Western India (western + india)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Politics and Poetics of Water: Naturalising Scarcity in Western India by Lyla Mehta

G. Ananda Vadivelu
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Autoantibodies against GAD65 and IA-2 in recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic children from Western India

A. R. Marita
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Peasant Pasts: History and Memory in Western India by Vinayak Chaturvedi


Sedimentation record in the Konkan,Kerala Basin: implications for the evolution of the Western Ghats and the Western Indian passive margin

BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2008
D. Campanile
ABSTRACT The Konkan and Kerala Basins constitute a major depocentre for sediment from the onshore hinterland of Western India and as such provide a valuable record of the timing and magnitude of Cenozoic denudation along the continental margin. This paper presents an analysis of sedimentation in the Konkan,Kerala Basin, coupled with a mass balance study, and numerical modelling of flexural responses to onshore denudational unloading and offshore sediment loading in order to test competing conceptual models for the development of high-elevation passive margins. The Konkan,Kerala Basin contains an estimated 109 000 km3 of Cenozoic clastic sediment, a volume difficult to reconcile with the denudation of a downwarped rift flank onshore, and more consistent with denudation of an elevated rift flank. We infer from modelling of the isostatic response of the lithosphere to sediment loading offshore and denudation onshore infer that flexure is an important component in the development of the Western Indian Margin. There is evidence for two major pulses in sedimentation: an early phase in the Palaeocene, and a second beginning in the Pliocene. The Palaeocene increase in sedimentation can be interpreted in terms of a denudational response to the rifting between India and the Seychelles, whereas the mechanism responsible for the Pliocene pulse is more enigmatic. [source]

Cocirculation of and coinfections with hepatitis A virus subgenotypes IIIA and IB in patients from Pune, western India

Shobha Chitambar
Aim:, During the 1990s, a changing pattern of epidemiology of hepatitis A was reported in different populations of India. The present study was undertaken to investigate the molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains over a period of 10 years. Methods:, Stool/serum samples were collected from hepatitis A patients clinically presenting acute viral hepatitis and hepatic encephalopathy. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect HAV-RNA. HAV genomes were examined by sequencing PCR products of VP1/2A junction (168 bp) and RNA polymerase (116 bp) regions. Results:, Subgenotype IIIA and IB were detected in 74.2% and 9.7% of specimens, respectively, while 16.1% of patients had mixed infections. Sewage samples also showed presence of both IIIA (9/10) and IB (1/10) subgenotypes. RNA polymerase region showed two clusters constituting 51.6% and 19.4% strains closer to Nor21 and HM175 strains, respectively, in clinical specimens. Three isolates appeared as discordant subgenotypes in VP1/2A and RNA polymerase regions. Conclusion:, The data revealed cocirculation of and coinfection with subgenotypes IIIA and IB, with predominance of IIIA and genetic heterogeneity of HAV strains in western India. [source]

Seroprevalence of HIV infection in hospitalized paediatric patients at a tertiary care centre in western India

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2007
I Shah
The prevalence of HIV infection in children in India is not known. In this study, a total of 270 children admitted to paediatric wards in Mumbai were screened for HIV infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eight patients (2.96%) had a positive HIV ELISA. Of these two patients (25%) were less than 15 months of old and hence HIV infection in them could not be confirmed. The prevalence of HIV was 2.3%. Three out of 11 patients with tuberculosis (27.3%) and four out of 15 patients with nutritional anaemia (26.7%) had HIV infection (P<0.0001 in each case). Vertical transmission was the cause in all children, suggesting that implementation of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission of HIV (PPTCT) is required to reduce the rate of paediatric HIV infection. [source]

Lagged teleconnections between snow depth in northern Eurasia, rainfall in Southeast Asia and sea-surface temperatures over the tropical Pacific Ocean

Hengchun Ye
Abstract This study shows that above-(below-)normal winter snow depth over European Russia and corresponding below-(above-)normal snow depth over central Siberia is associated with reduced (increased) summer monsoon rainfall over southern and western India and eastern Pakistan, and above-(below-)normal sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) over the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean during the following winters. The connection is slightly stronger when snow depth over European Russia is above normal than below normal. These results are derived from an examination of 60 years (1936,1995) of winter snow depth data and SSTs, and 45 years (1951,1995) of summer precipitation records. The results of this study suggest that winter snow depth over the western rather than the eastern portion of Eurasia is critical to Southeast Asian summer monsoon rainfall and eastern tropical Pacific SSTs during the following seasons. Copyright © 2001 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Case report: Hepatitis A preceding Guillain,Barré Syndrome,

Shobha D. Chitambar
Abstract A case of acute hepatitis A with Guillain,Barré Syndrome subtype AMAN (acute motor axonal neuropathy) in a 17-year-old male is reported. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM, IgG, and IgA. The onset of the syndrome was evident in week 3 of illness. The remarkably high titers of serum anti-HAV IgG appeared unique to a hepatitis A patient with the syndrome. Phylogenetic analysis of the HAV genome detected in the serum and feces revealed genotype IIIA, circulating commonly in Pune, western India. J. Med. Virol. 78:1011,1014, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hepatitis B virus genotypes and serotypes in western India: Lack of clinical significance

Swati S. Gandhe
Abstract To determine hepatitis B virus genotype and subtype distribution among HBV infected individuals with different clinical manifestations in western India, serum samples from 19 asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers, 30 chronic hepatitis B patients, 8 acute hepatitis B patients, 5 fulminant hepatitis B patients, and with circulating HBV DNA were genotyped and subtyped on the basis of the nucleotide sequence analysis of S region of the HBV genome. Genotype D was the predominant genotype circulating in western India (57/62; 91.93%). All 19 asymptomatic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers, 8 acute hepatitis B patients, 5 fulminant hepatic failure patients and 25/30 chronic hepatitis B patients were circulating genotype D and ayw3/ayw2 subtypes. HBV genotype A was prevalent in 8% (5/62) of the total number of patients and all belonged to chronic hepatitis B category. Subtyping analysis showed that all genotype A isolates were of subtype adw2. As most of the patients from different clinical categories were infected with HBV genotype D, it is concluded that this genotype did not influence the outcome of HBV infection. J. Med. Virol. 69:324,330, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Social structure of a polygynous tent-making bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera)

Jay F. Storz
Abstract The social structure of an Old World tent-making bat Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera), was investigated in western India. A combination of census and mark,recapture data over 2 years (1996,98) was used to infer the form of the mating system, compositional stability of social groups and mode of new social group formation. The breeding population of C. sphinx was subdivided into diurnal roosting colonies, each of which contained one to five discrete roosting groups and often one or more solitary bats in adjacent roosts. Bats most frequently roosted in stem tents constructed in the flower/fruit clusters of the kitul palm Caryota urens. Temporal variation in social structure was assessed using visual census data for a subset of the study population over 3 years (1995,98) spanning six consecutive reproductive periods. The sex and age composition of diurnal roosting groups indicated a polygynous harem-forming mode of social organization, as groups invariably contained a single adult male, 1,37 reproductive females and their dependent young (n= 33 harems). Harem size averaged 6.1 adults in the wet season (n= 19, sd= 3.5) and 13.6 adults in the dry season (n= 14, sd= 8.5). The same harem social configuration was maintained year-round, despite a high degree of synchrony and seasonality in the timing of reproduction. Juveniles of both sexes dispersed after weaning and sexually immature bats were never present in harems at the time of parturition. Adult females often remained associated as roostmates from one parturition period to the next, and group cohesion was unaffected by turnover of harem males. Adult females frequently transferred among roosts within the same colony, and harems underwent periodic fissions and fusions. The founding of new harems most often resulted from the fissioning of previously cohesive harems within the same colony. However, some harems contained disproportionate numbers of yearling females, indicating that new groups are also founded by nulliparous females of the same age cohort. A significant degree of heterogeneity in age composition among harems was revealed in the 1998 dry season, but was unrelated to age-stratification of tent roosts. Although formation of new harems may be non-random with respect to age composition of the founders, founding events are not restricted to newly created tents and often involve recolonization of previously occupied roosts. [source]

Importance of sustainable management of percolation lakes in semiarid basaltic terrain in western India

Shrikant D. Limaye
Abstract Sustainable management of percolation lakes or percolation tanks is closely related to the survival of approximately 15 million farmers and an equal number of cattle living in the semiarid basaltic plateau of western India. Here, the monsoonal rains are restricted to a few rainy days between June and September. It is therefore necessary to harvest the monsoon runoff into small percolation lakes in mini-catchments by constructing earthen bunds on small streams and allowing the stored water in the lakes to percolate and recharge the groundwater body. The residence time of water in the mini-catchments is thus increased and it is possible for the farmers to dig wells and irrigate the crops in their small farm plots. The efficiency of the percolation lakes is hampered by silt that accumulates in the lake bed or tank bed, year after year. It is therefore necessary for the beneficiary farmers to desilt the lakebed when the lake dries in the summer. Soil conservation practices should be followed in the catchment area in order to reduce the amount of silt entering the lake. Non-governmental organizations play an important role in this field. [source]

Front and Back Covers, Volume 25, Number 4.

August 200
Front and Back cover caption, volume 25 issue 4 ETHNOGRHAPHIC DOCUMENTARIES AND PUBLIC ANTHROPOLOGY Ethnographic documentaries are a shop window for anthropology. These cover photos represent three well received films shown at the most recent RAI International Festival of Ethnographic Film held at Leeds Metropolitan University in July. The festival is a biennial event at which visual anthropologists, filmmakers and documentarists mingle. The front cover image is from the film Black mountain. A once unremarkable site of multi-faith pilgrimage to a Sufi saint has been transformed and its local history rewritten. The film documents the journey of Charlotte Whitby-Coles, a PhD student who, whilst researching religious pilgrimages, stumbled on the politicization of a pilgrimage site in western India. Her research suggests that Kalo Dungar (Black Mountain), situated in the Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, provides a micro-example of current political issues in India today that threaten the ideal of ,unity in diversity' for the country. The top image on the back cover is taken from Between the lines, a film by Thomas Wartman on India's ,third gender' that follows photographer Anita Khemka as she explores the hidden hijra subculture of Bombay. Khemka is fascinated by the spiritual powers of the outcast hijras , biological men who dress as women but reject identification with either gender. Accompanying three hijras, Khemka discusses intimate details , their matriarchal surrogate families, castration ceremonies, sexuality, begging and prostitution. Khemka's ability to initiate personal dialogue about persistent cultural stereotypes of gender provides insight into a social group currently at the forefront of the fight for gender equality in India. The lower image is from the film Enet Yapai by Daniela Vavrova. Enet Yapai was six years old when Vavrova first met her in 2005 in Ambonwari village, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea. Between November 2007 and April 2008 she followed Enet and her mother Alexia on their way to process sago, catch fish or collect grass for baskets and mats. This experimental film captures the subtleties of the interaction between Enet Yapai, the camera and the filmmaker. For details of the prizes awarded at the festival, see p. 29 of this issue or http://www.raifilmfest.org.uk. [source]

Evaluation of cost of treatment of drug-related events in a tertiary care public sector hospital in Northern India: a prospective study

Smita Pattanaik
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Drug related events include ADRs, events due to patient or physician noncompliance, drug overdosage and drug interactions. , Economic burden of management of drug related events are substantial and include both direct and indirect costs. , Some data regarding cost of treatment of ADR exist from south and western India. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , An approximate cost of management of drug related events presenting to the emergency medical department in a tertiary care hospital over a period of 4 months. , Compares the cost incurred in a public sector hospital to the projected cost of management of same events in a private sector hospital. , Gives a rough estimate of economic burden on the health care system due to adverse drug events. AIMS Drug related events (DREs) contribute significantly to hospital admissions. These are largely preventable events and require optimum use of the therapeutic agents. The study was conducted to analyze the cost of treatment of DREs. PATIENTS & METHODS All visits to medical emergency department of a tertiary care public sector hospital in northern India were recorded in a prospective, non-interventional manner over a period of 4 months. DREs were recognized and were followed up till their stay in the hospital. Data about the cost generating components of direct and indirect costs of treatment of DREs were collected. The projected cost of treatment of the same DREs in a private sector hospital was estimated and compared. RESULTS Out of 1833 admissions, 92(5.01%) were due to DREs. Maximum cases were due to non compliance (66%) followed by ADR (28%) and drug overdose(6%). The common DREs leading to ED visits were cerebrovascular accident(19.44%), followed by accelerated hypertension(18.36%) and diabetic ketoacidosis(14.04%). Total cost of management of all the 92 DREs in our hospital was calculated to be INR17,37,339(,30,215). The direct cost was INR1,72,961(,3008) and the approximate indirect cost was INR15,64, 378(,27, 206). The projected cost of management of all the 92 DREs was estimated to be INR63,63,872(,1,01, 676) in a private sector hospital. CONCLUSION The study shows that ADEs leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations constitute a significant economic burden. Training of the patients and the prescribers may lessen the economic burden on the patient as well as the health care system. [source]

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy , an experience from north western India

A. Panagariya
Objectives, The clinical data on cases of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) were analysed. Response to initial small dosages (lower than usual) of sodium valproate and further lower maintenance dosages in patients who were seizure free for 2 years on drug were assessed. Material and methods, Seventy-six patients who were diagnosed to have Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy on definite criteria were studied. All patients were put on sodium valproate in dosages (lower than usual) for initial control and further lower maintenance dosage and response evaluated. Results, The clinical profile was found to be similar as in other parts of India. There was a female preponderance and average delay of 4.9 years in final diagnosis. Forty-eight (63.1%) patients showed good control on 15 mg/kg/day dosages of sodium valproate. After a seizure free interval of 2 years, 58% of patients could be maintained on small dosages ranging from 3,5 mg/kg/day to 6,8 mg/kg/day. Conclusion, The majority of JME patients responded well not only to sodium valproate in dosages lower than usually prescribed but required very small dosages for maintenance after a seizure free period of 2 years. [source]