Weeks Pregnant (week + pregnant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Intracranial Vasculitis and Multiple Abscesses in a Pregnant Woman

Mutlu Cihangiroglu
ABSTRACT Cerebral vasculitis is an unusual disorder with many causes. Infectious causes of cerebral vasculitis are predominantly bacterial or viral in nature. Purulent bacterial vasculitis is most often a complication of severe bacterial meningitis. The patient is a 25-year-old African American female, 25 weeks pregnant, who presented to the neurology service after a consult and referral from an outside hospital. She had a 1-month history of right sixth nerve palsy. Initial workup included a negative lumber puncture and a noninfused magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three days later, the patient developed right-sided migraine headaches and right third nerve palsy. The angiogram revealed diffuse irregularity and narrowing of the petrous, cavernous, and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid and right middle cerebral arteries. Shortly thereafter, an MRI examination revealed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and abscess and a right parietal subdural empyema. Infectious vasculitis secondary to purulent meningitis has a rapidly progressive course and presents with cranial nerve palsy with involvement of the cavernous sinus. Although the association of this disease with pregnancy has not been established, it should be recognized that the early imaging studies may be negative or discordant and follow-up imaging might be necessary. [source]

Evaluation of fetuses in a study of intravenous immunoglobulin as preventive therapy for congenital heart block: Results of a multicenter, prospective, open-label clinical trial,

Deborah M. Friedman
Objective The recurrence rate of anti-SSA/Ro,associated congenital heart block (CHB) is 17%. Sustained reversal of third-degree block has never been achieved. Based on potential reduction of maternal autoantibody titers as well as fetal inflammatory responses, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was evaluated as preventive therapy for CHB. Methods A multicenter, prospective, open-label study based on Simon's 2-stage optimal design was initiated. Enrollment criteria included the presence of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies in the mother, birth of a previous child with CHB/neonatal lupus rash, current treatment with ,20 mg/day of prednisone, and <12 weeks pregnant. IVIG (400 mg/kg) was given every 3 weeks from week 12 to week 24 of gestation. The primary outcome was the development of second-degree or third-degree CHB. Results Twenty mothers completed the IVIG protocol before the predetermined stopping rule of 3 cases of advanced CHB in the study was reached. CHB was detected at 19, 20, and 25 weeks; none of the cases occurred following the finding of an abnormal PR interval on fetal Doppler monitoring. One of these mothers had 2 previous children with CHB. One child without CHB developed a transient rash consistent with neonatal lupus. Sixteen children had no manifestations of neonatal lupus at birth. No significant changes in maternal titers of antibody to SSA/Ro, SSB/La, or Ro 52 kd were detected over the course of therapy or at delivery. There were no safety issues. Conclusion This study establishes the safety of IVIG and the feasibility of recruiting pregnant women who have previously had a child with CHB. However, IVIG at low doses consistent with replacement does not prevent the recurrence of CHB or reduce maternal antibody titers. [source]

Failure of intravenous immunoglobulin to prevent congenital heart block: Findings of a multicenter, prospective, observational study

C. N. Pisoni
Objective Congenital heart block (CHB) is presumed to be caused by transplacental passage of maternal immunoglobulin against Ro and La ribonucleoproteins. The recurrence rate in subsequent pregnancies following the birth of a child with CHB is ,19%. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy could prevent the development of CHB in the fetuses of high-risk pregnant women. Methods A total of 24 pregnancies in 22 women who had a previous pregnancy in which CHB developed, were over the age of 18 years, were <12 weeks pregnant, and had anti-Ro, anti-La, or both antibodies were monitored in this multicenter, prospective, observational study. Fifteen patients received infusions of IVIG. The 9 pregnancies in the remaining 7 patients served as controls. IVIG was administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg at weeks 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 of pregnancy. Echocardiograms were performed at least every 3 weeks from week 15 to week 30 of gestation. Electrocardiograms were obtained at birth. The outcome measure was the development of third-degree CHB detected by fetal echocardiogram. Results CHB developed in 3 babies among the 15 pregnancies in the treatment group (20%) and in 1 baby among the 9 pregnancies in the control group (11%). CHB was detected at weeks 18, 23, and 26, respectively, in the 3 babies in the treated group and at week 19 in the baby in the control group. Three of the affected pregnancies ended in termination; 2 for reasons related to the fetal disease and 1 for reasons related to both maternal (severe pulmonary hypertension) and fetal disease (at 21 weeks of gestation). Conclusion IVIG at the dose and frequency used in this study was not effective as prophylactic therapy for CHB in high-risk mothers. [source]

Castor oil for induction of labour: Not harmful, not helpful

Machteld Elisabeth BOEL
Background:, Castor oil is one of the most popular drugs for induction of labour in a non-medical setting; however, published data on safety and effectiveness of this compound to induce labour remain sparse. Aim:, To assess the safety and effectiveness of castor oil for induction of labour in pregnancies with an ultrasound estimated gestational at birth of more than 40 weeks. Methods:, Data were extracted from hospital-based records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics on the Thai,Burmese border and who were more than 40 weeks pregnant. The effectiveness of castor oil to induce labour was expressed as time to birth and analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Measures associated with safety were fetal distress, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, tachysystole of the uterus, uterine rupture, abnormal maternal blood pressure during labour, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation, stillbirth, post-partum haemorrhage, severe diarrhoea and maternal death. Proportions were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results:, Of 612 women with a gestation of more than 40 weeks, 205 received castor oil for induction and 407 did not. The time to birth was not significantly different between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 1.20; n = 509)). Castor oil use was not associated with any harmful effects on the mother or fetus. Conclusions:, Castor oil for induction of labour had no effect on time to birth nor were there any harmful effects observed in this large series. Our findings leave no justification for recommending castor oil for this purpose. [source]