Welfare

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting

Kinds of Welfare

  • aggregate welfare
  • animal welfare
  • child welfare
  • children welfare
  • consumer welfare
  • domestic welfare
  • economic welfare
  • household welfare
  • human welfare
  • individual welfare
  • own welfare
  • social welfare
  • state welfare
  • total welfare

  • Terms modified by Welfare

  • welfare agencies
  • welfare analysis
  • welfare assessment
  • welfare benefit
  • welfare capitalism
  • welfare caseload
  • welfare change
  • welfare concern
  • welfare cost
  • welfare dependency
  • welfare discourse
  • welfare economics
  • welfare effect
  • welfare effects
  • welfare estimate
  • welfare expenditure
  • welfare function
  • welfare gain
  • welfare impact
  • welfare implication
  • welfare improving
  • welfare increase
  • welfare issues
  • welfare loss
  • welfare measure
  • welfare participation
  • welfare policy
  • welfare problem
  • welfare program
  • welfare programme
  • welfare provision
  • welfare recipient
  • welfare reform
  • welfare regime
  • welfare regime type
  • welfare services
  • welfare society
  • welfare state
  • welfare state institution
  • welfare states
  • welfare system
  • welfare weight
  • welfare worker

  • Selected Abstracts


    TRIGGER-POINT MECHANISM AND CONDITIONAL COMMITMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENTRY, COLLUSION, AND WELFARE

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 2 2007
    LARRY D. QIU
    When fixed, sunk investment costs are high, firms may not have sufficient incentive to enter the market unless future entry is constrained. In this case, the government faces a dilemma between a full commitment and noncommitment of restricted future entry. A way out is to consider a commitment conditional on the realization of the uncertain parameters, such as the trigger-point mechanism (TPM) that sets conditions on current production level, excess capacity, and demand growth under which future entry will be allowed. This article shows that the TPM facilitates the incumbents' collusion but may improve social welfare under certain circumstances. (JEL L13, L43, L50, H10, H54) [source]


    Effect of Cog Threads under Rat Skin

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12 2005
    Hyo Jook Jang MD
    Background. The aging face loses the tensile strength of structural integrity. Cog threads have been used recently to tighten lax skin and soft tissue. Objective. A comparative study of the effects of cog, monofilament, and multifilament threads under rat skin. Methods. Each cog, monofilament, and multifilament thread was inserted under the facial skin of a cadaver and the panniculus carnosus of rat dorsal skin. The maximum holding strength (MHS) of the thread and the tearing strength of the skin around the thread were measured with a tensiometer. The thickness of the capsule around the thread and the myofibroblasts was observed histologically. Results. In the cadaver, the MHS of the cog thread was 190.7 ± 65.6 g. It was greater than that of the monofilament (22.4 ± 7.7 g) or multifilament (40.4 ± 19.7 g) thread. In the rat, the MHS of the cog thread was 95.1 ± 18.8 g. It was greater than that of the monofilament (4.3 ± 1.3 g) or multifilament (10.9 ± 2.1 g) thread in the second week. The thickness of the capsule around the cog thread was 93.0 ± 3.2 ,m. It was thicker than the monofilament thread's capsule, 39.2 ± 12.1 ,m, in the fourth week. The number of myofibroblasts presented significantly more in the cog (96.0 ± 72.4) than in the monofilament thread (4.3 ± 4.4). The rumpled in-between skin suspended by each of the three different threads returned to its original state in 2 weeks. Conclusion. The cog thread placed under the rat skin immediately pulled the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The myofibroblasts around the thread played a role in fibrous tissue contracture 4 weeks postinsertion of the thread. These findings could be the basis for clinical application. THIS STUDY WAS SUPPORTED BY A GRANT FROM THE KOREA HEALTH 21 R&D PROJECT, MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND WELFARE, REPUBLIC OF KOREA. [source]


    ENDING WELFARE AS WE KNOW IT: A MODEST PROPOSAL

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2002
    Robert W. McGee
    Government welfare schemes are based on a false premise, the belief that forcible redistribution can be moral if the cause is just. People forget that whatever resources government has, it first had to take from someone. Government welfare schemes violate property rights and destroy incentives. There is no way to reform such a system simply. The only just system is one of voluntary charity. The government system, which relies on force, must be abolished and replaced by private charity. [source]


    REFLECTIONS ON THE STATE OF CONSENSUS-BASED DECISION MAKING IN CHILD WELFARE

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Bernie Mayer
    Consensus approaches to child protection decision making such as mediation and family group conferencing have become increasingly widespread since first initiated about 25 years ago. They address but are also constrained by paradoxes in the child protection system about commitments to protecting children and to family autonomy. In a series of surveys, interviews, and dialogues, mediation and conferencing researchers and practitioners discussed the key issues that face their work: clarity about purpose, system support, family empowerment, professional qualifications, and coordination among different types of consensus-building efforts. Consensus-based decision making in child protection will continue to expand and grow but will also continue to confront these challenges. [source]


    A local strain method for the evaluation of welded joints fatigue resistance: the case of thin main-plates thickness

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 9 2005
    C. CASAVOLA
    ABSTRACT Current procedures for evaluating fatigue strength of welded structures may not be consistent with the real fatigue behaviour of welded joints. A local strain method for the prediction of the WELded joints FAtigue REsistance (WELFARE), by local strain measurements at the weld toe, was recently proposed on the basis of fatigue tests on more than 10 series of welded joints (T, cruciform, angular and butt joints) in structural steel, with 10,25 mm main-plate thickness. This paper reports fatigue test results obtained from 30 cruciform and butt welded joints (3,5 mm thick) under two load ratios (0.1 and ,1) in order to extend the applicability of the method to thin welded joints. [source]


    LOOKING AT THE "POPULATION PROBLEM" THROUGH THE PRISM OF HETEROGENEITY: WELFARE AND POLICY ANALYSES,

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    C. Simon Fan
    Upon introducing heterogeneity and dynamics into a model of the demand for children, a problem of optimal population is defined and analyzed. It is shown that from the perspective of social welfare, better-educated individuals produce too few children while less-educated individuals produce too many children and all individuals invest too little in the education of their children. The impact of several policy tools geared at addressing the "population problem" is investigated, in particular how child allowances and other tax-subsidy policies can be harnessed to enhance welfare, and how and why early childhood education programs can mitigate the "population problem." [source]


    COMMENTS ON "INFLATION, OUTPUT, AND WELFARE" BY RICARDO LAGOS AND GUILLAUME ROCHETEAU*

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
    Edward C. Prescott
    First page of article [source]


    PRICE DISPERSION, INFLATION, AND WELFARE*

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
    Allen Head
    We examine the implications of inflation for both price dispersion and welfare in a monetary search economy. In our economy, if the degree of buyers' incomplete information about prices is fixed, both price dispersion and real prices are increasing in inflation. As the inflation rate approaches the Friedman rule, both price dispersion and welfare losses vanish. If households choose the number of prices to observe, then the optimal inflation rate may exceed the Friedman rule as inflation induces search and, up to a point, raises welfare by eroding market power. [source]


    DEPRIVATION, INEQUALITY AND WELFARE,

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 2 2009
    SATYA R. CHAKRAVARTYArticle first published online: 5 JUN 200
    Welfare ranking of income distributions involves a trade-off between equity and efficiency. A person's feeling of deprivation about higher incomes may be of a relative or absolute type. We consider an intermediate notion of deprivation, a convex mix of relative and absolute deprivations. We then look at the problem of welfare ranking of income distributions when welfare increases under a globally equitable redistribution and under an income increase that keeps intermediate deprivation fixed. All deprivation indices can be regarded as inequality indices but the converse is not true. We also provide a numerical illustration of our results. [source]


    CREDIT CRUNCH AND HOUSEHOLD WELFARE, THE CASE OF THE KOREAN FINANCIAL CRISIS,

    THE JAPANESE ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    SUNG JIN KANG
    We examine how the credit crunch in Korea in the late 1990s affected household behaviour and welfare. Using 1996,1998 household panel data, we estimate a consumption Euler equation, augmented by endogenous credit constraints. Korean households coped with the negative shocks of the 1997 credit crunch by reducing consumption of luxury items while maintaining food, education and health related expenditures. Our results show that, in 1997,1998, during the crisis, the probability of facing credit constraints and the resulting expected welfare loss from the binding constraints increased significantly, suggesting the gravity of the credit crunch at the household level. [source]


    ON OPTIMAL LEGAL STANDARDS FOR COMPETITION POLICY: A GENERAL WELFARE-BASED ANALYSIS,

    THE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2009
    YANNIS KATSOULACOS
    We present a new welfare-based framework for optimally choosing legal standards (decision rules). We formalise the decision-theoretic considerations widely discussed in the existing literature by capturing the quality of the underlying analysis and information available to a regulatory authority, and we obtain a precise necessary and sufficient set of conditions for determining when an Economics or Effects-Based approach would be able to discriminate effectively between benign and harmful actions and consequently dominate per se as a decision-making procedure. We then show that in a full welfare-based approach, the choice between legal standards must additionally take into account, (i) indirect (deterrence) effects of the choice of standard on the behaviour of all firms when deciding whether or not to adopt a particular practice; and (ii) procedural effects of certain features of the administrative process in particular delays in reaching decisions; and the investigation of only a fraction of the actions taking place. We therefore derive necessary and sufficient conditions for adopting Discriminating Rules, as advocated by the Effects-Based approach. We also examine what type of Discriminating rule will be optimal under different conditions that characterise different business practices. We apply our framework to two recent landmark decisions , Microsoft vs. EU Commission (2007) and Leegin vs. PSKS (2007) , in which a change in legal standards has been proposed, and show that it can powerfully clarify and enhance the arguments deployed in these cases. [source]


    COMPETITION AND WELFARE: THE IMPLICATIONS OF LICENSING,

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 1 2010
    ARIJIT MUKHERJEE
    If firms with asymmetric costs can engage in technology licensing, we show that welfare may be higher under Cournot competition than under Bertrand competition. Under fixed-fee licensing, consumer surplus and welfare are higher under Cournot competition if the technological difference between the firms is moderate. Under royalty licensing, if the bargaining power of the licenser is not very high and the technological difference between the firms is large, consumer surplus and welfare are higher under Cournot competition. We also show that technology licensing has important implications on the profit differential between Bertrand and Cournot competition. [source]


    FIRM OWNERSHIP, PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION AND WELFARE,

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 2 2007
    YUANZHU LU
    The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of firm ownership in a differentiated industry. We find there is no effect on product differentiation and welfare due to ownership ratio change between private and state so long as the private (state) ownership in a partially state-owned firm remains at least half (less than half). However, when the private (state) ownership in the partially state-owned firm falls below half (rises more than half), the degree of product differentiation increases (decreases) whereas welfare decreases (increases) in the share of private (state) ownership; and thus the extent of private or state ownership matters. [source]


    INNOVATION, LICENSING AND WELFARE*

    THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 1 2005
    ARIJIT MUKHERJEE
    In this paper we show the effect of licensing on innovation and social welfare. We show that firms always do non-cooperative research and development (R&D) when there is licensing after R&D, while firms do cooperative R&D in the absence of licensing if cost reduction from R&D is sufficiently small. Licensing reduces welfare when cost reduction from R&D is sufficiently small. [source]


    WELFARE, ENTERPRISE, AND ABORIGINAL COMMUNITY: THE CASE OF THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN KIMBERLEY REGION, 1968,96

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Tony Smith
    Aboriginal; Australia; entrepreneurship; social policy This article traces the development of Aboriginal-controlled businesses and their ability to access land, labour, and finance in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. It investigates the influence of the development policies on Aboriginal commercial operations. Among other things, the implementation of a new policy , beginning in the early 1970s , saw the handing over by the state of large tracts of land, and the provision of labour and finance to Aboriginal interests. The article analyses the tension between land and enterprise as a welfare measure and as a means of commercial endeavour. [source]


    MIGRATION, MEDICAL AID AND WELFARE*

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 4 2007
    WATARU KUREISHI
    This paper constructs a simple rural-urban migration model that explicitly incorporates the interactions between the individual's migration decision, the risk of incurring an infectious disease and unemployment. We show that providing a subsidy for health investment in urban regions in the form of medical aid does not improve individual welfare. This is because it induces further urban migration, increases the risk of infection and unemployment, and offsets completely the positive cost-reduction effect. [source]


    PUBLIC EDUCATION, FERTILITY INCENTIVES, NEOCLASSICAL ECONOMIC GROWTH AND WELFARE

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
    Luciano Fanti
    I28; J13; O41 ABSTRACT Using a simple overlapping generations model of neoclassical growth, we analyse the effects of both child allowances and the system of public education on the rate of fertility, the per capita income and the individual lifetime welfare. The essential message of the present paper is that developed countries plagued by below-replacement fertility and income stagnation may raise per capita income and the rate of fertility at the same time by increasing the public education expenditure rather than by resorting to child allowances. The latter, in fact, are found to be harmful for long-run neoclassical economic growth and, in contrast with the common belief, for the rate of population growth as well. Moreover, welfare analysis has shown the existence of a Pareto-efficient welfare-maximizing educational contribution rate. [source]


    ASYMMETRIC MULTIPRODUCT FIRMS, PROFITABILITY AND WELFARE

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2009
    George Symeonidis
    L13; D43 ABSTRACT In a differentiated multiproduct Cournot duopoly with linear demand, industry profit usually falls (even though concentration rises) when the distribution of products across firms becomes more asymmetric, if the products are not very differentiated or the total number of products is large. Consumer surplus and overall welfare always fall as the degree of asymmetry increases. These results contrast with the conventional wisdom on the effects of firm heterogeneity and the links between concentration and industry profits. [source]


    WELFARE IN THE NASH EQUILIBRIUM IN EXPORT TAXES UNDER BERTRAND DUOPOLY

    BULLETIN OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
    Roger Clarke
    F12; F13; L13 ABSTRACT In the Eaton and GrossmanQuarterly Journal of Economics, 101 (1986), pp. 383,406 model of export taxes under Bertrand duopoly, it is shown that welfare in the Nash equilibrium in export taxes is always higher than welfare under free trade for both countries. [source]


    Endocrine disruptor issues in Japan

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 2 2002
    Taisen Iguchi
    ABSTRACT, Monitoring of environmental chemicals in Japan has revealed that several endocrine active chemicals are in river water, sediments, and wildlife as well as in the human umbilical cord. In 2001, risk assessments of tributyltin and nonylphenol have been conducted by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. Risk assessments of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate have also been performed by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare using a toxicological point of view in 2001. In this review, an overview of recent progress in endocrine disruptor research in Japan will be provided. [source]


    Liberal Conservativism, Once and Again: Locke's "Essay on the Poor Law" and Contemporary US Welfare Reform

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 3 2002
    Nancy J. Hirschmann
    First page of article [source]


    Interview with Peter Baume

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 1 2002
    Article first published online: 29 MAY 200
    Professor Peter Baume is the Chancellor of the Australian National University. He has been a minister in the Federal Government and in 1977 chaired the Senate Standing Committee on Social Welfare, which conducted a pathfinding enquiry about alcohol and drugs. Prior to his current post he was Professor of Community Medicine at the University of New South Wales. [source]


    Industrial Clusters: Equilibrium, Welfare and Policy

    ECONOMICA, Issue 284 2004
    Victor D. Norman
    This paper studies the size and number of industrial clusters that arise in a multi-country world in which one sector has a propensity to cluster because of increasing returns to scale. Equilibrium will generally have smaller clusters than the world welfare optimum, and possibly too many countries with a cluster. Countries have an incentive to use policy to attract an industrial cluster, but the equilibrium of the policy game between governments coincides with the world optimum so there is no ,race to the bottom'. Capping subsidy rates would lead to a proliferation of too many and too small clusters. [source]


    Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Tomoko Takigawa
    Abstract This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 ,g/m3) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 ,g/m3). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 ,g/m3). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 19: 280,290, 2004. [source]


    Maternal Distress and Parenting in the Context of Cumulative Disadvantage

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2010
    JOYCE ARDITTI PH.D.
    To read this article's abstract in both Spanish and Mandarin Chinese, please visit the article's full-text page on Wiley InterScience (http://interscience.wiley.com/journal/famp). This article presents an emergent conceptual model of the features and links between cumulative disadvantage, maternal distress, and parenting practices in low-income families in which parental incarceration has occurred. The model emerged from the integration of extant conceptual and empirical research with grounded theory analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data from Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study. Fourteen exemplar family cases were used in the analysis. Results indicated that mothers in these families experienced life in the context of cumulative disadvantage, reporting a cascade of difficulties characterized by neighborhood worries, provider concerns, bureaucratic difficulties, violent intimate relationships, and the inability to meet children's needs. Mothers, however, also had an intense desire to protect their children, and to make up for past mistakes. Although, in response to high levels of maternal distress and disadvantage, most mothers exhibited harsh discipline of their children, some mothers transformed their distress by advocating for their children under difficult circumstances. Women's use of harsh discipline and advocacy was not necessarily an "either/or" phenomenon as half of the mothers included in our analysis exhibited both harsh discipline and care/advocacy behaviors. Maternal distress characterized by substance use, while connected to harsh disciplinary behavior, did not preclude mothers engaging in positive parenting behaviors. RESUMEN Este artículo presenta un modelo conceptual emergente de las características y las conexiones entre la desventaja acumulada, la angustia materna, y las prácticas de crianza de los hijos en familias de bajos recursos donde uno de los padres ha estado encarcelado. El modelo surgió de la integración de investigaciones conceptuales y empíricas existentes con un análisis de muestreo teórico de datos etnográficos longitudinales tomados de Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study ("Bienestar, Niños y Familias: Un estudio en tres ciudades"). En el análisis se usaron catorce casos ejemplares de familias. Los resultados indicaron que las madres de estas familias vivían la vida en el contexto de desventaja acumulada, ya que describieron una cascada de dificultades caracterizadas por preocupaciones con respecto al barrio donde viven, preocupaciones por el sustento económico, dificultades burocráticas, relaciones íntimas violentas y la incapacidad de satisfacer las necesidades de sus hijos. Sin embargo, las madres también tenían un profundo deseo de proteger a sus hijos y de subsanar errores del pasado. Aunque, en respuesta a los niveles altos de angustia materna y desventaja, la mayoría de las madres demostraron una disciplina severa hacia sus hijos, algunas madres transformaron su angustia apoyando a sus hijos en circunstancias difíciles. El uso de disciplina severa y apoyo por parte de las mujeres no fue necesariamente un fenómeno excluyente, ya que la mitad de las madres analizadas demostraron tanto el uso de una disciplina severa como comportamientos de cuidado y apoyo. Si bien la angustia materna caracterizada por el abuso de sustancias estuvo conectada con el uso de una disciplina severa, no excluyó que las madres tuvieran comportamientos positivos en relación con la crianza de sus hijos Palabras clave: desventaja acumulada, angustia materna, crianza de los hijos, encarcelamiento de uno de los padres, disciplina [source]


    Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to Work,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2004
    Sandra K. Danziger
    We address how childcare subsidies help in the welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt reduces costs but not parenting stress or problems with care. It predicts earnings and work duration net of other factors. Increased use of subsidies by eligible families and greater funding for child care would help meet the demand for this important support for working-poor families. [source]


    Welfare to Work, Wages and Wage Growth,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 3 2005
    Reamonn Lydon
    Abstract This paper attempts to uncover the effects of a UK welfare-to-work programme on individual wage growth by exploiting an expansion to this welfare programme. The conventional wisdom is that such programmes trap recipients into low-wage, low-quality work , this comes from the simple argument that the ,poverty trap', which a wage subsidy for low-income workers induces, reduces the benefits to investments, such as on-the-job training, and so reduces wage growth. In fact, a wage subsidy will also reduce the costs of, at least, general training because we would normally expect workers to pay for their own general training in the form of lower gross wages. So a wage subsidy is a way of sharing these costs with the taxpayer. Thus, the net effect on wage progression depends on whether it reduces costs by more or less than it reduces the benefits. [source]


    Capital Assistance for Small Firms: Some Implications for Regional Economic Welfare

    GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS, Issue 1 2000
    Daniel Felsenstein
    This paper analyzes the role of finance capital in regional economic development. A cost-benefit approach is invoked in order to estimate the welfare impacts of a regional loan and guarantee program for small firms in Israel. Program-created employment is treated as a benefit and an employment account that separates net from gross employment, is presented. An estimate of net wage benefits is then derived. This involves adjusting wages across different earnings classes in order to account for the variation in opportunity costs of labor at different levels. The estimation of costs includes the opportunity costs of capital, administration, default, and tax-raising costs. Results point to substantial regional welfare effects. We stress the need to account for changing regional economic structure in this kind of evaluation framework. [source]


    ,Beyond Left and Right': The New Partisan Politics of Welfare

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2000
    Fiona Ross
    The ,new politics of the welfare state,' the term coined by Pierson (1996) to differentiate between the popular politics of welfare expansion and the unpopular politics of retrenchment, emphasizes a number of factors that distinguish countries' capacities to pursue contentious measures and avoid electoral blame. Policy structures, vested interests, and institutions play a prominent role in accounting for cross-national differences in leaders' abilities to diffuse responsibility for divisive initiatives. One important omission from the ,new politics' literature, however, is a discussion of partisan politics. ,Old' conceptualizations of the political right and left are implicitly taken as constants despite radical changes in the governing agenda of many leftist parties over the last decade. Responding to this oversight, Castles (1998) has recently probed the role of parties with respect to aggregate government expenditures, only to concludethat parties do not matter under ,conditions of constraint.' This article contends that parties are relevant to the ,new politics' and that, under specified institutional conditions, their impact is counterintuitive. In some notable cases the left has had more effect inbruising the welfare state than the right. One explanation for these cross-cutting tendencies is that parties not only provide a principal source of political agency, they also serve as strategies, thereby conditioning opportunities for political leadership. By extension, they need to be situatedwithin the ,new politics' constellation of blame-avoidance instruments. [source]


    The Impact of Welfare Reform on Insurance Coverage before Pregnancy and the Timing of Prenatal Care Initiation

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 4 2007
    Norma I. Gavin
    Objective. This study investigates the impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy and on first-trimester initiation of prenatal care (PNC) among pregnant women eligible for Medicaid under welfare-related eligibility criteria. Data Sources. We used pooled data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for eight states (AL, FL, ME, NY, OK, SC, WA, and WV) from 1996 through 1999. Study Design. We estimated a two-part logistic model of insurance coverage before pregnancy and first-trimester PNC initiation. The impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy was measured by marginal effects computed from coefficients of an interaction term for the postreform period and welfare-related eligibility and on PNC initiation by the same interaction term and the coefficients of insurance coverage adjusted for potential simultaneous equation bias. We compared the estimates from this model with results from simple logistic, ordinary least squares, and two-stage least squares models. Principal Findings. Welfare reform had a significant negative impact on Medicaid coverage before pregnancy among welfare-related Medicaid eligibles. This drop resulted in a small decline in their first-trimester PNC initiation. Enrollment in Medicaid before pregnancy was independent of the decision to initiate PNC, and estimates of the effect of a reduction in Medicaid coverage before pregnancy on PNC initiation were consistent over the single- and two-stage models. Effects of private coverage were mixed. Welfare reform had no impact on first-trimester PNC beyond that from reduced Medicaid coverage in the pooled regression but separate state-specific regressions suggest additional effects from time and income constraints induced by welfare reform may have occurred in some states. Conclusions. Welfare reform had significant adverse effects on insurance coverage and first-trimester PNC initiation among our nation's poorest women of childbearing age. Improved outreach and insurance options for these women are needed to meet national health goals. [source]