Weight Reduction (weight + reduction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Weight Reduction

  • body weight reduction


  • Selected Abstracts


    Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
    Claudia S Riedt
    Abstract Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction: Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (,4.2 4.1%) and BMC (,4.8 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (,1.4 5.6% and ,1.1 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion: Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women. [source]


    Development of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor ,-Subtype Agonist KB-141 : A Strategy for Body Weight Reduction and Lipid Lowering with Minimal Cardiac Side Effects

    CARDIOVASCULAR THERAPEUTICS, Issue 2 2005
    Gary J. Grover
    ABSTRACT Few treatments for obesity exist and improvements for treatment of hyperlipidemia are still desirable. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) regulate body weight, adiposity, and cholesterol levels. However, thyroid hormones can have deleterious effects, particularly cardiac acceleration, that limits the use of hormones in the treatment of obesity. There is evidence that the TR, subtype mediates lowering of blood cholesterol levels and possibly elevation of metabolic rate, whereas TR, appears to control heart rate. In studies, described in this review article, we examined the effects of selective TR, activation on metabolic rate and heart rate in mice, rats and monkeys. T3 had a greater effect on increasing heart rate in wild type (WT) than in TR,-/- mice (ED15 values of 34 and 469 nmol/kg/day, respectively). T3 increased metabolic rate (MVO2) in both WT and TR,-/- mice, but the effect on TR,-/- mice was less pronounced compared to WT mice. Stimulation of MVO2 is mediated by both TR, and TR,, but with different profiles. In cholesterol-fed rats, KB-141, a selective TR, agonist, increased MVO2 with a 10-fold selectivity and lowered cholesterol with a 27-fold selectivity vs. tachycardia. In primates, KB-141 caused significant, cholesterol, Lp(a) and body weight reduction after 1 week of treatment with no effect on heart rate. These data suggest that selective TR, agonists may represent a novel class of drugs for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia and elevated Lp(a), which may make them useful therapeutics for patients with metabolic syndrome. [source]


    Insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular risk: approaches to treatment

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 6 2005
    Daniel E. Rosenberg
    Abstract:, The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are major predictors of cardiovascular ischaemic disease. Other risk factors for cardiovascular death including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking and visceral obesity are especially lethal in diabetics. C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, matrix metalloproteinases and other emerging risk factors and their roles are continually being researched and discovered. Treatment of this syndrome must be aimed at lifestyle modification, glycaemic control and management of concomitant risk factors. Diet and exercise play a vital role in the treatment of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Weight reduction and increased physical activity will improve insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Hypertension management has been shown to be especially important in diabetics to prevent cardiovascular events. Likewise, multiple clinical trials show that reduction of cholesterol is even more vital in diabetics than the general population for risk reduction of coronary disease. There is a great deal of evidence that tight control of glycaemia is essential to treatment of this condition. There are a variety of available pharmacological agents available including metformin, insulin secretagogues, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and insulin. The mechanisms and side effects of these medications are discussed. As macrovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, an early, aggressive, multi-factorial approach to treatment of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes is vital to prevent adverse cardiac outcomes. [source]


    Weight reduction, but not a moderate intake of fish oil, lowers concentrations of inflammatory markers and PAI-1 antigen in obese men during the fasting and postprandial state

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 11 2004
    A. Jellema
    Abstract Background, In obese subjects, chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, which are reversed by weight loss. Sustained weight loss, however, is difficult to achieve and more insight into dietary approaches on anti-inflammatory responses in obese subjects is needed. In this respect, fish oil deserves attention. Material and methods, Eleven obese men (BMI: 30,35 kg m,2) received daily fish oil (135 g n-3 fatty acids) or placebo capsules in random order for 6 weeks. Eight subjects continued with a weight reduction study that lasted 8 weeks. Mean weight loss was 94 kg. At the end of each experimental period a postprandial study was performed. Results, Relative to fasting concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased by 75% 2 h and by 118% 4 h after the meal (P < 0001), when subjects consumed the control capsules. In contrast, C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentrations decreased slightly by 07% and 66% (P = 0046), and those of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen by, respectively, 26% and 53% (P < 0001). Tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,; P = 0330) and soluble TNF-receptor concentrations (sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75; P = 0451 and P = 0108, respectively) did not change. Changes relative to fasting concentrations were not significantly affected by either fish oil or weight reduction. Absolute IL-6, C-RP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, and PAI-1 antigen concentrations, however, were consistently lower after weight reduction, but not after fish oil consumption. Conclusion, For slightly obese subjects a moderate intake of fish oil does not have the same favourable effects on markers for a low-grade inflammatory state as weight reduction. [source]


    Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
    Claudia S Riedt
    Abstract Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction: Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (,4.2 4.1%) and BMC (,4.8 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (,1.4 5.6% and ,1.1 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion: Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women. [source]


    The effect of low-carbohydrate diet on left ventricular diastolic function in obese children

    PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2010
    Cenap Zeybek
    Abstract Background:, This study was conducted to evaluate left ventricle (LV) functions using conventional and tissue Doppler imaging in childhood obesity and to identify the effects of diet on LV diastolic functions. Methods:, Conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiographic measurements were compared in 34 obese children and 24 age- and gender-matched lean controls. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels were also obtained. Thirty-one of the obese children were subjected to a low-carbohydrate diet and their follow-up measurements were obtained after 6 months. Results:, Left atrial diameter, LV mass and LV mass index were higher in obese children than in lean controls. Lateral mitral myocardial early diastolic (Em) and peak Em/myocardial late diastolic (Am) were lower, and mitral E/Em and lateral mitral myocardial isovolumetric relaxation time were higher in obese subjects than in lean controls. Insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels were higher in obese patients and decreased significantly after diet. After diet therapy, lateral mitral Em and peak Em/Am, were increased, mitral E/Em and myocardial isovolumetric relaxation time were decreased. Conclusions:, Obesity predisposes children to increased preload reserve, left ventricular subclinical diastolic dysfunction and deterioration in diastolic filling. Weight reduction with a low-carbohydrate diet seems to be associated with significant improvement in LV diastolic function and a decrease in diastolic filling, as well as causing reversal in insulin resistance seen in obese children. [source]


    Association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with birth defects: Evidence from a case,control study in Western Australia

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Wendy H. ODDY
    Background: Maternal obesity confers increased risks of poor pregnancy outcomes. There are limited Australian data on the risk of birth defects associated with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. Methods: Population-based case,control study of 418 controls, 111 cases with heart defects (and of these, 38 had conotruncal heart defects), 27 with neural tube defects, 86 cases with urinary tract defects, 48 cases with orofacial clefts, and 20 with limb reduction defects. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and height were self-reported. Results: Women with pre-pregnancy obesity (body mass index 30+) had a twofold increased odds of having an infant with neural tube defects, conotruncal heart defects, orofacial clefts and limb reduction defects and 30,40% increase in heart defects generally and urinary tract defects. None of the estimates was statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings were consistent with similar, statistically significant studies in the literature. Weight reduction prior to pregnancy in obese women may be a means of primary prevention of birth defects. [source]


    Randomized clinical trial of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty for obesity,

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 5 2005
    T. Olbers
    Background: Laparoscopic techniques have been developed for performing Roux-en- gastric bypass (LRYGBP) and vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG) in patients with morbid obesity. It is not certain, however, which is the better technique in non-superobese patients (body mass index less than 50 kg/m2). Methods: Eighty-three patients (LRYGBP 37, LVBG 46) were assessed in a randomized clinical trial. Perioperative complications were recorded together with preoperative and postoperative respiratory function and mobilization rate. Patients were monitored for 2 years after operation with regard to weight change and the need for remedial surgery. Results: There were no conversions to open surgery. The mean operating time was longer for LRYGBP than LVBG (138 versus 105 min). Five early reoperations were performed after LRYGBP (three for haemorrhage, one for ileus and one suspected leak) and one after LVBG (suspected leak). There were no differences in postoperative respiratory function or mobilization. Weight reduction was greater after LRYGBP (excess weight loss 783 versus 629 per cent 1 year after surgery, P = 0009; 844 versus 598 per cent at 2 years, P < 0001). Remedial surgical intervention was required in eight patients after LVBG (conversion to Roux-en- gastric bypass) and none after LRYGBP. Conclusion: LRYGBP and LVBG were comparable in terms of operative safety and postoperative recovery, but weight reduction was better after LRYGBP. Copyright 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Impact of Provider Self-Management Education, Patient Self-Efficacy, and Health Status on Patient Adherence in Heart Failure in a Veterans Administration Population

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 1 2008
    Usha Subramanian MD
    To address the need for more information on predictors of adherence to heart failure (HF) self-management regimens, this study analyzed surveys completed by 259 HF patients receiving care at 2 Veterans Affairs hospitals in 2003. Linear multivariable regression models were used to examine general health status, HF-specific health status (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) self-management education, and self-efficacy as predictors of self-reported adherence to salt intake and exercise regimens. Self-management education was provided most often for salt restriction (87%) followed by exercise (78%). In multivariable regression analyses, education about salt restriction (P=.01), weight reduction (P=.0004), self-efficacy (P=.03), and health status (P=.003) were significantly associated with patient-reported adherence to salt restriction. In a similar model, self-efficacy (P=.006) and health status (P,.0001), but not exercise education, were significantly associated with patient-reported exercise adherence. Findings suggest that provider interventions may lead to improved adherence with HF self-management and thus improvements in patients' health. [source]


    Exenatide: a review from pharmacology to clinical practice

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 6 2009
    R. Gentilella
    Background:, Exenatide is an incretin mimetic that activates glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptors. It blunts the postprandial rise of plasma glucose by increasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressing inappropriately high glucagon secretion and delaying gastric emptying. Methods:, In seven clinical trials performed in 2845 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were inadequately controlled by a sulphonylurea and/or metformin (glycosylated haemoglobin, HbA1c ,11%), or by thiazolidinediones (with or without metformin) and treated for periods from 16 weeks to 3 years, exenatide (5 ,g b.i.d. s.c. for the first 4 weeks of treatment and 10 ,g b.i.d. s.c. thereafter) reduced HbA1c, fasting and postprandial glucose, and body weight dose dependently, and was similar to insulin glargine and biphasic insulin aspart in reducing HbA1c. Body weight diminished with exenatide, whereas it increased with both insulin preparations. Positive effects on the lipid profile and a reduction in C-reactive protein were also recorded with exenatide. Treatment extensions up to 3 years showed that benefits were maintained in the long term. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity, and generally the frequency decreased with continued therapy. The most common was nausea (whose incidence may be reduced by gradual dose escalation from 5 ,g b.i.d. to 10 ,g b.i.d.), vomiting, diarrhoea, headache and hypoglycaemia (almost exclusively in patients treated with a sulphonylurea). Results and conclusions:, Exenatide is a new, promising therapeutic option for type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled by oral agents, before insulin therapy, offering the added benefits of body weight reduction and tight postprandial glucose control. [source]


    Cardiovascular drugs as antidiabetic agents: evidence for the prevention of type 2 diabetes

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 7 2008
    D. P. Macfarlane
    Given the long-term health consequences and increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes, there is great interest to potentially prevent or delay its onset. Primary prevention studies have demonstrated that intensive exercise and weight reduction, and to a lesser extent certain antidiabetic agents, can reduce new onset diabetes in at-risk individuals. Results from post hoc analyses and secondary end-point outcomes of large randomized controlled trials of cardiovascular drugs suggest that these may also have beneficial effects, reducing the incidence of new onset diabetes in addition to their proven cardiovascular benefits. Multiple meta-analyses confirm that drugs primarily acting on the renin,angiotensin system (RAS) reduce the incidence of diabetes in the populations studied, perhaps via improved insulin sensitivity and/or effects on pancreatic beta cells. However, results from the recent Diabetes REduction Approaches with Medication study specifically failed to show a significant reduction in the incidence of diabetes with ramipril in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. There is only limited evidence that statins improve glucose tolerance, and although beta-blockers tend to have detrimental effects on glucose tolerance, newer agents with vasodilatory properties may confer benefits. With current guidelines, the use of cardiovascular drugs modifying the RAS will increase in at-risk individuals, but at present, they cannot be recommended to prevent diabetes. [source]


    Insulin resistance , a common link between type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 3 2006
    Harold E. Lebovitz
    Evidence suggests that diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) may share an underlying cause(s), a theory known as the ,common soil' hypothesis. Insulin resistance is central both to the progression from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes and to a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome. These risk factors include visceral obesity and dyslipidaemia characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia and raised small dense low-density lipoprotein particle levels. Changes in adipose tissue mass and metabolism may link insulin resistance and visceral obesity, a condition that is common in type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, weight reduction, increased physical activity, metformin and acarbose have been shown to reduce the development of type 2 diabetes in genetically predisposed subjects and may decrease the high cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes. Some fatty acid derivatives can affect energy metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), nuclear receptors that play a key role in energy homeostasis. These receptors represent an ideal therapeutic target for reducing cardiovascular risk, because they are involved in the regulation of both insulin action and lipid metabolism. In addition to lifestyle changes, PPAR, agonists such as thiazolidinediones are frequently beneficial and have been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance, while activation of PPAR, (e.g. by fibrates) can lead to improvements in free fatty acid oxidation and lipid profile, and a reduction in cardiovascular events. The development of agents with both PPAR, and PPAR, activity promises added benefits with amelioration of insulin resistance, delayed progression to and of type 2 diabetes and a reduction of CVD. [source]


    Helminth parasitism of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842) in southwestern Australia

    ECOLOGY OF FRESHWATER FISH, Issue 4 2006
    A. Chapman
    Abstract , One cestode, Ligula sp. [possibly Ligula intestinalis (L.)], one trematode, Diplostomum sp., and two nematode parasitic worms, Eustrongylides sp. [possibly Eustrongylides gadopsis (Royal Society of South Australia, 64, 340)] and Contracaecum sp. are reported from Galaxias maculatus inhabiting a permanent freshwater lake and two intermittently flowing, saline rivers in southwestern Australia. Worms infecting fish are all larval; the definitive hosts are piscivorous waterfowl. Ligula sp. infected 12% of fish in the lake. Effects of infection include reduced lifespan, significant weight reduction of gonads of males and females and body weight of females. Infection reduces the proportion of males that attain spawning gonad stage more severely than it does in females. The prevalence and intensity of Ligula sp. infection were much less in the rivers. The infection of Pseudogobius olorum (Sauvage 1880) by this cestode is reported for the first time in Western Australia. Trematodes were much more benign in their effect on G. maculatus. [source]


    Factors affecting uptake of an education and physical activity programme for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 1 2008
    MPH Postgraduate Research Associate, S Visram BA Hons
    Abstract Background: Intensive lifestyle intervention involving weight reduction and moderate physical activity has been shown to help regulate, and even prevent, type 2 diabetes. Aim: This study sought to explore factors affecting uptake of an education and physical activity programme for those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Method: Focus group discussions were conducted with individuals who completed the programme and semi-structured interviews were conducted with those who declined the invitation to attend. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach and key similarities and differences between the groups were identified. Results: The 11 programme participants studied appeared to have received clearer messages about the severity of unmanaged diabetes, whereas the 10 non-attenders studied felt that co-morbidities posed greater risks to their health. There were major concerns among both groups about undertaking exercise, and strategies for diabetes management focused heavily on dietary modification. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that fears and lack of understanding about both diabetes and exercise can act as barriers to engaging in physical activity. These findings are supported by the literature and highlight the need for more tailored programmes of lifestyle intervention for those with type 2 diabetes. Copyright 2008 FEND [source]


    Long-term outcomes after a structured hypertension education programme for patients with diabetes and hypertension

    EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 2 2005
    B Osterbrink Nurse Teacher, Diabetes Counsellor, Principal of the Academy of Health Professions
    Abstract A structured hypertension treatment and education programme (HTEP) was developed in the Dsseldorf area in the 1990s for patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension and was found to be effective in a randomised controlled trial. The German Association of Diabetes Education and Counselling Professions (VDBD) implemented the HTEP all over Germany in order to optimise the care of patients with diabetes and hypertension. The objectives of the HTEP are to enable patients to gain knowledge of hypertension, to participate actively in their treatment to improve blood pressure (BP) and metabolic control and to self-measure their BP. The implementation consisted of two stages. The first stage comprised the training of 312 diabetes counsellors (DCs). During the second stage 473 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and hypertension in 35 diabetes centres throughout Germany received the HTEP including instructions in BP self-measurement. The HTEP consists of four units each one with a duration of 90 minutes covering the topics: hypertension, BP self-monitoring according to the standards of the German Hypertension League, antihypertensive medication including effects and side effects, recommendations to moderate exercise, weight reduction, dietary advice with reference to reduction of salt and alcohol and normalising the intake of protein. These patients participated in a prospective non-experimental study with a follow up of three years investigating the long-term outcomes of the HTEP in uncontrolled settings. The DCs assessed the accuracy of patients' self-monitoring by parallel measurement. Assessments included questionnaires evaluating patients' understanding of hypertension and metabolic control. The mean BP monitored by the DC fell from 150/85mmHg to 147/80mmHg (p<0.0001). The accuracy of self-measurements increased from 76% to 86% (p<0.005) and mean self-measurement readings decreased from 142/81mmHg to 139/78mmHg. HbA1c fell significantly from 7.91.6% to 7.31.1% (mean SD, p<0.001) and total cholesterol was lowered from 24167.1mg/dl to 20040.4mg/dl (p<0.001). Patients' knowledge of hypertension increased from 62% before the intervention to 72% after three years' follow up. Patients over 70 years showed less knowledge than younger patients (p<0.005). It was concluded that the HTEP is effective in improving BP, metabolic control and knowledge of hypertension. It enables patients to measure their BP precisely and regularly. Copyright 2005 FEND. [source]


    Effect of bariatric surgery on circulating chemerin levels

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 3 2010
    C. Ress
    Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (3): 277,280 Abstract Background, Subclinical inflammation in obesity is critical for development of several obesity-associated disorders. We set out to investigate the effect of pronounced weight loss on circulating chemerin levels, a chemoattractant protein that also influences adipose cell function by paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. Material and methods, Thirty-two obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were tested before and on an average of 18 months after gastric banding or gastric bypass surgery. Results, Pronounced weight loss after bariatric surgery was accompanied by improvements in parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism and increased adiponectin levels. Chemoattractant chemerin significantly decreased from 17591 2450 to 14553 2644 ng mL,1 after bariatric surgery (P , 001). Concomitantly, hs-CRP as a marker of subclinical inflammation was significantly reduced after weight reduction (P , 001). Conclusions, We hypothesize that weight-loss induced reduction in circulating chemerin might in conjunction with other factors be associated with diminished recruitment of macrophages in adipose tissue and reduction of subclinical inflammation, which again could partly explain beneficial long-term effects of weight reduction in obese subjects. [source]


    Weight reduction, but not a moderate intake of fish oil, lowers concentrations of inflammatory markers and PAI-1 antigen in obese men during the fasting and postprandial state

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 11 2004
    A. Jellema
    Abstract Background, In obese subjects, chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, which are reversed by weight loss. Sustained weight loss, however, is difficult to achieve and more insight into dietary approaches on anti-inflammatory responses in obese subjects is needed. In this respect, fish oil deserves attention. Material and methods, Eleven obese men (BMI: 30,35 kg m,2) received daily fish oil (135 g n-3 fatty acids) or placebo capsules in random order for 6 weeks. Eight subjects continued with a weight reduction study that lasted 8 weeks. Mean weight loss was 94 kg. At the end of each experimental period a postprandial study was performed. Results, Relative to fasting concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased by 75% 2 h and by 118% 4 h after the meal (P < 0001), when subjects consumed the control capsules. In contrast, C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentrations decreased slightly by 07% and 66% (P = 0046), and those of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen by, respectively, 26% and 53% (P < 0001). Tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,; P = 0330) and soluble TNF-receptor concentrations (sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75; P = 0451 and P = 0108, respectively) did not change. Changes relative to fasting concentrations were not significantly affected by either fish oil or weight reduction. Absolute IL-6, C-RP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, and PAI-1 antigen concentrations, however, were consistently lower after weight reduction, but not after fish oil consumption. Conclusion, For slightly obese subjects a moderate intake of fish oil does not have the same favourable effects on markers for a low-grade inflammatory state as weight reduction. [source]


    Mechanical Properties of Compound Extruded Aircraft Stringer Profiles Under Cyclic Loading,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 7 2010
    Kay A. Weidenmann
    The worldwide competition in the field of aircraft structures leads to an increasing need for functionality and safety as well as for cost and weight reduction. For instance stringers could be directly welded on the aircraft's skin sheet. The requirements to be met are increased safety against crack initiation and crack growth as well as improved residual strength against failure after harmful impact of foreign objects. The application of continuously reinforced aluminium profiles which are manufactured by compound extrusion leads to increased strength and stiffness of the profiles by combining the aluminium matrix with high strength wires. Thus aircraft stringers of such profiles represent an innovative concept with improved properties. The characterisation of compound extrusions based on medium and high strength aircraft aluminium alloys EN AW-6056 and EN AW-2099 shows that a good embedding of the reinforcing high strength wires (Co-based and Fe-based) can be achieved. Furthermore the mechanical properties under cyclic loading of the profiles were measured and the S/N-curves for the different compound combinations were determined. Subsequently the crack initiation and propagation was analysed by using metallographic and SEM investigations. The fatigue resistance of reinforced specimens is increased compared to unreinforced ones. The fatigue cracks originate at the surface of unreinforced specimen while the cracks in reinforced specimens are initiated at the wire,matrix interface. [source]


    Influence of Filler Composition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel,Aluminum Joints Produced by Metal Arc Joining,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 5 2009
    Leonardo Agudo Jcome
    Chemical joining of aluminum to steel parts is one of the main challenges in the automotive industry to achieve sound economical solutions for required automobile weight reduction. The cold metal transfer (CMT) is a fusion welding process developed to meet that challenge. It is shown in this paper how the choice of proper filler materials can yield appropriate mechanical performance of specially designed dissimilar CMT butt joints by improving the seam characteristics and weld bead properties. [source]


    Effects of one dose of a 30 cH potency of Thyroidinum on weight reduction in fasting patients

    FOCUS ON ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES AN EVIDENCE-BASED APPROACH, Issue 2 2003
    Article first published online: 14 JUN 2010
    [source]


    The use of near infrared interactance in hemodialysis

    HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2005
    N. Sarhill
    Forty-one consecutive admissions to a hemodialysis center were evaluated. Demographic information including age, gender, race, and diagnosis was collected. Patients, >18 years old, with end stage renal disease and on hemodialysis for at least one year were included. Those with edema or known ascites were excluded. Weight was measured before and after hemodialysis (HD) using a standard scale and by considering the amount of fluid loss by the hemodialysis machine. Body composition including total body water (TBW) was calculated before and after HD using near infrared interactance (NIR). All measurements were completed during half hour before and after HD. Forty-one patients included: men (n = 26), women (n = 15); median age 58 (range 28,88 years). Twenty-eight were African American and the rest Caucasians. The amount of intravascular fluid taken after HD (assessed by weight reduction) ranged 0,5 L with median 2.2 L. NIR analysis for the same patients at the same time showed different total body water measurements in 91% of cases (P > 0.05). Moreover, NIR analysis showed increase in total body water in 24% of patients even though the hemodialysis machine showed a loss of total body water; median of 1.3 (range: 0,3L). The error in measuring body composition with NIR was both large and varied (random and not systematic error). We conclude that NIR analysis cannot be considered as a reliable method to evaluate body composition, especially total body water, amongst patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. [source]


    Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Nathan A. Johnson
    Weight loss remains the most common therapy advocated for reducing hepatic lipid in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Yet, reduction of body weight by lifestyle intervention is often modest, and thus, therapies which effectively modulate the burden of fatty liver but are not contingent upon weight loss are of the highest practical significance. However, the effect of aerobic exercise on liver fat independent of weight loss has not been clarified. We assessed the effect of aerobic exercise training on hepatic, blood, abdominal and muscle lipids in 19 sedentary obese men and women using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Four weeks of aerobic cycling exercise, in accordance with current physical activity guidelines, significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue volume by 12% (P < 0.01) and hepatic triglyceride concentration by 21% (P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant (14%) reduction in plasma free fatty acids (P < 0.05). Exercise training did not alter body weight, vastus lateralis intramyocellular triglyceride concentration, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, 1H-MRS,measured hepatic lipid saturation, or HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; P > 0.05). Conclusion: These data provide the first direct experimental evidence demonstrating that regular aerobic exercise reduces hepatic lipids in obesity even in the absence of body weight reduction. Physical activity should be strongly promoted for the management of fatty liver, the benefits of which are not exclusively contingent upon weight loss. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]


    Orally disintegrating olanzapine and potential differences in treatment-emergent weight gain

    HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 4 2008
    Jamie Karagianis
    Abstract Several papers and communications have reported possible weight reduction or less weight gain when patients start or switch to orally disintegrating olanzapine, as contrasted with standard oral olanzapine tablets. In this paper, the current literature is reviewed and hypothesized mechanisms of action are discussed. The data are still preliminary and mechanisms of action are not well understood. Randomized controlled trials are needed to further evaluate change in weight during treatment with orally disintegrating olanzapine. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Environmentally-friendly Aspects and Innovative Lightweight Traction System Technologies of the Shinkansen High-speed EMUs

    IEEJ TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2008
    Yoshiyasu Hagiwara Member
    Abstract In 1964, the Tokaido Shinkansen marked the start of the world's first commercial service high-speed railway that operates at over 200 km/h. Since then, the Tokaido Shinkansen has demonstrated successful business and technological advancement. With the speeding-up of the Shinkansen, environmental matters such as noise and vibration have become critical issues. Measures taken to counter noise and vibration,such as weight reduction and aerodynamics,also effect global environmental measures to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission. With the introduction of the Series 300, there was a system change of applying an AC drive system, and the lightweight body realized performance improvement over the earlier Series 0. The high-speed EMUs have readily taken advantage of technological innovation such as those achieved in electronics technology. In particular, an innovative AC drive system comprising a power converter with a GTO thyristor and asynchronous motors realized a high-performance and lightweight traction system for high-speed EMUs in the 1990s. Furthermore, recent innovations in electronics technology, such as low switching loss power devices and high-power permanent magnets, have improved the AC drive systems of the high-speed EMUs of the 21st century. This article starts out by introducing environmentally friendliness of the Shinkansen trains in terms of low energy consumption by means of traction system change, and then proceeds to describe the recent technological innovations that have given birth to lightweight traction systems, such as the Permanent Magnet Synchronous traction Motor (PMSM) and power converters with train-draft-cooling systems. The article concludes by summing up the environmentally friendly aspects of the Tokaido Shinkansen. Copyright 2008 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]


    Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 3 2010
    Silja Vocks PhD
    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to compute and compare mean effects of various treatments for binge eating disorder. Method: A total of 38 studies with 1973 participants fulfilled the defined inclusion criteria. Effect sizes, odds ratios, and simple rates were integrated in fixed and random (mixed) effects categorical models. Results: From randomized controlled trials, psychotherapy and structured self-help, both based on cognitive behavioral interventions, were found to have large effects on the reduction of binge eating. Regarding pharmacotherapy, mainly comprising antidepressants, randomized controlled trials revealed medium effects for the reduction of binge eating. Uncontrolled studies on weight-loss treatments demonstrated moderate reductions of binge eating. Combination treatments did not result in higher effects compared with single-treatment regimens. Except for weight-loss treatment, none of the interventions resulted in a considerable weight reduction. Discussion: Psychotherapy and structured self-help, both based on cognitive-behavioral interventions, should be recommended as the first-line treatments. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2010 [source]


    Risky weight control among university students

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS, Issue 1 2006
    Hala Tamim PhD
    Abstract Objective The objectives of the current study were to investigate risky weight control measures (vomiting or pills) among university students in Lebanon and to assess their relation to demographic, scholastic, and health risk behavioral characteristics. Method The study used a cross-sectional design. A proportionate random sample of 2,013 students was selected from public and private universities in Greater Beirut. Each participant completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Results Among participating students, 123 (6.1%) reported practicing risky weight control measures. Multivariate analysis indicated that younger females, cigarette smokers, engaged/married students, and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) were at increased odds of performing risky weight control measures. Conclusion Health awareness measures need to be proposed and, if possible, implemented to better define the motives and methods of weight reduction among Lebanese youth. 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Effectiveness of general practice nurse interventions in cardiac risk factor reduction among adults

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 3 2007
    Elizabeth Halcomb RN BN(Hons) Grad Cert.
    Abstract Background, Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for adults in Australia. In recent years there has been a shift in health service delivery from institutional to community-based care for chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease. The general practice setting is seen to offer greater flexibility, higher levels of efficiency and more client focused healthcare delivery than is possible in the acute care sector. It has been suggested that practice nurses represent a useful adjunct to current models of cardiovascular disease management. To date, significant descriptive research has been conducted exploring the demographics, roles, educational needs and issues facing practice nurses. However, there is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of practice nurse interventions in terms of patient outcomes, clinician satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Objectives, This review seeks to present the best available evidence regarding the efficacy of general practice nurse interventions for cardiac risk factor reduction in healthy adults, as well as those with established cardiovascular disease or known cardiac risk factors. Search Strategy, A systematic literature search was performed using Medline (1966 , 2005), CINAHL (1982 ,2005), Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 4, 2005) and the Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Library. In addition, the reference lists of retrieved papers, conference proceedings and the Internet, were scrutinised for additional trials. Selection Criteria, This review considered any English language randomised trials that investigated interventions conducted by the practice nurse for cardiovascular disease management or reduction of cardiac risk factors. Interventions conducted by specialist cardiac nurses in general practice were excluded. Outcomes measured included blood pressure, smoking cessation, total cholesterol, exercise, body weight/body mass index and cost-effectiveness. Results, Eighteen trials, reported in 33 papers, were included in the review. Ten trials investigated multifaceted interventions, while the remaining eight trials reported targeted interventions. Of the trials that reported multifaceted interventions, three trials investigated risk reduction in those with established cardiovascular disease, four trials focused on those with known cardiovascular disease risk factors and three trials included the general community. The eight trials which examined the efficacy of targeted interventions focused upon dietary intake (two trials), smoking cessation (three trials), weight reduction (one trial) and physical activity (two trials). The effect of both the multifaceted and targeted interventions on patient outcomes was variable. However, both the multifaceted and targeted interventions demonstrated similar outcome trends for specific variables. Improvements were demonstrated by most studies in blood pressure, cholesterol level, dietary intake and physical activity. The variation in outcome measures and contradictory findings between some studies makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Conclusions, While interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors have produced variable results, they offer significant potential to assist patients in modifying their personal risk profile and should be developed. The public health importance of these changes is dependant upon the sustainability of the change and its effect on the health outcomes of these individuals. Further well-designed research is required to establish the effectiveness of practice nurse interventions for cardiovascular disease management and risk factor reduction in terms of patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness. [source]


    The mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of shark fillets at different brine temperatures

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Saheeda Mujaffar
    Summary The effect of brine temperature (20, 30, 40 and 50 C) on the osmotic drying behaviour of shark slabs (10 5 1 cm) in saturated (100) brine was investigated. The parameters investigated were weight reduction, water loss, salt gain and water activity. Salt uptake and moisture data were analysed using various mathematical solutions based on Fick's Law of Diffusion and the effective diffusion coefficients were predicted after considering the process variables. The expressions presented by Azuara et al. (1992), based on the model presented by Crank (1975), were successfully used to predict the equilibrium point and to calculate diffusion coefficients at not only the initial stages of dehydration, but also at different times during the osmotic process. [source]


    Supply of over-the-counter weight-loss products from community pharmacies

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 6 2009
    Anna-Maria Andronicou
    Abstract Objectives The aim was to ascertain the availability of over-the-counter (OTC) weight-loss products from community pharmacies and other retail outlets in a large conurbation, and to determine the knowledge and practices of pharmacy staff in the supply of OTC weight-loss products. Method The setting was one primary care trust in England. We used a cross-sectional survey of 123 community pharmacies, 12 health stores and 64 supermarkets, plus telephone interview of the pharmacists. Key findings Over two-thirds of community pharmacies (69%) and health stores (67%) but few supermarkets (8%) stocked one or more OTC weight-loss products. In total, 73 different products were available from pharmacies, most of which (50) were claimed by manufacturers to be appetite suppressants. Seventy-eight pharmacists were interviewed, of whom 57 stocked OTC weight-loss products. Of these 57, only two claimed to undertake any measurements before supplying the products and 33 had no supporting materials/information about the products, although 38 claimed to provide advice. None of the 57 pharmacists had undertaken any specific training in relation to weight loss. Only 44% of all those interviewed considered OTC weight-loss products to be useful, with even fewer (35%) considering them to be safe. Conclusions Community pharmacies are a major distributor of OTC weight-loss products, despite the lack of evidence of their efficacy and concerns about their safety. Many pharmacists had limited knowledge of the products, placed few restrictions on their supply and viewed training in weight loss as unnecessary. Pharmacists should consider the appropriateness of supplying these products and utilize the opportunities presented to support weight reduction by more effective means. [source]


    Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2005
    Claudia S Riedt
    Abstract Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction: Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (,4.2 4.1%) and BMC (,4.8 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (,1.4 5.6% and ,1.1 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion: Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women. [source]