Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Wider

  • wider acceptance
  • wider adoption
  • wider applicability
  • wider application
  • wider area
  • wider array
  • wider audience
  • wider choice
  • wider class
  • wider community
  • wider context
  • wider debate
  • wider discussion
  • wider dissemination
  • wider distribution
  • wider field
  • wider impact
  • wider implementation
  • wider implication
  • wider issues
  • wider literature
  • wider population
  • wider process
  • wider public
  • wider range
  • wider region
  • wider role
  • wider set
  • wider significance
  • wider social
  • wider society
  • wider spectrum
  • wider study
  • wider understanding
  • wider use
  • wider variety
  • wider world

  • Selected Abstracts

    How Much of the Gender Difference in Child School Enrolment Can Be Explained?

    Evidence from Rural India
    I21; O15 Abstract There are significant gender differences in child schooling in the Indian states though very few studies explain this gender difference. Unlike most existing studies we take account of the implicit and explicit opportunity costs of schooling and use a bivariate probit model to jointly determine a child's participation in school and market jobs. Results obtained from the World Institute of Development Economics Research (WIDER) villages in West Bengal suggest that indicators of household resources, parental preferences, returns to and opportunity costs of domestic work significantly affect child school enrolment. While household resources have similar effects on enrolment of boys and girls, other arguments tend to explain a part of the observed gender difference. Even after taking account of all possible arguments, there remains a large variation in gender differences in child schooling that cannot be explained by differences in male and female characteristics in our sample. [source]

    On Currents and Comparisons: Gender and the Atlantic ,Turn' in Spanish America

    Bianca Premo
    This article is part of a History Compass cluster on ,Rethinking Gender, Family and Sexuality in the Early Modern Atlantic World'. The cluster is made up of the following articles: ,On Currents and Comparisons: Gender and the Atlantic ,Turn' in Spanish America', Bianca Premo, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 223,237, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00658.x ,Women and Families in Early (North) America and the Wider (Atlantic) World', Karin Wulf, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 238,247, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00659.x ,Family Matters: The Early Modern Atlantic from the European Side', Julie Hardwick, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 248,257, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00660.x The following essay originated as one of these three contributions to a roundtable discussion held at the 14th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, June 2008. The roundtable, ,Rethinking Gender, Family, and Sexuality in the Early Modern Atlantic World', was meant to be as much invitation as inventory and was astonishingly well attended at 08:00 in the morning, with standing room only for a thoughtful, lively audience whose comments, questions, and suggestions are reflected here (although in no way fully represented). As historians of gender and family in the North Atlantic, European, and Iberian worlds, we had hoped to encourage more central and systematic attention to gender within the Atlantic World paradigm by cataloging some recent works in their fields and pointing the way for future studies. Yet, a funny thing happened on the way to the conference. Independently, each of us began to engage with the challenges of simply inserting family and gender into ,the Atlantic' as both as conceptual place and a historical practice. The essays that emerged, therefore, departed from conventional historiographies that survey the state of the field. Rather, these are theoretical and methodological reflections on the implications of de-centering national and colonial narratives about the history of gender. At a time when transnational historical scholarship on early modern women promises to explode, these essays aim to inspire debate about the conceptual utility of the Atlantic as a paradigm for understanding issues of gender, family, and sexuality, as well as its ramifications for feminist scholarship everywhere. [source]

    Women and Families in Early (North) America and the Wider (Atlantic) World

    Karin Wulf
    This article is part of a History Compass cluster on ,Rethinking Gender, Family and Sexuality in the Early Modern Atlantic World'. The cluster is made up of the following articles: ,On Currents and Comparisons: Gender and the Atlantic ,Turn' in Spanish America', Bianca Premo, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 223,237, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00658.x ,Women and Families in Early (North) America and the Wider (Atlantic) World', Karin Wulf, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 238,247, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00659.x ,Family Matters: The Early Modern Atlantic from the European Side', Julie Hardwick, History Compass 8.3 (2010): 248,257, doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2009.00660.x The following essay originated as one of these three contributions to a roundtable discussion held at the 14th Berkshire Conference on the History of Women, June 2008. The roundtable, ,Rethinking Gender, Family, and Sexuality in the Early Modern Atlantic World', was meant to be as much invitation as inventory and was astonishingly well attended at 08:00 in the morning, with standing room only for a thoughtful, lively audience whose comments, questions and suggestions are reflected here (although in no way fully represented). As historians of gender and family in the North Atlantic, European and Iberian worlds, we had hoped to encourage more central and systematic attention to gender within the Atlantic World paradigm by cataloging some recent works in their fields and pointing the way for future studies. Yet, a funny thing happened on the way to the conference. Independently, each of us began to engage with the challenges of simply inserting family and gender into ,the Atlantic' as both as conceptual place and a historical practice. The essays that emerged, therefore, departed from conventional historiographies that survey the state of the field. Rather, these are theoretical and methodological reflections on the implications of de-centering national and colonial narratives about the history of gender. At a time when transnational historical scholarship on early modern women promises to explode, these essays aim to inspire debate about the conceptual utility of the Atlantic as a paradigm for understanding issues of gender, family, and sexuality, as well as its ramifications for feminist scholarship everywhere. [source]

    Construction of the Femoral Neck During Growth Determines Its Strength in Old Age,

    Roger M D Zebaze
    Abstract Study of the design of the FN in vivo in 697 women and in vitro in 200 cross-sections of different sizes and shapes along each of 13 FN specimens revealed that strength in old age was largely achieved during growth by differences in the distribution rather than the amount of bone material in a given FN cross-section from individual to individual. Introduction: We studied the design of the femoral neck (FN) to gain insight into the structural basis of FN strength in adulthood and FN fragility in old age. Materials and Methods: Studies in vivo were performed using densitometry in 697 women and in vitro using high-resolution ,CT and direct measurements in 13 pairs of postmortem specimens. Results: The contradictory needs of strength for loading yet lightness for mobility were met by varying FN size, shape, spatial distribution, and proportions of its trabecular and cortical bone in a cross-section, not its mass. Wider and narrower FNs were constructed with similar amounts of bone material. Wider FNs were relatively lighter: a 1 SD higher FN volume had a 0.67 (95% CI, 0.61,0.72) SD lower volumetric BMD (vBMD). A 1 SD increment in height was achieved by increasing FN volume by 0.32 (95% CI, 0.25,0.39) SD with only 0.15 (95% CI, 0.08,0.22) SD more bone, so taller individuals had a relatively lighter FN (vBMD was 0.13 [95% CI, 0.05,0.20 SD] SD lower). Greater periosteal apposition constructing a wider FN was offset by even greater endocortical resorption so that the same net amount of bone was distributed as a thinner cortex further from the neutral axis, increasing resistance to bending and lowering vBMD. This was recapitulated at each point along the FN; varying absolute and relative degrees of periosteal apposition and endocortical resorption focally used the same amount of material to fashion an elliptical FN of mainly cortical bone near the femoral shaft to offset bending but a more circular FN of proportionally more trabecular and less cortical bone to accommodate compressive loads adjacent to the pelvis. This structural heterogeneity was largely achieved by adaptive modeling and remodeling during growth,most of the variance in FN volume, BMC, and vBMD was growth related. Conclusions: Altering structural design while minimizing mass achieves FN strength and lightness. Bone fragility may be the result of failure to adapt bone's architecture to loading, not just low bone mass. [source]

    Re-founding Representation: Wider, Broader, Closer, Deeper

    Lucy Taylor
    This article challenges conventional understandings and methodologies associated with the study of political representation. It imagines representation as a power relationship and shifts attention from elections to a closer examination of the interface between representatives and those they claim to represent. It argues for the need to make representation studies wider, moving our focus to study polities beyond the confines of prosperous, established democracies. Secondly, we should broaden our understanding of representation agents in two ways. We should consider how non-voters are represented and we should include diverse forms of social organisations, problematising relationships of representation within these groups and taking their political-representational role seriously. Thirdly, we should move closer, conducting not only macro-level analyses but also micro-level studies, exploring representation among and between individuals and groups in order to understand the complex relationships, motives and dynamics of power at work. Finally we need to go deeper, looking at our own subject positions as scholars critically and challenging the neutrality of the ideas and assumptions that we use as intellectual tools. Moreover, we should promote deeper relationships of representation, reconnecting it to ideas and practices of participation, and promoting the role of accountability in ,closing the loop' and enhancing democracy. [source]

    Multispecies and Multiscale Conservation Planning: Setting Quantitative Targets for Red-Listed Lichens on Ancient Oaks

    bosque de encino maduro; cantidad de hábitat; encino antiguo; escala espacial; líquenes en la lista roja Abstract:,Species occurrence in a habitat patch depends on local habitat and the amount of that habitat in the wider landscape. We used predictions from empirical landscape studies to set quantitative conservation criteria and targets in a multispecies and multiscale conservation planning effort. We used regression analyses to compare species richness and occurrence of five red-listed lichens on 50 ancient oaks (Quercus robur; 120,140 cm in diameter) with the density of ancient oaks in circles of varying radius from each individual oak. Species richness and the occurrence of three of the five species were best explained by increasing density of oaks within 0.5 km; one species was best explained by the density of oaks within 2 km, and another was best predicted by the density of oaks within 5 km. The minimum numbers of ancient oaks required for "successful conservation" was defined as the number of oaks required to obtain a predicted local occurrence of 50% for all species included or a predicted local occurrence of 80% for all species included. These numbers of oaks were calculated for two relevant landscape scales (1 km2 and 13 km2) that corresponded to various species responses, in such a way that calculations also accounted for local number of oaks. Ten and seven of the 50 ancient oaks surveyed were situated in landscapes that already fulfilled criteria for successful conservation when the 50% and 80% criteria, respectively, were used to define the level of successful conservation. For cost-efficient conservation, oak stands in the landscapes most suitable for successful conservation should be prioritized for conservation and management (e.g., grazing and planting of new oaks) at the expense of oak stands situated elsewhere. Resumen:,La ocurrencia de especies en un parche de hábitat depende del hábitat local y de la cantidad de ese hábitat en un paisaje más amplio. Utlizamos predicciones de estudios de paisaje empíricos para definir criterios y objetivos de conservación cuantitativos en un esfuerzo de planificación de la conservación para múltiples especies y escalas. Utilizamos análisis de regresión para comparar la riqueza y ocurrencia de especies de cinco líquenes en la lista roja sobre 20 encinos antiguos (Quercus robur; 120,140 cm de diámetro) con la densidad de encinos antiguos en círculos de radio variable desde cada encino individual. La riqueza y ocurrencia de tres de las cinco especies fue mejor explicada por el incremento de la densidad de encinos en 0.5 km; una especie fue mejor explicada por la densidad de encinos en 2 km, y la otra fue mejor pronosticada por la densidad de encinos en 5 km. Los números mínimos de encinos antiguos requeridos para una "conservación exitosa" fueron definidos como el número de encinos requeridos para obtener una ocurrencia local pronosticada de de 50% para todas las especies incluidas o una ocurrencia local pronosticada de 80% para todas las especies incluidas. Estos números de encinos fueron calculados para dos escalas de paisaje relevantes (1 km2 y 13 km2) que correspondieron a las respuestas de varias especies, de tal modo que los cálculos también incluyeron el número local de encinos. Diez y siete de los 50 encinos antiguos estaban situados en paisajes que ya cumplían criterios para conservación exitosa cuando los criterios de 50% y 80%, respectivamente, fueron usados para definir el nivel de conservación exitosa. Para una conservación redituable, los bosques de encinos en los paisajes más aptos para la conservación exitosa deberían ser priorizados para conservación y manejo (e. g., pastoreo y siembra de encinos nuevos) a costa de bosques de encino situados en otros lados. [source]

    Repair of a Large Wound of the Back, Post-Mohs Micrographical Excision, Using Chronic Skin Expansion

    Ron M. Shelton MD
    Background. Large defects not otherwise closed primarily may be closed after chronic skin expansion. Objective. If chronic expansion were deemed indicated for the closure of a proposed defect expected to result from Mohs micrographic surgery, can it be performed before Mohs surgery, avoiding the increased chance of expander extrusion via the defect when done postoperatively? Methods. A team approach of a Mohs surgeon and a plastic surgeon coordinated scheduling an insertion of and staged infiltration of a tissue expander before Mohs surgical removal of a large basal cell carcinoma on the back of a young woman. The reconstruction after Mohs surgery was scheduled for the immediate postoperative period. Results. The Mohs surgery completed removed the carcinoma, and the expander was removed, enabling the surgeon to perform a side-to-side closure. Conclusion. Provided that there is not a great probability of the neoplasm extending significantly deeper or wider than expected and that the skin expander is placed so as not to disturb the plane of Mohs excision, this is a useful technique to close large Mohs defects. [source]

    Mohs Micrographic Excision of Melanoma Using Immunostains

    Mark J. Zalla MD
    Background. Mohs excision of melanoma remains controversial, in part because of concerns regarding evaluation of frozen section margins. Several immunohistochemical stains are available for melanoma that can be used on frozen sections. Objective. To review our experience with Mohs micrographic excision of melanoma using immunostains. Methods. Sixty-eight patients were treated, including 46 with melanoma in situ and 22 with invasive melanoma, 62 of which were on the head or neck. HMB-45, MEL-5, Melan-A (A-103), and S-100 stains were employed. Results. Sixty-seven of 68 tumors were excised to clear margins, requiring an average of 2.0 layers. Immunostains greatly enhanced detection of melanoma on frozen sections. The average margin required for clearance of in situ melanoma was 8.3 mm and of invasive melanoma was 11.1 mm. Only 23 of 46 (50%) in situ melanomas were clear with ,6 mm margins; 15 mm margins were required to clear 96% of the tumors. Eleven of 22 (50%) invasive melanomas were clear with ,6 mm margins; 26 mm margins were required to clear 95% of the tumors. Melan-A (A-103) was the most consistently crisp and easily interpreted immunostain. Conclusions. Mohs excision of melanoma using immunostains can be useful, especially for tumors on the head and neck. For routine excision, margins wider than those currently recommended may be required to ensure tumor clearance. We recommend that (1) biopsies be stained preoperatively for Melan-A and/or HMB-45, (2) a debulking layer be obtained for permanent sections prior to Mohs layers, and positive and negative control specimens from the tumor and distant skin should be employed for comparison of staining patterns. Large-scale prospective studies of in situ and invasive melanoma on the head and neck are necessary. [source]

    Anti-Politics as Political Strategy: Neoliberalism and Transfrontier Conservation in Southern Africa

    Bram Büscher
    ABSTRACT Studies on conservation and development often point out that interventions rely on anti-political manoeuvring to acquire legitimacy and support. Recent ,aidnography', in particular, has done much to expand and add nuance to our understanding of the complex, micro- (anti-)politics at work in conservation and development interventions. In doing this, however, aidnography seems to have led the focus away from two crucial, broader issues related to conservation and development interventions: how they are regulated through the wider, neoliberal political economy, and how this fuels and obscures (global) inequality. Drawing on empirical research on a transfrontier conservation and development intervention in Southern Africa, this article argues that the differential workings of anti-politics in practice warrant a renewed appreciation and a more explicit political operationalization of the concept. This is done by re-emphasizing anti-politics as an essential political strategy within conservation and development interventions and as an intrinsic element of the wider political economy of neoliberalism. [source]

    Expression of qBrn-1, a new member of the POU gene family, in the early developing nervous system and embryonic kidney

    Lei Lan
    Abstract It has been shown that POU domain genes play critical roles in the development of the nervous system. We have obtained a new member of the class III POU domain genes, qBrn-1, from the cDNA library of embryonic day 5 quail and have made an extensive expression pattern analysis of qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 throughout the early embryonic development by in situ hybridization. With a specific antibody we prepared, further analysis by immunohistochemistry showed that the location of qBrn-1 protein was consistent with that of the transcripts in the early developing quail. Our results showed that both qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 were preferentially expressed in the developing central nervous system, and their transcripts were initially detected in the neural plate and later in the distinct regions of the neural tube with a stage-dependent pattern. Moreover, their expression was also detected in both notochord and neural crests. However, qBrn-1 signal, different from qBrn-2, was more widely found in the auditory pits, branchial arches, and in the mesodermal components of the developing kidney. And the expression of qBrn-1 in nephric region was earlier and wider than that of mouse Brn-1, suggesting the characteristic function of qBrn-1 in the kidney formation. The distinct dynamic expression patterns of qBrn-1 and qBrn-2 indicate multiple roles of the class III POU genes in quail neurogenesis and organogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 235:1107,1114, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Soil detachment and transport on field- and laboratory-scale interrill areas: erosion processes and the size-selectivity of eroded sediment

    O. Malam Issa
    Abstract Field- and laboratory-scale rainfall simulation experiments were carried out in an investigation of the temporal variability of erosion processes on interrill areas, and the effects of such variation upon sediment size characteristics. Poorly aggregated sandy soils from the semi-arid environment of Senegal, West Africa, were used on both a 40 m2 field plot and a 0·25 m2 laboratory plot; rainfall intensity for all experiments was 70 mm h,1 with a duration of 1 to 2 hours. Time-series measurements were made of the quantity and the size distribution of eroded material: these permitted an estimate of the changing temporal balance between the main erosion processes (splash and wash). Results from both spatial scales showed a similar temporal pattern of runoff generation and sediment concentration. For both spatial scales, the dominant erosional process was detachment by raindrops; this resulted in a dynamic evolution of the soil surface under raindrop impact, with the rapid formation of a sieving crust followed by an erosion crust. However, a clear difference was observed between the two scales regarding the size of particles detached by both splash and wash. While all measured values were lower than the mean weight diameter (MWD) value of the original soil (mean 0·32 mm), demonstrating the size-selective nature of wash and splash processes, the MWD values of washed and splashed particles at the field scale ranged from 0·08 to 0·16 mm and from 0·12 to 0·30 mm respectively, whereas the MWD values of washed and splashed particles at the laboratory scale ranged from 0·13 to 0·29 mm and from 0·21 to 0·32 mm respectively. Thus only at the field scale were the soil particles detached by splash notably coarser than those transported by wash. This suggests a transport-limited erosion process at the field scale. Differences were also observed between the dynamics of the soil loss by wash at the two scales, since results showed wider scatter in the field compared to the laboratory experiments. This scatter is probably related to the change in soil surface characteristics due to the size-selectivity of the erosion processes at this spatial scale. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Wood storage in a wide mountain river: case study of the Czarny Dunajec, Polish Carpathians

    omiej Wy
    Abstract Storage of large woody debris in the wide, mountain, Czarny Dunajec River, southern Poland, was investigated following two floods of June and July 2001 with a seven-year frequency. Within a reach, to which wood was delivered only by bank erosion and transport from upstream, wood quantities were estimated for eighty-nine, 100 m long, channel segments grouped into nine sections of similar morphology. Results from regression analysis indicated the quantity of stored wood to be directly related to the length of eroded, wooded banks and river width, and inversely related to unit stream power at the flood peak. The largest quantities of wood (up to 33 t ha,1) were stored in wide, multi-thread river sections. Here, the relatively low transporting ability of the river facilitated deposition of transported wood while a considerable length of eroded channel and island banks resulted in a large number of trees delivered from the local riparian forest. In these sections, a few morphological and ecological situations led to the accumulation of especially large quantities of wood within a small river area. Very low amounts of wood were stored in narrow, single-thread sections of regulated or bedrock channel. High stream power facilitated transport of wood through these sections while the high strength of the banks and low channel sinuosity prevented bank retreat and delivery of trees to the channel. Considerable differences in the character of deposited wood existed between wide, multi-thread channel sections located at different distances below a narrow, 7 km long, channellized reach of the river. Wood deposited close to the downstream end of the channellized reach was highly disintegrated and structured into jams, whereas further downstream well preserved shrubs and trees prevailed. This apparently reflects differences in the distance of wood transport and shows that in a mountain river wider than the height of trees growing on its banks, wood can be transported long distances along relatively narrow, single-thread reaches but is preferentially deposited in wide, multi-thread reaches. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A model of equilibrium bed topography for meander bends with erodible banks

    Stephen E. Darby
    Abstract Channel curvature produces secondary currents and a transverse sloping channel bed, along which the depth increases towards the outer bank. As a result deep pools tend to form adjacent to the outer bank, promoting bank collapse. The interaction of sediment grains with the primary and secondary flow and the transverse sloping bed also causes meanders to move different grain sizes in different proportions and directions, resulting in a consistent sorting pattern. Several models have been developed to describe this process, but they all have the potential to over-predict pool depth because they cannot account for the influence of erodible banks. In reality, bank collapse might lead to the development of a wider, shallower cross-section and any resulting flow depth discrepancy can bias associated predictions of flow, sediment transport, and grain-size sorting. While bed topography, sediment transport and grain sorting in bends will partly be controlled by the sedimentary characteristics of the bank materials, the magnitude of this effect has not previously been explored. This paper reports the development of a model of flow, sediment transport, grain-size sorting, and bed topography for river bends with erodible banks. The model is tested via intercomparison of predicted and observed bed topography in one low-energy (5·3 W m,2 specific stream power) and one high-energy (43·4 W m,2) study reach, namely the River South Esk in Scotland and Goodwin Creek in Mississippi, respectively. Model predictions of bed topography are found to be satisfactory, at least close to the apices of bends. Finally, the model is used in sensitivity analyses that provide insight into the influence of bank erodibility on equilibrium meander morphology and associated patterns of grain-size sorting. The sensitivity of meander response to bank cohesion is found to increase as a function of the available stream power within the two study bends. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparing response of SDF systems to near-fault and far-fault earthquake motions in the context of spectral regions

    Anil K. Chopra
    Abstract In spite of important differences in structural response to near-fault and far-fault ground motions, this paper aims at extending well-known concepts and results, based on elastic and inelastic response spectra for far-fault motions, to near-fault motions. Compared are certain aspects of the response of elastic and inelastic SDF systems to the two types of motions in the context of the acceleration-, velocity-, and displacement-sensitive regions of the response spectrum, leading to the following conclusions. (1) The velocity-sensitive region for near-fault motions is much narrower, and the acceleration-sensitive and displacement-sensitive regions are much wider, compared to far-fault motions; the narrower velocity-sensitive region is shifted to longer periods. (2) Although, for the same ductility factor, near-fault ground motions impose a larger strength demand than far-fault motions,both demands expressed as a fraction of their respective elastic demands,the strength reduction factors Ry for the two types of motions are similar over corresponding spectral regions. (3) Similarly, the ratio um/u0 of deformations of inelastic and elastic systems are similar for the two types of motions over corresponding spectral regions. (4) Design equati ns for Ry (and for um/u0) should explicitly recognize spectral regions so that the same equations apply to various classes of ground motions as long as the appropriate values of Ta, Tb and Tc are used. (5) The Veletsos,Newmark design equations with Ta=0.04 s, Tb=0.35 s, and Tc=0.79 s are equally valid for the fault-normal component of near-fault ground motions. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dispersal and egg shortfall in Monarch butterflies: what happens when the matrix is cleaned up?

    1. We use an individual-based model describing the life of a monarch butterfly, which utilises milkweeds both aggregated in patches and scattered across the wider landscape as a substrate for laying eggs. The model simplifies the metapopulation of milkweed habitat patches by representing them as a proportion of the overall landscape, with the rest of the landscape considered matrix, which may contain some low density of milkweed plants. 2. The model simulates the number of eggs laid daily by a butterfly as it searches for hosts. The likelihood of finding hosts is related to the density of plants and the search ability of the butterfly. For an empty matrix, remaining in a habitat patch results in more eggs laid. However individuals that are good searchers have almost equivalent success without remaining in a habitat patch. These individuals are most affected by the presence of hosts in the matrix. 3. Given realistic values of habitat patch availability, our model shows that the presence of plants at a low density in the matrix has a substantial impact on the number of eggs laid; removing these plants can reduce lifetime potential fecundity by ca. 20%. These results have implications for monarch butterflies inhabiting agricultural landscapes, in which genetically modified soybean that is resistant to herbicides has resulted in the decimation of milkweeds over large areas. [source]

    Jungle Law in the Orchard: Comparing Globalization in the New Zealand and Chilean Apple Industries

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2002
    Megan K. L. McKenna
    Abstract: Restructuring in the global apple market is leading to a pronounced tightening in the competitive spaces occupied by Southern Hemisphere producers. For New Zealand and Chile, the world's two most successful apple-exporting countries, significant challenges are presented by projected industry trends, such as declining profitability in the global industry, increased world production, and the continued static demand in key markets. In particular, falling prices in Europe and North America for many key varieties and concomitant lower returns to growers are threatening serious and pervasive impacts. This article explores some of these challenges in the context of the significantly different positions occupied by New Zealand and Chile within the global fresh fruit and vegetable complex. An analysis of the two countries' industries, particularly comparing issues of regulation and innovative varietal development, shows that global food complexes have highly variable spatial expressions, given their process-based nature and underlying dynamics of contestation. Focusing on the increased competition between the New Zealand and Chilean apple industries, the discussion sheds light on wider emerging competitive dynamics within the global fruit industry. The example of the recent Pacific Rose crisis, which involved Chilean "theft" of an exclusive New Zealand apple variety, is used to illustrate the emergence of "jungle law" in the Southern Hemisphere apple industries. [source]

    Chitosan Incorporating Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid and Dopamine

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17 2007
    Xuelian Zou
    Abstract Simultaneous determination of a neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), and ascorbic acid (AA) is achieved at neutral pH on a chitosan incorporating cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was used to investigate the electrochemical response of DA and AA at a glassy carbon electrode modified with chitosan incorporating CTAB. An optimum 6.0,mmol L,1 of CTAB together with 0.5 wt% of chitosan was used to improve the resolution and the determination sensitivity. In 0.1,mol L,1 aqueous phosphate buffer solution of pH,6.8, the chitosan-CTAB modified electrode showed a good electrocatalytic response towards DA and AA. The anodic peak potential of DA shifted positively, while that of AA shifted negatively. Thus, the difference of the anodic peaks of DA and AA reached 0.23,V, which was enough to separate the two anodic peaks very well. The presented method herein could be applied to the direct simultaneous determination of DA and AA without prior treatment. The anodic peak currents (Ipa) of DPV are proportional to DA in the concentration range of 8,,M to 1000,,M, to that of AA 10,,M to 2000,,M, with correlation coefficients of 0.9930 and 0.9945, respectively. The linear range is much wider than previously reported. [source]

    Skew-symmetric distributions generated by the distribution function of the normal distribution

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 4 2007
    Héctor W. Gómez
    Abstract In this paper we study a general family of skew-symmetric distributions which are generated by the cumulative distribution of the normal distribution. For some distributions, moments are computed which allows computing asymmetry and kurtosis coefficients. It is shown that the range for asymmetry and kurtosis parameters is wider than for the family of models introduced by Nadarajah and Kotz (2003). For the skew- t -normal model, we discuss approaches for obtaining maximum likelihood estimators and derive the Fisher information matrix, discussing some of its properties and special cases. We report results of an application to a real data set related to nickel concentration in soil samples. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The spectrum of benign myoclonus of early infancy: Clinical and neurophysiologic features in 102 patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2009
    Roberto H. Caraballo
    Summary Purpose:, To redefine benign myoclonus of early infancy (BMEI) through analysis of clinical and neurophysiologic features in 102 patients with the aim to widen the spectrum of the syndrome, including a number of different clinical expressions of transient nonepileptic paroxysmal movements occurring in normal infants. Methods:, We recruited patients from one center in Argentina and two in Italy, including infants with normal neurologic and psychomotor development presenting with brief paroxysmal abnormal movements. Children with motor phenomena occurring only during sleep were excluded. Patients with abnormal interictal or ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings were also excluded. The follow-up ranged from 2,40 years. Results:, One hundred and two infants (60 male) met the inclusion criteria. Age at onset ranged from 1,12 months, with a median age of 6.2 months. The following nonepileptic paroxysmal motor phenomena were recognized: (1) myoclonus, (2) spasms and brief tonic contractions, (3) shuddering, (4) atonia or negative myoclonus, (5) more than one type of motor phenomenon. In the majority of cases the episodes occurred only while awake and repeated several times a day. In 45 (44.1%) of the 102 cases contractions appeared in clusters. Conclusions:, Based on the analysis of clinical and EMG features in this large series of infants, we postulate that the spectrum of the syndrome is wider than initially suspected, and that the different transient motor manifestations and their correlation with different EMG patterns will allow recognition of this definitely benign condition comprising a variety of episodic motor phenomena in normal babies. [source]

    Changes in Panayiotopoulos syndrome over time

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2009
    Giuseppe Capovilla
    Summary In its first description (1989), Panayiotopoulos syndrome was defined as an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome with an excellent prognosis, characterized by a clinical ictal triad of nocturnal seizures, tonic deviation of the eyes, and vomiting. The electroencephalographic and clinical features of this condition were highly suggestive of occipital lobe involvement. Subsequently, the concept of this benign age-related focal epilepsy has been expanded over the years, including a wider and larger spectrum of seizure manifestations far beyond the occipital manifestations, and for which the eponym of Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS) has been adopted. However, many theoretical and practical points, including diagnostic, genetic, and pathophysiologic issues remain still unresolved for PS. [source]

    Who is Looking for Nutritional Food Labels?: Wer sucht nach Nährwertangaben auf Lebensmitteln?: Mais qui donc s'occupe du contenu nutritionnel sur les étiquettes?

    EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2005
    Andreas C. Drichoutis
    Summary Who is Looking for Nutritional Food Labels? Obesity amongst the population in Europe is increasing at an alarming rate. Consequently, nutritional and lifestyle factors are implicated in the huge increase in several chronic diseases in Europe. The Southern Europeans tend to be amongst the worst, mth Greece being first in adult obesity mainly due to the replacement of the Mediterranean diet with ready-made and fast foods. People want to see change towards an environment that makes it easier to make healthy choices. The EU, in order to assist consumers make healthy food choices, tried to make nutritional information available to consumers through a food labelling law framework, which currently works on a voluntary basis with the perspective to change towards a mandatory system. We conducted a study in Greece in order to assess consumer use of nutritional food labels and determine which consumers use certain types of nutrient content information. We found that almost a third of consumers often use food labels and these are the more educated, who are more nutritionally knowledgeable. Many others do not, and to increase their chances of reading the labels one should improve their knowledge of nutrition havlng in mind that they are not big users of the media but get their information from informd sources. Mais qui donc s'occupe du contenu nutritionnel sur les etiquettes? La prevalence de I'obesitk augmente a un t a u toujours plus preoccupant en Europe. Les facteurs nutritionnels et les styles de vie sont par consequent impliquks dans l'Cnorme accroissement constati: de diverses pathologies chroniques. La situation est specialement mauvaise en Europe du sud, ou la Grece detient le record du taux d'obesite dans la population adulte, en particulier du fait du remplacement du fameux ,regime mediterraneen' par les plats prepares et la restauration rapide. Les gens souhaitent un environnement susceptible de leur faciliter le choix d'une alimentation saine. C'est pour cela que l'Union europkenne a tente de mettre des informations nutritionnelles a la disposition des consommateurs, en instituant un cadre legal pour l'etiquetage alimentaire Il fonctionne actuellement sur la base du volontariat, mais il a pour vocation d'evoluer vers un systeme obligatoire. Il est rendu compte ici d'une enquOte effectuee en Grkce pour determiner quels types de consommateurs utilisent quels genres dindications de contenu nutritionnel portees sur les etiquettes alimentaires, et dans quelle mesure. Environ un tiers des consommateurs utilisent souvent les contenus nutritionnels. Ce sont les plus eduques et les mieux informks. La plupart des autres negligent les etiquettes. Pour accroitre les chances que ces dernieres soient lues, il faudrait donc arneliorer les connaissances nutritionnelles, en gardant a l'esprit que les personnes concernkes utilisent peu les mkdias et tirent leurs informations de sources informelles. Wer sucht nach Nährwertangaben auf Die Fettleibigkeit in der europaischen Bevolkerung nimmt alarmierend schnell zu. Folglich spiegeln sich Ernahrung und Lebensstil in dem hohen Anstieg zahlreicher chronischer Erkrankungen in Europa wider. Fur die Sudeuropaer ergeben sich einige der schlechtesten Werte, wobei in Griechenland die Erwachsenenfettleibigkeit am ausgepriigtesten ist. Dies liegt hauptsachlich daran, dass die mediterrane Erniihrung von Fertiggerichten und Fast-Food abgelost wurde. Die Bevolkerung wiinscht sich eine Veriinderung hin zu einer Umgebung, die sie darin unterstutzt, der Gesundheit zutr;dgliche Entscheidungen zu treffen. Die EU wollte den Verbrauchern gesundheitlich relevante Informationen durch eine Kennzeichnung der Inhaltsstoffe der Lebensmittel verschaffen. Dieses System sieht gegenwartig lediglich eine freiwillige Kennzeichnung vor, ist aber als obligatorisch geplant. Wir fiihrten in Griechenland eine Studie durch, um zu beurteilen, inwiefern Nahrwertangaben auf Lebensmitteln den Verbrauchern nutzen, und um festzustellen, welche Verbraucher auf bestimmte Nahrwertangaben achten. Wir fanden heraus, dass beinahe ein Drittel aller Verbraucher auf die Lebensmittelkennzeich nung achten. Diese Verbraucher verfiigen uber eine hohere Bildung und kennen sich in Erniihrungsfragen relativ gut aus. Ein großer Anted der Verbraucher verfiigt uber keinerlei gesundheitliche Grundkenntnisse; um diesen Verbrauchern das Lesen der Etiketten zu ermoglichen, sollte man ihre Kenntnisse in Sachen Ernahrung verbessern und sich dabei vor Augen fiihren, dass diese Verbraucher die Medien nicht allzu intensiv nutzen, sondern ihre Informationen aus informellen Quellen beziehen. [source]

    The diffusion of regulatory impact analysis , Best practice or lesson-drawing?

    Its main theoretical thrust is to explore the limitations of the conventional analysis of RIA in terms of de-contextualised best practice and provide an alternative framework based on the lesson-drawing literature. After having discussed how demand and supply of best practice emerge in the OECD and the European Union, some analytic (as opposed to normative) lessons are presented. The main lessons revolve around the politics of problem definition, the nesting of RIA into wider reform programmes, the political malleability of RIA, the trade-off between precision and administrative assimilation, the roles of networks and watchdogs, and institutional learning. The conclusions discuss the implications of the findings for future research. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2007
    Stephen Wroe
    Phenotypic similarities between distantly related marsupials and placentals are commonly presented as examples of convergence and support for the role of adaptive evolution in shaping morphological and ecological diversity. Here we compare skull shape in a wide range of carnivoran placentals (Carnivora) and nonherbivorous marsupials using a three-dimensional (3-D) geometric morphometric approach. Morphological and ecological diversity among extant carnivorans is considerably greater than is evident in the marsupial order Dasyuromorphia with which they have most commonly been compared. To examine convergence across a wider, but broadly comparable range of feeding ecologies, a dataset inclusive of nondasyuromorphian marsupials and extinct taxa representing morphotypes no longer present was assembled. We found support for the adaptive paradigm, with correlations between morphology, feeding behavior, and bite force, although skull shape better predicted feeding ecology in the phylogenetically diverse marsupial sample than in carnivorans. However, we also show that remarkably consistent but differing constraints have influenced the evolution of cranial shape in both groups. These differences between carnivorans and marsupials, which correlate with brain size and bite force, are maintained across the full gamut of morphologies and feeding categories, from small insectivores and omnivores to large meat-specialists. [source]

    Nanometer-Scale Mapping of Elastic Modules in Biogenic Composites: The Nacre of Mollusk Shells

    Haika Moshe-Drezner
    Abstract In this study, a newly developed nanoscale modulus mapping is applied in order to visualize the 2D-distribution of mechanical characteristics in the aragonitic nacre layer of Perna canaliculus (green mussel) shells. Modulus maps provide lateral resolution of about 10 nm. They allow the aragonitic mineral (CaCO3) tablets and the interfaces between them to be clearly resolved, which are filled by an organic substance (mainly beta-chitin). The experimental data are compared with finite element simulations that also take into account the tip radius of curvature and the thickness of organic layers, as measured by means of scanning electron microscopy with back-scattered electrons. Based on this comparison, the Young modulus of beta-chitin is extracted. The obtained number, E, = 40 GPa, is higher than previously evaluated. The collected maps reveal that the elastic modules in the nacre layer change gradually across the ceramic/organic interfaces within a spatial range four times wider than the thickness of the organic layers. This is possibly due to inhomogeneous distribution of organic macromolecules within ceramic tablets. According to the data, the concentration of macromolecules gradually increases when approaching the organic/ceramic interfaces. A behavior of this type is unique to biogenic materials and distinguishes them from synthetic composite materials. Finally, three possible mechanisms that attempt to explain why gradual changes of elastic modules significantly enhance the overall resistance to fracture of the nacre layer are briefly discussed. The experimental findings support the idea that individual ceramic tablets, comprising the nacre, are built of the compositionally and functionally graded ceramic material. This sheds additional light on the origin of the superior mechanical properties of biogenic composites. [source]

    The Effect of Information Quality on Optimal Portfolio Choice

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    Frederik Lundtofte
    C13; G11 Abstract Three types of agents acting on different information sets are considered: fully informed agents, insiders, and outsiders. Differences in information quality are shown to affect the properties of their optimal portfolios. For an outsider, the share of wealth invested in the stock is decreasing in the variance of the stock. However, for an insider, the effect of an increasing stock variance on the optimal portfolio weight is ambiguous. In a calibration to U.S. data, the confidence intervals of the insider's demand for the stock converge, whereas the outsider's confidence intervals become wider. [source]

    Spreads, Depths, and Quote Clustering on the NYSE and Nasdaq: Evidence after the 1997 Securities and Exchange Commission Rule Changes

    FINANCIAL REVIEW, Issue 4 2002
    Kee H. Chung
    This paper examines liquidity and quote clustering on the NYSE and Nasdaq using data after the two market reforms,the 1997 order,handling rule and minimum tick size changes. We find that Nasdaq,listed stocks exhibit wider spreads and smaller depths than NYSE,listed stocks and stocks with higher proportions of even,eighth and even,sixteenth quotes have wider quoted, effective, and realized spreads on both the NYSE and Nasdaq. This result differs from the findings by Bessembinder (1999, p. 404) that "trade execution costs on Nasdaq in late 1997 are no longer significantly explained by a tendency for liquidity providers to avoid odd,eighth quotations," and "odd,sixteenth avoidance has little relevance for explaining post,reform Nasdaq trading costs." [source]

    Physical apertures as constraints on egg size and shape in the Common Musk Turtle, Sternotherus odoratus

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    P. J. Clark
    Summary 1,Egg size in turtles often increases with female size, contrary to expectations of optimality. Functional constraints on egg width imposed by the pelvic aperture or the gap between the carapace and plastron (the caudal gap) have been inferred for a few populations but appear inapplicable in others. 2,For Sternotherus odoratus (the Common Musk Turtle), the pelvic aperture was always wider than the width of the female's largest egg by at least 3·7 mm. The caudal gap was narrower than the widest egg for 25·7% of the females. 3,Egg width increased, and elongation (length/width) decreased, as female size and clutch size increased. 4,Females at three ecologically contrasting sites differed appreciably in size but produced eggs of the same mean shape and size, despite the strong within-site changes in both egg size and shape with female size. As the younger females at all sites were of similar age and produced eggs of similar size and shape (again, despite differences in body size), egg size and shape may be age-specific. 5,No optimal egg size prevailed but the scaled residuals of egg size with female mass were less variable than were those for clutch size. [source]

    Natural-gradient tracer experiments in epikarst: a test study in the Acqua dei Faggi experimental site, southern Italy

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2008
    Abstract Two natural-gradient tracer experiments were carried out using borehole fluorometers in order to characterize the internal structure of epikarstic horizons and analyze subsurface flow within these high-conductivity layers. The experiments were carried out in a test site in southern Italy where the epikarst is made up of an upper part with pervasive karstification and a lower part without pervasive karstification. Injection and observation boreholes were 6.9 m apart. An initial experiment demonstrated that wider (conduits) and narrower (fractures and bedding planes) openings coexist in a well-connected network within the lower epikarst. The adjusted aperture of the opening network (105 ,m) suggests that conduits are subordinately developed. The lower epikarstic horizon is hydraulically similar to granular porous media and Darcy's law can be applied to describe groundwater flow. A small value of longitudinal dispersivity (0.13 m) shows that variations in the velocity field in the direction of flow are less significant than those typical of carbonate systems at the same experiment scale. A second experiment demonstrated that longitudinal dispersivity (2.42 m) in the upper epikarst is in agreement with findings in other carbonates at the same experiment scale. However, despite the higher dispersivity and more pervasive karstification, the mean tracer velocity (3.7 m day,1) in the upper epikarst is slightly lower than the velocity in the lower epikarst (13.6 m day,1). [source]

    Communities in Catchments: Implications for Natural Resource Management

    Abstract Economic and social considerations in natural resource management include the need for community participation and a greater appreciation of social and economic processes in understanding environmental problems. It is anticipated that new frameworks will guide these inclusions and redirect planning and management activities to achieve environmental sustainability. This paper examines issues of participation and the nature of ,community' through an analysis of relevant natural resource management policy documents and a case study of a public drinking water supply catchment in Western Australia. The findings indicate that if NRM strategies are to be successful, then a much wider and more inclusive view of community is needed, one that fully captures the different stakeholder groups beyond farmers, such as town residents, indigenous people, and those involved in other land uses. We need strategies that can accommodate differences within and between communities. [source]

    Extensional development of the Fundy rift basin, southeastern Canada

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
    Martha O. Withjack
    Abstract The Fundy rift basin of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada, is part of the Eastern North American rift system that formed during the breakup of Pangaea. Integrated seismic-reflection, field, digital-elevation and aeromagnetic data indicate that the Fundy rift basin underwent two phases of deformation: syn-rift extension followed by post-rift basin inversion. Inversion significantly modified the geometries of the basin and its rift-related structures. In this paper, we remove the effects of inversion to examine the basin's extensional development. The basin consists of three structural subbasins: the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins are bounded by low-angle, NE-striking faults; the Minas subbasin is bounded by E- to ENE-striking faults that are steeply dipping at the surface and gently dipping at depth. Together, these linked faults form the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin. Most major faults within the border,fault system originated as Palaeozoic contractional structures. All syn-rift units imaged on seismic profiles thicken towards the border,fault system, reflecting extensional movement from Middle Triassic (and possibly Permian) through Early Jurassic time. Intra-rift unconformities, observed on seismic profiles and in the field, indicate that uplift and erosion occurred, at least locally, during rifting. Based on seismic data alone, the displacement direction of the hanging wall of the border,fault system of the Fundy rift basin ranged from SW to SE during rifting. Field data (i.e. NE-striking igneous dykes, sediment-filled fissures and normal faults) indicate NW,SE extension during Early Jurassic time, supporting a SE-displacement direction. With a SE-displacement direction, the NE-striking border,fault zones of the Fundy and Chignecto subbasins had predominantly normal dip slip during rifting, whereas the E-striking border,fault zone of the Minas subbasin had oblique slip with left-lateral and normal components. Sequential restorations of seismic-reflection profiles (coupled with projections from onshore geology) show that the Fundy rift basin underwent 10,20,km of extension, most of which was accommodated by the border,fault system, and was considerably wider and deeper prior to basin inversion. Post-rift deformation tilted the eastern side of the basin to the northwest/north, producing significant uplift and erosion. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]