of truth in discussing religion or whether truth should be bracketed. If matters of truth are bracketed, what is lost? If questions of truth are pursued in our public school classrooms, what standards of evaluation should be applied to them? [source]

Validation of Numerical Ground Water Models Used to Guide Decision Making

GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2004
Ahmed E. Hassan
Many sites of ground water contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This complexity has created a need for tools and approaches that can build confidence in model predictions and provide evidence that these predictions are sufficient for decision making. Confidence building is a long-term, iterative process and the author believes that this process should be termed model validation. Model validation is a process, not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot ensure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides an important safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. If model results become the basis for decision making, then the validation process provides evidence that the model is valid for making decisions (not necessarily a true representation of reality). Validation, verification, and confirmation are concepts associated with ground water numerical models that not only do not represent established and generally accepted practices, but there is not even widespread agreement on the meaning of the terms as applied to models. This paper presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to ground water flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general and focuses on site-specific, predictive ground water models used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point for hydrogeologists facing model validation for ground water systems, thus saving a significant amount of time, effort, and cost. This review is also aimed at reviving the issue of model validation in the hydrogeologic community and stimulating the thinking of researchers and practitioners to develop practical and efficient tools for evaluating and refining ground water predictive models. [source]

Using extracurricular activity as an indicator of interpersonal skill: Prudent evaluation or recruiting malpractice?

Robert S. Rubin
There is widespread agreement that success in organizations requires more than high intellect. Thus, college recruiters commonly examine job candidates' extracurricular activities in search of "well-rounded," emotionally intelligent, and interpersonally skilled students. Intuitively, extracurricular activities seem like valuable student experiences; however, research evidence is sparse, suggesting far more questions than answers. Is participation in extracurricular activity truly linked to interpersonal skill performance? Does leadership experience make a difference? Do extracurricular experiences yield higher skill development? Six hundred eighteen business students and the relationship of their extracurricular involvement to four interpersonal skills were examined. Significant relationships were found and recruitment implications are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Religion and the secularisation of health care

John Paley
Aims and objectives., To assess the claim that conceptualisations of religion and spirituality should be grounded in theology, and acknowledge the global resurgence of religion. Background., Although there is widespread agreement in the nursing literature that ,spirituality' is a broader concept than ,religion,' and should be understood generically, this approximate consensus has occasionally been challenged. A recent paper by Barbara Pesut and colleagues argues that the generic view not only empties spirituality of powerful religious symbols and narratives, but underestimates the continuing social influence of religion, and its resurgence on a global scale. Accordingly, these authors suggest three principles for conceptualising spirituality and religion in health care, one of which is that conceptualisations should be grounded in philosophical and theological thinking, and should not ignore the global resurgence of religion. Method., Critical review. Conclusion., The Pesut principle privileges theology, disregarding other disciplines which theorise religion. Arguably, it privileges specifically Christian theology, the history of which suggests a politics of orthodoxy and an epistemology of authority and obedience. The global resurgence of religion is not, in fact, global, as the industrialised countries have experienced a marked shift towards secular-rational values; and the postindustrial phase of development is associated with self-expression values, which represent a challenge not merely to religious institutions (arguably an affirmation of ,spirituality') but to traditional elites and structures of all kinds. Finally, religion ,resurgent' is not an attractive model for health care, since many of its most obvious manifestations are incompatible with the ideology of health professionals. Relevance to clinical practice., In the secular societies of Europe, if not North America, there should be no expectation that nurses provide spiritual care. It is a requirement of the great separation between civil order and religion that the health services, as a public space, should remain thoroughly secular. [source]

Therapeutic potential of melatonin in traumatic central nervous system injury

Supriti Samantaray
Abstract:, A vast literature extolling the benefits of melatonin has accumulated during the past four decades. Melatonin was previously considered of importance to seasonal reproduction and circadian rhythmicity. Currently, it appears to be a versatile anti-oxidative and anti-nitrosative agent, a molecule with immunomodulatory actions and profound oncostatic activity, and also to play a role as a potent neuroprotectant. Nowadays, melatonin is sold as a dietary supplement with differential availability as an over-the-counter aid in different countries. There is a widespread agreement that melatonin is nontoxic and safe considering its frequent, long-term usage by humans at both physiological and pharmacological doses with no reported side effects. Endeavors toward a designated drug status for melatonin may be enormously rewarding in clinics for treatment of several forms of neurotrauma where effective pharmacological intervention has not yet been attained. This mini review consolidates the data regarding the efficacy of melatonin as an unique neuroprotective agent in traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injuries. Well-documented actions of melatonin in combating traumatic CNS damage are compiled from various clinical and experimental studies. Research on traumatic brain injury and ischemia/reperfusion are briefly outlined here as they have been recently reviewed elsewhere, whereas the studies on different animal models of the experimental spinal cord injury have been extensively covered in this mini review for the first time. [source]


Giuseppe FontanaArticle first published online: 7 OCT 200
ABSTRACT Beyond a widespread agreement on the idea that ,loans create deposits' and ,deposits make reserves', there is much controversy in the endogenous money literature over the workings of the reserve market, the credit market and the financial markets. In this paper a constructive interpretation of the debate between horizontalists and structuralists is suggested and their arguments are taken forward by showing that these controversial issues can be explained rigorously once a single-period,continuation framework is adopted. [source]

Phylogeography of the mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli): diversification, introgression, and expansion in response to Quaternary climate change

Abstract Since the late 1990s, molecular techniques have fuelled debate about the role of Pleistocene glacial cycles in structuring contemporary avian diversity in North America. The debate is still heated; however, there is widespread agreement that the Pleistocene glacial cycles forced the repeated contraction, fragmentation, and expansion of the North American biota. These demographic processes should leave genetic ,footprints' in modern descendants, suggesting that detailed population genetic studies of contemporary species provide the key to elucidating the impact of the late Quaternary (late Pleistocene,Holocene). We present an analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) in an attempt to examine the genetic evidence of the impact of the late Quaternary glacial cycles. Phylogenetic analyses reveal two strongly supported clades of P. gambeli: an Eastern Clade (Rocky Mountains and Great Basin) and a Western Clade (Sierra Nevada and Cascades). Post-glacial introgression is apparent between these two clades in the Mono Lake region of Central California. Within the Eastern Clade there is evidence of isolation-by-distance in the Rocky Mountain populations, and of limited gene flow into and around the Great Basin. Coalescent analysis of genetic variation in the Western Clade indicates that northern (Sierra Nevada/Cascades) and southern (Transverse/Peninsular Ranges) populations have been isolated and evolving independently for nearly 60 000 years. [source]

A Pragmatic Dissolution of Harman's Paradox

There is widespread agreement that we cannot know of a lottery ticket we own that it is a loser prior to the drawing of the lottery. At the same time we appear to have knowledge of events that will occur only if our ticket is a loser. Supposing any plausible closure principle for knowledge, the foregoing seems to yield a paradox. Appealing to some broadly Gricean insights, the present paper argues that this paradox is apparent only. [source]

Politics and the Media in Postcommunist Russia

POLITICS, Issue 1 2003
Stephen White
The evidence of a nationally representative survey conducted in April 2001 suggests that television is the medium of choice for most Russians. At least 92 per cent watch at least several times a week, with state channels more popular than those in commercial ownership. The media enjoy a high level of trust, and there is widespread agreement that they should adopt a stabilising role in society rather than simply report developments. Television is the main source of information when Russians make their electoral choices; there are accordingly considerable implications in the extent to which pro-Kremlin candidates and parties enjoy the support of the state media, which in turn are the favourite viewing of the voters that support them. [source]

Effective Corporatisation Legislation: The Fundamental Issue in Port Management

Sophia Everett
It is now some seven years since the restructure of Australian ports and their transformation into corporatised entities. This strategy was adopted in an endeavour to improve efficiency by distancing government from day to day operations - that element that was perceived to be the cause of sub-optimal performance. While there is widespread agreement that port performance has improved significantly, dissatisfaction persists and the belief that continued political intervention is preventing ports' commercial potential from being realised. This paper investigates these issues but argues that political intervention per se should not be the focus of research as the fundamental cause of sub-optimal performance. Rather political intervention is an effect of a more fundamental problem , an inappropriate legislative framework , and the focus of research should be on the legislation and corporatisation model in which political intervention is mandatory. [source]

Approaches and perspectives in social and environmental accounting: an overview of the conceptual landscape

Judy Brown
Abstract In recent years there has been a marked resurgence of interest in the areas of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social and environmental accounting (SEA) among business, governments, public policymakers, investors, unions, environmentalists and others. While at one level there appears to be widespread agreement that CSR and SEA are worthy topics of attention, different groups have very different understandings of these fields. This article provides an analysis of these differences by comparing three broad approaches to SEA: the business case, stakeholder-accountability and critical theory approaches. It also responds to concerns a number of commentators have expressed regarding the current dominance of ,business case' perspectives. While not seeking to impose on readers a ,correct' way of viewing SEA and CSR, exposure to competing perspectives is viewed as one way of challenging us to think more reflectively about the frames available to us and their implications for the social realities we construct, embed or seek to change. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]