WHO Definitions (who + definition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prediction of cardiovascular and total mortality in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients by the WHO definition for the metabolic syndrome

G. T.-C.
Aim:, The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MES) in type 2 diabetic patients and the predictive values of the World Health Organization (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) definitions and the individual components of the MES on total and cardiovascular mortality. Methods:, A prospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 5202 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients recruited between July 1994 and April 2001. Results:, The prevalence of the MES was 49.2,58.1% depending on the use of various criteria. There were 189 deaths (men: 100 and women: 89) in these 5205 patients during a median (interquartile range) follow-up period of 2.1 (0.3,3.6 years). Of these, 164 (87%) were classified as cardiovascular deaths. Using the NCEP criterion, patients with MES had a death rate similar to those without (3.51 vs. 3.85%). By contrast, based on the WHO criteria, patients with MES had a higher mortality rate than those without (4.3 vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002). Compared to patients with neither NCEP- nor WHO-defined MES, only the group with MES defined by the WHO, but not NCEP, criterion had significantly higher mortality rate (2.6 vs. 6.8%, p < 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis, only age, duration of diabetes and smoking were identified as independent factors for cardiovascular or total death. Among the various components of MES, hypertension, low BMI and albuminuria were the key predictors for these adverse events. Conclusions:, In Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, the WHO criterion has a better discriminative power over the NCEP criterion for predicting death. Among the various components of the MES defined either by WHO or NCEP, hypertension, albuminuria and low BMI were the main predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. [source]

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the Inuit in Greenland.

A comparison between two proposed definitions
Abstract Aims To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greenland Inuit according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition and the definition suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Methods From 1999 to 2001, 917 adult Inuit participated in a health survey in Greenland. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure were measured. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipids and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were measured. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria 1999 and to the working definition suggested by the NCEP 2001. Results Using the WHO and the NCEP criteria, 20.7% and 17.9% of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a moderate agreement between the two definitions, , = 0.56 (95% CI 0.51,0.61). Of those with the WHO metabolic syndrome, 37.9% did not have the NCEP syndrome, and 28.5% of those with the NCEP syndrome were not classified with the metabolic syndrome under the WHO criteria. Compared with the WHO syndrome, men with the NCEP syndrome had higher mean values of waist circumference, BMI and triglycerides, and lower mean values of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; among women, triglycerides were higher with the NCEP syndrome. Conclusion The metabolic syndrome is common among Inuit using either the WHO definition or the proposed NCEP definition. The classification disagreement is considerable and a universally accepted definition is needed. [source]

Patterns of breastfeeding in a UK longitudinal cohort study

David Pontin
Abstract Although exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of infant life is recommended in the UK, there is little information on the extent of exclusive breastfeeding. This study has taken the 1996 and 2003 World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of breastfeeding and investigated breastfeeding rates in the first 6 months of life in infants born to mothers enrolled in a longitudinal, representative, population-based cohort study , the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Information about breastfeeding and introduction of solids was available for 11 490 infants at 6 months of age (81% of live births). Exclusive breastfeeding declined steadily from 54.8% in the first month to 31% in the third, and fell to 9.6% in the fourth month mainly due to the introduction of solids to the infants. In the first 2 months, complementary feeding (breastmilk and solid/semi-solid foods with any liquid including non-human milk) was used in combination, and declined from 22% in the first month to 16.8% in the second due to a switch to exclusive commercial infant formula feeding. Replacement feeding (exclusive commercial infant formula or combined with any liquid or solid/semi-solid food but excluding breastmilk) increased steadily from 21.9% in the first month to 67.1% by the seventh. This obscured the change from exclusive commercial infant formula feeding only to commercial infant formula feeding plus solids/semi-solids, a change which started in the third month and was complete by the fifth. Using categories in the 1996 and 2003 WHO definitions, such as complementary feeding and replacement feeding, presented difficulties for an analysis of the extent of breastfeeding in this population. [source]

Breast feeding very-low-birthweight infants at discharge: a multicentre study using WHO definitions

Riccardo Davanzo
Summary Human milk has several advantages in the nutrition of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. However, there are limited data on breast feeding (BF) in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of this study was to identify a practical definition of BF rate in VLBW infants and to test its applicability and reproducibility in Italian NICUs. The study population included all VLBW infants discharged from 12 level 3 NICUs, over a 12-month period. Type of feeding was recorded according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) definition, with a 72-h recall period. We enrolled 594 VLBW infants. Mean birthweight was 1105 g (SD: 267), mean gestational age was 29.2 weeks (SD: 2.7) and mean length of stay in NICUs was 62.5 days (SD: 56.5). At discharge, 30.5% of VLBW infants were exclusively breast fed, 0.2% were predominantly breast fed, 23.8% were on complementary feeding and 45.5% were exclusively formula fed. A wide variability in BF rates was seen between centres. Among exclusively breast-fed VLBW infants, only 10% sucked directly and exclusively at the breast. WHO definitions can be used to assess type of feeding at discharge from NICUs. We speculate that common feeding definitions may allow both comparisons among different NICUs and ratings of quality improvement programmes. [source]

Preschool outcome in children born very prematurely and cared for according to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP)

B Westrup
Aim: Care based on the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) has been reported to exert a positive impact on the development of prematurely born infants. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of such care on the development at preschool age of children born with a gestational age of less than 32 wk. Methods: All surviving infants in a randomised controlled trial with infants born at a postmenstrual age less than 32 wk (11 in the NIDCAP group and 15 in the control group) were examined at 66.3 (6.0) mo corrected for prematurity [mean (SD)]. In the assessment we employed the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) for cognition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) for motor function, subtests of the NEPSY test battery for attention and distractibility, and the WHO definitions of impairment, disability and handicap. Exact binary logistic regression was employed. Results: There were no significant differences between the intervention group in Full-Scale IQ 93.4 (14.2) [mean (SD)] versus the control group 89.6 (27.2), Verbal IQ 93.6 (16.4) versus 93.7 (26.8) or Performance IQ 94.3 (14.7) versus 86.3 (24.8). In the NIDCAP group 8/13 (62%) survived without disability and for the children with conventional care this ratio was 7/19 (37%). The corresponding ratios for surviving without mental retardation were 10/13 (77%) and 11/19 (58%), and for surviving without attention deficits 10/13 (77%) and 10/19 (53%). Overall, the differences were not statistically significant, although the odds ratio for surviving with normal behaviour was statistical significant after correcting for group imbalances in gestational age, gender, growth retardation and educational level of the parents. Conclusion: Our trial suggests a positive impact by NIDCAP on behaviour at preschool age in a sample of infants born very prematurely. However, due to problems of recruitment less than half of the anticipated subjects were included in the study, which implies a low power and calls for caution in interpreting our findings. Larger trials in different cultural contexts are warranted. [source]

Monitoring breastfeeding rates in Italy

G Banderali
Aim: to determine the rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding in Italy in 1995 and 1999, and to examine the adherence to the ten steps to successful breastfeeding recommended by WHO. Methods: Two cohorts of mothers who delivered healthy infants in November 1995 (n= 2400) or November 1999 (n= 3500) were interviewed by telephone within 4 wk of delivery when their infants were 3 months of age. Type of breastfeeding was classified according to the WHO definitions. Adherence to the WHO ten steps was evaluated. Results: Initiation and duration of breastfeeding increased during the 1995,1999 period (p < 0.0001). The rate of breastfeeding at discharge and when the infants where 3 months of age was 83% and 42% in 1995, and 89% and 66% in 1999. The rate of exclusive/predominant breastfeeding at discharge was higher in 1999 than 1995 (78% vs 72%). Conclusion: An increase in initiation and duration of breastfeeding through the first 3 months of age occurred in Italy during the 1995,1999 period, but both breastfeeding duration and observance of the WHO's ten steps are not completely satisfactory yet. [source]