Wider Variety (wider + variety)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The integration of corporate governance in corporate social responsibility disclosures

Ans Kolk
Abstract In recent years, not only has attention to corporate governance increased but also the notion has broadened considerably, and started to cover some aspects traditionally seen as being part of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR, corporate governance and their interlink seem particularly relevant for multinational enterprises (MNEs), which, due to their activities in multiple contexts around the world and concomitant visibility, generally face higher demands to be transparent and disclose information about such issues. Insights into whether and in which cases disclosures on the two topics actually merge has been very limited, however. This paper analyses to what extent corporate governance has become integrated in MNEs' disclosure practices on CSR. Based on an analysis of CSR reporting of Fortune Global 250 companies, findings show that more than half of them have a separate corporate governance section in their CSR report and/or explicitly link corporate governance and CSR issues. We also found that MNEs that disclose information on a wider variety of social and environmental issues and frame CSR with a focus on internal issues are more inclined to integrate corporate governance into their CSR reporting. This integration seems to be a global phenomenon that cuts across countries and sectors. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Long-term culture of Xenopus presumptive ectoderm in a nutrient-supplemented culture medium

Yasuto Fukui
Animal cap assay is a useful experimental model for investigating the activity of inducers in amphibian development. This assay has revealed that activin A is a potent mesoderm-inducing factor. However, it has been very difficult to induce highly differentiated tissues such as cartilage in a 3,4 day culture period. It was recently reported that jaw cartilage was induced in vitro in an animal cap that had been cultured for 14 days in Steinberg's solution using the sandwich culture method and activin A. Under these conditions, necrosis was occasionally observed in the explants. In this study, we have achieved long-term animal cap cultures in a nutrient-supplemented culture medium designated RDX. This medium was made by modifying the saline concentration of the RD medium previously developed as a basal medium for the serum-free culture of various kinds of mammalian cells. The explants cultured in RDX grew more vigorously compared with those in Steinberg's solution. RDX medium promoted a wider variety of tissue induction and gene expression in the animal caps than Steinberg's solution, and also increased the frequency of cartilage induction. Therefore, the supplemental nutrients may support and promote the differentiation of cartilage. This long-term culture method using RDX medium is useful for studying the differentiation of tissues or organs such as cartilage in vitro. [source]

Parietal Lobe Epilepsy: The Semiology, Yield of Diagnostic Workup, and Surgical Outcome

EPILEPSIA, Issue 6 2004
Dong Wook Kim
Summary: Purpose: To characterize the clinical features, the prognostic value, and diagnostic sensitivities of various presurgical evaluations and the surgical outcomes in parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE), we describe 40 patients who were diagnosed as having PLE, including 27 surgically treated patients. Methods: The diagnosis was established by means of a standard presurgical evaluation, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose,positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), ictal single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), and scalp video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, with additional intracranial EEG monitoring in selected cases. Results: Among the 40 patients, 27 experienced at least one type of aura. The most common auras were somatosensory (13 patients), followed by affective, vertiginous, and visual auras. The patients had diverse manifestations. Eighteen patients showed simple motor seizure, followed by automotor seizure, and dialeptic seizure. Two patients manifested generalized tonic,clonic seizures only, and 19 patients experienced more than one type of seizure. The surgical outcome was favorable in 22 of 26 patients including 14 who were seizure free. Patients with localized MRI abnormality had a higher probability to be seizure free, with marginal significance (p = 0.062), whereas other diagnostic modalities failed to predict the surgical outcome. In the seizure-free group, localization sensitivity was 64.3% by MRI, 50% by PET, 45.5% by ictal SPECT, and 35.7% by ictal EEG. The concordance rate of the various diagnostic modalities was higher in the seizure-free group than in the non,seizure-free group, although it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Seizures, in the case of PLE, can manifest themselves in a wider variety of ways than was previously thought. Surgical outcome was favorable in most of the patients. MRI abnormality and concordance of different diagnostic modalities were associated with high seizure-free rate. [source]

Audit Programs and Audit Risk: A Study of Japanese Practice

Hironori Fukukawa
The current paradigm in audit practice for evidential planning is the Audit Risk Model. However, the notion of relevant risks has broadened with the adoption in recent years of holistic audit approaches encompassing business and process risks and an increased focus on fraud risks. This study examines whether audit planning is ,risk adjusted' using archival data from 235 clients from a well-established audit firm in Japan. We address all four aspects of audit planning (nature, extent, timing and staffing) and examine a wider variety of client risks than prior archival studies in order to reflect the current holistic audit approaches of global auditing firms. The main results indicate that although audit planning is based on the level of and change in assessments of many audit risk variables, the associations between client risks and audit plans are rather modest. In this respect, our findings are consistent with those from prior research. We also find that client risks that comprise business risk and fraud risk affect audit planning to some extent. Finally, we report exploratory results suggesting a substitution effect between audit planning judgments in response to higher client risks such as increasing the extent of validity tests while decreasing the extent of confirmations. [source]

Residential mobility and resource use in the Chiribaya polity of southern Peru: strontium isotope analysis of archaeological tooth enamel and bone

K. J. Knudson
Abstract The Chiribaya were a complex polity during the Andean Late Intermediate Period (c. AD 1000,1300) in the Ilo and Moquegua Valleys of southern Peru. Recent research has demonstrated that the Chiribaya polity was a señorío, a confederacy of economically specialised parcialidades. Here we test hypotheses regarding the movement of individuals and resources among the Chiribaya-affiliated sites of Chiribaya Alta, Chiribaya Baja, San Gerónimo and El Yaral, as well as from outside of the Ilo and Moquegua Valleys. Although archaeological human enamel and bone strontium isotope ratios from Chiribaya Baja and San Gerónimo cluster closely, there is a wider variety of strontium isotope ratios observed at Chiribaya Alta and El Yaral. This indicates that individuals buried in cemeteries at these sites had access to a wider variety of resources, and probably moved between different geological zones throughout their lifetimes. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Engineered Migration and the Use of Refugees as Political Weapons: A Case Study of the 1994 Cuban Balseros Crisis

Kelly M. Greenhill
This paper presents a case study of the August 1994 Cuban balseros crisis, during which more than 35,000 fled the island and headed toward Florida in the span of a few weeks. It argues that Castro launched the crisis in an attempt to manipulate US fears of another Mariel, and in order to compel a shift in US policy, both on immigration and on a wider variety of issues. The paper further contends that from Castro's perspective, this exercise in coercion proved a qualified success , his third such successful use of the Cuban people as an asymmetric political weapon against the US. In addition, the paper argues that Castro's success was predicated on his ability to internationalize his own domestic crisis and transform it into an American domestic political and foreign policy crisis. Finally, it offers a novel explanation of how, why, and under what conditions, states and/or non,state actors may attempt to use refugees as coercive political weapons. Although dwarfed in size by the larger 1980 Mariel boatlift, the 1994 crisis is important for several reasons. First, despite its brevity, it had far reaching consequences for US,Cuban relations. Without warning or preamble, it catalyzed a shift in US policy vis,à,vis Cuban immigration that represented a radical departure from what it had been for the previous three decades. Second, it influenced US domestic politics on the national level, by expanding the scope and salience of the issue, and mobilizing not only Floridians, but also the larger public concerned about illegal immigration. Third, the crisis illustrated the potential potency of engineered migration as an asymmetric weapon of the weak. Finally, the brief, but significant, interactions of international and domestic actors in this case warrant examination because, although the 1994 crisis was limited, in its dynamics it resembles myriad other international refugee crises, large and small. Thus the case offers valuable lessons that may aid in dealing with future (real or threatened) crises. [source]

He Came, He Saw, He Stayed.

Guest Worker Programmes, the Issue of Non-Return
Critics of guest worker programmes have pointed out that many temporary workers do not return home when their contracts expire and thus end up swelling the ranks of undocumented workers in a host country. This article argues that this outcome is not inevitable. Whether or not guest workers return home or stay behind depends to a large extent on how the guest worker programme is administered. By comparing the US Bracero Program with the Canadian Mexican Agricultural Seasonal Workers' Program, it is shown that three aspects of programme administration account for why so many Braceros stayed in the US illegally, while almost all temporary workers employed in Canada return to Mexico at the end of the season. The three aspects are recruitment policies and procedures, enforcement of employment and housing-related minimum standards, and the size of the programme. It is suggested that the administration of the programme, in turn, reflects various interests that shape the State's position on foreign labour. Whereas in the US the Bracero Program was tailored to meet the needs of agribusinesses, the Canadian state responds to a wider variety of interests, including its own concern with the definition of ideal citizenship, as well as the need to protect domestic workers and the Mexican Government's interest in assisting those who are most needy. Additionally, unlike the US, where braceros were employed mainly in agribusinesses, in Canada Mexicans are brought to work on family farms. While desertion was a frequent phenomenon in the US, the paternalistic relationships that Canada-bound workers develop with their employers make desertion unlikely. [source]

The food and feeding habits of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen), in Kuwait waters

By S. Dadzie
The food habits of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen 1788), in Kuwait waters were investigated by examining the stomach contents of 738 specimens collected from May 1996 to April 1997. Their diet consisted of a broad spectrum of food types, but Crustacea were dominant, with copepods and their eggs constituting 39 % other non-copepod Crustacea constituted 16 %. The next major food group was Bacillariophyta (21 %), followed by Mollusca (11 %), fish scales (10 %) and, finally, fish eggs and larvae (3 %). In summer the species fed on a wider variety of food items than in winter. Copepods, other non-copepod crustaceans, and molluscs tended to occur in the stomachs in higher frequencies with an increase in P. argenteus size (up to 18.5,20.4 cm), while the bacillariophytes tended to increase in stomachs at fish sizes between 22.5,24.5 cm. Analysis of monthly variations in stomach fullness indicated that feeding intensity fluctuated throughout the year, with a low during August and September, corresponding to the spawning period. [source]

Development of polyphosphate parameters for use with the AMBER force field

Kristin L. Meagher
Abstract Accurate force fields are essential for reproducing the conformational and dynamic behavior of condensed-phase systems. The popular AMBER force field has parameters for monophosphates, but they do not extend well to polyphorylated molecules such as ADP and ATP. This work presents parameters for the partial charges, atom types, bond angles, and torsions in simple polyphosphorylated compounds. The parameters are based on molecular orbital calculations of methyldiphosphate and methyltriphosphate at the RHF/6-31+G* level. The new parameters were fit to the entire potential energy surface (not just minima) with an RMSD of 0.62 kcal/mol. This is exceptional agreement and a significant improvement over the current parameters that produce a potential surface with an RMSD of 7.8 kcal/mol to that of the ab initio calculations. Testing has shown that the parameters are transferable and capable of reproducing the gas-phase conformations of inorganic diphosphate and triphosphate. Also, the parameters are an improvement over existing parameters in the condensed phase as shown by minimizations of ATP bound in several proteins. These parameters are intended for use with the existing AMBER 94/99 force field, and they will permit users to apply AMBER to a wider variety of important enzymatic systems. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 1016,1025, 2003 [source]

Survey of the year 2006 commercial optical biosensor literature

Rebecca L. Rich
Abstract We identified 1219 articles published in 2006 that described work performed using commercial optical biosensor platforms. It is interesting to witness how the biosensor market is maturing with an increased number of instrument manufacturers offering a wider variety of platforms. However, it is clear from a review of the results presented that the advances in technology are outpacing the skill level of the average biosensor user. While we can track a gradual improvement in the quality of the published work, we clearly have a long way to go before we capitalize on the full potential of biosensor technology. To illustrate what is right with the biosensor literature, we highlight the work of 10 groups who have their eye on the ball. To help out the rest of us who have the lights on but nobody home, we use the literature to address common myths about biosensor technology. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Docosahexaenoic acid, the aquatic diet, and hominin encephalization: Difficulties in establishing evolutionary links

Bryce A. Carlson
Distinctive characteristics of modern humans, including language, tool manufacture and use, culture, and behavioral plasticity, are linked to changes in the organization and size of the brain during hominin evolution. As brain tissue is metabolically and nutritionally costly to develop and maintain, early hominin encephalization has been linked to a release of energetic and nutritional constraints. One such nutrient-based approach has focused on the n -3 long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is a primary constituent of membrane phospholipids within the synaptic networks of the brain essential for optimal cognitive functioning. As biosynthesis of DHA from n -3 dietary precursors (alpha-linolenic acid, LNA) is relatively inefficient, it has been suggested that preformed DHA must have been an integral dietary constituent during evolution of the genus Homo to facilitate the growth and development of an encephalizing brain. Furthermore, preformed DHA has only been identified to an appreciable extent within aquatic resources (marine and freshwater), leading to speculation that hominin encephalization is linked specifically to access and consumption of aquatic resources. The key premise of this perspective is that biosynthesis of DHA from LNA is not only inefficient but also insufficient for the growth and maturation demands of an encephalized brain. However, this assumption is not well-supported, and much evidence instead suggests that consumption of LNA, available in a wider variety of sources within a number of terrestrial ecosystems, is sufficient for normal brain development and maintenance in modern humans and presumably our ancestors. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:132,141, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pollinators, flowering phenology and floral longevity in two Mediterranean Aristolochia species, with a review of flower visitor records for the genus

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
R. Berjano
Abstract The pollination of Aristolochia involves the temporary confinement of visitors inside the flower. A literature review has shown that some species are visited by one or a few dipteran families, while others are visited by a wider variety of dipterans, but only some of these are effective pollinators. We observed flowering phenology and temporal patterns of pollinator attendance in diverse populations of Aristolochia baetica and A. paucinervis, two species that grow in SW Spain, frequently in mixed populations. The two species had overlapping floral phenologies, extended flowering periods and long-lived flowers. A. baetica attracted a higher number of visitors than A. paucinervis. Drosophilids and, to a lesser extent, phorids, were the main pollinators of A. baetica, whereas in A. paucinervis, phorids were the only pollinators. Attendance to A. paucinervis flowers by phorids in mixed populations was markedly lower than in pure populations. This effect was more evident in years with lower pollinator density. Our results suggest that A. baetica and A. paucinervis may compete for pollinators in mixed populations. [source]

Dynamic in-hand movements in adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Jessica Crast
Abstract Descriptions of manual function in nonhuman primates have largely focused on static precision and power grasping (as first defined by Napier,1956), while identification and description of dynamic manual function are rare and incomplete. Here, we describe several forms of in-hand movements used by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) when manipulating small objects. In-hand movements are defined as the movement of an object within one hand via manipulation of the digits. We presented adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (ages 5,29 years) with a task that required inserting small objects through correspondingly shaped cutouts in a transparent Plexiglas panel. While attempting to insert the objects through the cutouts, the subjects used at least two forms of in-hand movements to change their grip on the object for more precise alignment. We describe in detail the in-hand movements they used and the variability observed in form and execution among the subjects. In general, the adult subjects used in-hand movements more frequently and used a wider variety of forms than did the young juvenile subjects, suggesting that in-hand movements are in the process of fine-tuning around the age of 5 years in chimpanzees. The dexterity exhibited by the adults, however, shows that the neuromuscular and morphological requirements for relatively complex digital manipulation are present in the adult chimpanzee. Am J Phys Antropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The Phenomenology of Body-Mind: The Contrasting Cases of Flow in Sports and Contemplation

Jeremy Hunter
The demise of Cartesianism as an animating force in conceptualizing mind and body relations has opened up the field to a wider variety of perspectives, like the "embodiment" of phenomenological thinkers. However, because of Cartesianism's deeply rooted psychic legacy it still makes its presence felt in various places in everyday life. This paper will explore two facets of everyday life, sports and contemplation, which lend themselves to a mind-body cognitive dissonance affected by latent Cartesian thinking. As an alternative, we will propose a more phenomenologically oriented interpretation based on what has been revealed by historical precedents as well as our empirical investigations. Keywords: Flow, Contemplation, Phenomenofogy, Sports [source]

Patterns and costs of treatment for heroin dependence over 12 months: fndings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study

Marian Shanahan
Objective: To determine patterns and costs of treatment for heroin dependence over a 12-month period among a cohort of heroin users seeking treatment. Methods: The design was a longitudinal cohort study of heroin users seeking treatment who participated in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), which was conducted in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, Australia. Treatment for heroin dependence, for those who were followed up at 12 months, was recorded and costed. Unit costs, obtained from secondary sources, were used to estimate the cost of treatment. This study does not include wide societal costs and only includes personal costs as they pertain to treatment. Results: A follow-up rate of 81% at 12 months was achieved, resulting in data for 596 participants. Participants spent an average of 188 days in treatment over 2.7 episodes. Sixty-nine per cent of the sample reported at least one episode of treatment following their index treatment. There was a noticeable trend for subjects who received maintenance or residential rehabilitation as their index treatment to return to the same form of treatment for subsequent episodes. In contrast, those who received detoxifcation as index treatment accessed a wider variety of treatment types over the follow-up period. The cost of treatment over the 12-month follow-up totalled 3,901,416, with a mean of 6,517 per person. Conclusions and Implications: This study demonstrates that individuals seeking treatment have multiple treatment episodes throughout a 12-month period, with a tendency to return to the same form of treatment. This study also demonstrates that it is feasible and affordable to provide ongoing treatment for a group of heroin users seeking treatment. [source]

A Sample Size Formula for the Supremum Log-Rank Statistic

BIOMETRICS, Issue 1 2005
Kevin Hasegawa Eng
Summary An advantage of the supremum log-rank over the standard log-rank statistic is an increased sensitivity to a wider variety of stochastic ordering alternatives. In this article, we develop a formula for sample size computation for studies utilizing the supremum log-rank statistic. The idea is to base power on the proportional hazards alternative, so that the supremum log rank will have the same power as the standard log rank in the setting where the standard log rank is optimal. This results in a slight increase in sample size over that required for the standard log rank. For example, a 5.733% increase occurs for a two-sided test having type I error 0.05 and power 0.80. This slight increase in sample size is offset by the significant gains in power the supremum log-rank test achieves for a wide range of nonproportional hazards alternatives. A small simulation study is used for illustration. These results should facilitate the wider use of the supremum log-rank statistic in clinical trials. [source]

Toward a Framework for Achieving a Sustainable Globalization

ABSTRACT Widespread trade liberalization and economic integration characterize the current era of globalization. While this approach has resulted in significant job creation, improved living standards, and a wider variety of cheaper consumer goods and services, opponents question if globalization's benefits outweigh the dislocations and downsides that it causes. Protestors are intent on stalling or rolling back globalization's progression and our review of the history of globalization reveals that a backlash is not without precedent. The article carefully examines the myth and reality of these two opposing positions on four key areas of the globalization debate: jobs; inequality and poverty; national sovereignty and cultural diversity; and the natural environment. This information is then utilized to derive a broad set of feasible policy recommendations that could help bring about a more sustainable form of globalization. [source]

Brief neuropsychological profiles in psychosis: a pilot study using the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS)

Carmel M Loughland
Loughland CM, Allen J, Gianacas L, Schofield PW, Lewin TJ, Hunter M, Carr VJ. Brief neuropsychological profiles in psychosis: a pilot study using the Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen (ARCS). Objective: This pilot study examines the utility of a novel, standardised brief neuropsychological assessment tool (the ARCS, Audio Recorded Cognitive Screen) in a different clinical setting to that in which it was initially developed. We hypothesised that the ARCS would be feasible to administer to individuals with a psychotic illness and that it would detect cognitive deficits similar to those identified by an established instrument (the RBANS, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status). Methods: Twenty-five people with psychosis (mean age = 43.72, SD = 9.78) and 25 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Newcastle community (NSW, Australia). The ARCS and RBANS were completed about 1 week apart in a counterbalanced order. Results: The ARCS was well received, performed satisfactorily and both the ARCS and RBANS were sensitive to deficits typically associated with psychosis (e.g. memory and attention). After controlling for memory deficits, the largest disparity between the psychosis and control groups was on the ARCS fluency domain [p < 0.001, partial Eta-squared (,p2) = 0.21]. Conclusion: The ARCS uses audio administration (approximately 34 min) to reduce clinician time (to 3,5 min for scoring) and appears to be a useful brief assessment tool for examining the cognitive deficits associated with psychosis. However, the potential clinical utility of the ARCS needs to be investigated further in larger samples drawn from a wider variety of specialist and non-specialist settings. [source]

Theoretical Trends of Diffusion and Reaction into Tubular Nano- and Mesoporous Structures: General Physicochemical and Physicomathematical Modeling

Christian Amatore Prof.
Abstract A general and adaptable physicochemical model is presented to evaluate the mass transport within nanopores of mesoporous particles when the mass transport is coupled to heterogeneous kinetics occurring at active sites located onto the nanopore walls surface. The model framework encompasses almost all situations of practical interest in solutions and may be used for characterizing the kinetic rates and constants controlling the system under different sets of experimental conditions. Furthermore, it allows the delineation of simple effective parameters, which should be most useful for optimizing a given material in view of specific applications. For the sake of clarification the simplified model is presented and its results discussed by specializing it for cases where the reactions involve a simple adsorption of a target species on the nanopore immobilized sites as observed for inorganic sponges used in water decontamination. Yet it may easily be extended further to encompass a wider variety of situations where the sites immobilized onto the nanopore walls perform chemical or biochemical transformations as occur in supported catalysis in liquid solution. [source]

A systematic review of selected caries prevention and management methods

James D. Bader
Abstract , A systematic review of the periodic scientific literature was undertaken to determine the strength of the evidence for the efficacy of professional caries preventive methods applied to high risk individuals, and the efficacy of professionally applied methods to arrest or reverse non-cavitated carious lesions. An initial search identified 1435 articles, of which 27 were eventually included in the review. Among the 22 studies addressing the prevention of carious lesions in caries-active or high risk individuals, the strength of the evidence was judged to be fair for fluoride varnishes and insufficient for all other methods. Among the seven studies addressing the management of non-cavitated carious lesions, the strength of the evidence for efficacy was judged to be insufficient for all methods. The results do not indicate that the preventive and management methods reviewed are not efficacious; rather, they demonstrate that not enough is known to determine the efficacy of the methods. Suggestions for strengthening the limited evidence base involve the following: i) increasing the number of studies that examine prevention among high risk individuals and non-surgical management of non-cavitated lesions, ii) including a wider variety of subject ages, iii) targeting aspects of the efficacy questions not yet addressed, iv) strengthening research methods employed in the studies, and v) reporting methods and outcomes more completely. [source]