Wheat Breeding (wheat + breeding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The genetic and economic impact of the CIMMYT wheat breeding program on local producers in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora Mexico

Lawton L. Nalley
CIMMYT; Public wheat breeding; Economic impact of technological change Abstract This article quantifies the productivity gain from CIMMYT-released semidwarf bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars over time, using test plot data from Mexico's Yaqui Valley. Previous studies have shown a deceleration in irrigated wheat yield growth since the 1980s, which could be due to slowing increase in genetic potential. Our results suggest that CIMMYT cultivars contributed a 0.46% annual increase (about 38 kg/ha annually) to wheat yields in the Yaqui Valley, which raised local wheat producers' revenue by an average of $4 million annually for the period 1990 to 2002, and by approximately $9 million in 2002. [source]

Allosyndetic recombinants of the Aegilops peregrina- derived Lr59 translocation in common wheat

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2010
G. F. Marais
With 2 figures and 2 tables Abstract The wild relatives constitute a valuable source of rust resistance genes that can be utilized in wheat breeding. However, translocation of desirable genes through chromosome engineering inevitably results in co-transfer of deleterious wild species chromatin. An attempt was made to replace such redundant alien chromatin on the Lr59 translocation through homoeologous chromosome pairing and crossing over in the absence of Ph1. Strong segregation distortion resulted in the recovery of an unexpectedly high frequency of resistant recombinants. Eight of these retained comparatively short, distal segments of foreign chromatin, including Lr59. The foreign chromatin that remained in the latter plants was characterized with the use of twelve anonymous AFLP loci, the data of which suggested reduced homoeology with 1AL that could have been the result of a sub-terminal, paracentric inversion. Crossing over within an inversion loop may have resulted in a low frequency of genetically unbalanced gametes. It will therefore be necessary to develop near-isogenic lines of the eight recombinants and to do field evaluations in order to identify those that retained the shortest, balanced translocations. [source]

Effects of Hordeum chilense cytoplasm on agronomic traits in common wheat

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2007
S. G. Atienza
Abstract The genome of bread wheat, AABBDD, was substituted into the cytoplasm of Hordeum chilense by repeated backcrossing to produce alloplasmic lines. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of H. chilense cytoplasm on agronomic traits in common wheat. Three cytolines were developed. The alloplasmic nature of these lines was confirmed using chloroplast simple-sequence repeat markers. Each cytoline was compared with its respective euplasmic control for agronomic performance during 2 years of field trials. The interaction between H. chilense cytoplasm and common wheat genome greatly affected most of the traits evaluated. Among them, alloplasmic lines showed delayed anthesis date, lower yield and lower plant height. These effects are similar to those caused by Aegilops cytoplasm. The main conclusion of this work is that H. chilense cytoplasm is of limited value for wheat breeding. [source]

Contributions of disease resistance and escape to the control of septoria tritici blotch of wheat

L. S. Arraiano
The contributions of disease escape and disease resistance to the responses of wheat to septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB) were analysed in a set of 226 lines, including modern cultivars, breeding lines and their progenitors dating back to the origin of scientific wheat breeding. Field trials were located in the important wheat-growing region of eastern England and were subject to natural infection by Mycosphaerella graminicola. STB scores were related to disease-escape traits, notably height, leaf spacing, leaf morphology and heading date, and to the presence of known Stb resistance genes and isolate-specific resistances. The Stb6 resistance gene was associated with a reduction of 19% in the level of STB in the complete set of 226 lines and with a 33% reduction in a subset of 139 lines of semidwarf stature. Greater plant height was strongly associated with reduced STB in the full set of lines, but only weakly in the semidwarf lines. Shorter leaf length was also associated with reduced STB, but, in contrast to earlier reports, lines with more prostrate leaves had more STB on average, probably because they tended to have longer leaves. Several lines, notably cvs Pastiche and Exsept, had low mean levels of STB which could not be explained by either escape traits or specific resistance genes, implying that they have unknown genes for partial resistance to STB. [source]