Weight Loss (weight + loss)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Weight Loss

  • body weight loss
  • excess weight loss
  • fresh weight loss
  • greater weight loss
  • intentional weight loss
  • long-term weight loss
  • lower weight loss
  • mean weight loss
  • modest weight loss
  • percentage weight loss
  • preoperative weight loss
  • rapid weight loss
  • severe weight loss
  • significant weight loss
  • sustained weight loss
  • unintentional weight loss

  • Terms modified by Weight Loss

  • weight loss intervention
  • weight loss measurement
  • weight loss temperature

  • Selected Abstracts

    Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation After Weight Loss in a Patient With Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    HEADACHE, Issue 1 2010
    Jerome J. Graber MD
    (Headache 2010;50:146-148) Acquired cerebellar tonsillar herniation is a known complication of lumboperitoneal shunt (LPS) for any indication, including idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), also known as pseudotumor cerebri.1 While the underlying pathophysiology of IIH remains unknown, increasing body mass index is a clear risk factor for the development of IIH. We describe an obese patient with IIH unresponsive to LPS who developed symptoms of intracranial hypotension and cerebellar tonsillar herniation after bariatric surgery and a 50-kg weight loss. [source]

    Prevention of Unintentional Weight Loss in Nursing Home Residents: A Controlled Trial of Feeding Assistance

    Sandra F. Simmons PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a feeding assistance intervention on food and fluid intake and body weight. DESIGN: Crossover controlled trial. SETTING: Four skilled nursing homes (NHs). PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-six long-stay NH residents at risk for unintentional weight loss. INTERVENTION: Research staff provided feeding assistance twice per day during or between meals, 5 days per week for 24 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Research staff independently weighed residents at baseline and monthly during a 24-week intervention and 24-week control period. Residents' food and fluid intake and the amount of staff time spent providing assistance to eat was assessed for 2 days at baseline and 3 and 6 months during each 24-week period. RESULTS: The intervention group showed a significant increase in estimated total daily caloric intake and maintained or gained weight, whereas the control group showed no change in estimated total daily caloric intake and lost weight over 24 weeks. The average amount of staff time required to provide the interventions was 42 minutes per person per meal and 13 minutes per person per between-meal snack, versus usual care, during which residents received, on average, 5 minutes of assistance per person per meal and less than 1 minute per person per snack. CONCLUSION: Two feeding assistance interventions are efficacious in promoting food and fluid intake and weight gain in residents at risk for weight loss. Both interventions require more staff time than usual NH care. The delivery of snacks between meals requires less time than mealtime assistance and thus may be more practical to implement in daily NH care practice. [source]

    The Minimum Data Set Weight-Loss Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes Related to Weight Loss?

    Sandra F. Simmons PhD
    Objectives: To determine whether nursing homes (NHs) that score differently on prevalence of weight loss, according to a Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to weight loss. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sixteen skilled nursing facilities: 11 NHs in the lower (25th percentile,low prevalence) quartile and five NHs in the upper (75th percentile,high prevalence) quartile on the MDS weight-loss quality indicator. Participants: Four hundred long-term residents. Measurements: Sixteen care processes related to weight loss were defined and operationalized into clinical indicators. Trained research staff conducted measurement of NH staff implementation of each care process during assessments on three consecutive 12-hour days (7 a.m. to 7 p.m.), which included direct observations during meals, resident interviews, and medical record abstraction using standardized protocols. Results: The prevalence of weight loss was significantly higher in the participants in the upper quartile NHs than in participants in the lower quartile NHs based on MDS and monthly weight data documented in the medical record. NHs with a higher prevalence of weight loss had a sig-nificantly larger proportion of residents with risk factors for weight loss, namely low oral food and fluid intake. There were few significant differences on care process measures between low- and high-weight-loss NHs. Staff in low-weight-loss NHs consistently provided verbal prompting and social interaction during meals to a greater proportion of residents, including those most at risk for weight loss. Conclusion: The MDS weight-loss quality indicator reflects differences in the prevalence of weight loss between NHs. NHs with a lower prevalence of weight loss have fewer residents at risk for weight loss and staff who provide verbal prompting and social interaction to more residents during meals, but the adequacy and quality of feeding assistance care needs improvement in all NHs. [source]

    Shedding the Pounds but not the Stigma: Negative Attributions as a Function of a Target's Method of Weight Loss

    Brent A. Mattingly
    Overweight individuals are perceived as possessing several negative attributes, which often leads them to attempt to lose weight. The current research examined if method of weight loss influences participants' attributions and perceptions of a formerly overweight target individual. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: weight loss via diet/exercise, weight loss via surgery, or control (no description of weight loss). Results indicated that, in general, the surgery targets were perceived more negatively than the diet/exercise targets. Moreover, diet/exercise targets were perceived as being less healthy, and, for female participants, more responsible for their weight than control targets. These data suggest that individuals who lose weight are still prone to the negative attributions associated with the overweight. [source]

    The Effect of Weight Loss on Perceptions of Weight Controllability: Implications for Prejudice Against Overweight People

    Bruce E. Blaine
    The influence of weight and recent weight loss on perceptions of weight controllability and prejudice against overweight people was investigated. Participants (N= 64) examined bogus health, diet, and fitness information about a female target. The target's weight (121 vs. 161 lb, or 55 vs. 73 kg) and recent weight loss (0 vs. 40 lb, or 0 vs. 18 kg) were manipulated. Perceptions of the controllability of weight, trait ratings of the target, and dislike of overweight people were measured. The results showed that weight loss increases perceptions of the controllability of weight equally in normal and overweight targets. Moreover, overweight targets were disliked more and judged more unattractive than were targets with more healthy weights, and this was particularly true for overweight targets who had recently lost weight. The implications of the results for prejudice against overweight people and the stigma of obesity are discussed. [source]

    Bone Loss, Weight Loss, and Weight Fluctuation Predict Mortality Risk in Elderly Men and Women

    Nguyen D Nguyen
    Abstract Low baseline BMD, rate of BMD loss, weight loss, and weight fluctuation are significant predictors of all-cause mortality in elderly men and women, independent of each other and of age, incident fracture, and concomitant diseases. Introduction: Although low BMD has been shown to be associated with mortality in women, the effect of BMD is affected by weight and weight change and the contribution of these factors to mortality risk, particularly in men, is not known. This study examined the association between baseline BMD, rate of bone loss, weight loss, and weight fluctuation and all-cause mortality risk in elderly men and women. Materials and Methods: Data from 1059 women and 644 men, ,60 years of age (as of 1989), of white background who participated in the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study were analyzed. All-cause mortality was recorded annually between 1989 and 2004. BMD at the femoral neck was measured by DXA (GE-LUNAR) at baseline and at approximately every 2 yr afterward. Data on incident osteoporotic fractures and concomitant diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, all types of cancer, and type I/II diabetes mellitus, was also recorded. Results: In the multivariable Cox's proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, incident fractures, and concomitant diseases, the following variables were independent risk factors of all-cause mortality in men: rate of BMD loss of at least 1%/yr, rate of weight loss of at least 1%/yr, and weight fluctuation (defined by the CV) of at least 3%. In women, in addition to the significant factors observed in men, lower baseline BMD was also an independent risk factor of mortality. In both sexes, baseline weight was not an independent and significant predictor of mortality risk. Approximately 36% and 22% of deaths in women and men, respectively, were attributable to the four risk factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that, although low BMD was a risk factor of mortality in women, it was not a risk factor of mortality in men. However, high rates of BMD loss, weight loss, and weight fluctuation were also independent predictors of all-cause mortality in elderly men and women, independent of age, incident fracture, and concomitant diseases. [source]

    Hydrocolloid-Lipid Coating Affect on Weight Loss, Pectin Content, and Textural Quality of Green Bell Peppers

    F.D. Conforti
    ABSTRACT Three coatings containing a hydrocolloid-lipid blend combination were developed and applied to green bell peppers. Peppers were refrigerated and monitored over a 5-week period to determine pectin content and textural quality. Pectin content decrease was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the uncoated peppers during the storage period. Weight loss also occurred in the uncoated peppers at a significantly greater rate, while respiration rates and puncture score differences were insignificant among all groups. The results indicate that the coatings were effective in maintaining quality during storage. A better procedure is recommended for puncture analysis. [source]

    Short-Days Induce Weight Loss in Siberian Hamsters Despite Overexpression of the Agouti-Related Peptide Gene

    P. H. Jethwa
    Many vertebrates express profound annual cycles of body fattening, although it is not clear whether these represent differential activity of the central pathways known to mediate homeostatic control of food intake and energy expenditure, or whether the recent discovery of a major role for pars tuberalis-ependymal signalling points towards novel mechanisms. We examined this in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) by using gene transfection to up-regulate a major orexigenic peptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and then determined whether this increased anabolic drive could prevent the short-day induced winter catabolic state. Infusions of a recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding an AgRP construct into the hypothalamus of hamsters in the long-day obese phase of their seasonal cycle produced a 20% gain in body weight over 6 weeks compared to hamsters receiving a control reporter construct, reflecting a significant increase in food intake and a significant decrease in energy expenditure. However, all hamsters showed a significant, prolonged decrease in body weight when exposed to short photoperiods, despite the hamsters expressing the AgRP construct maintaining a higher food intake and lower energy expenditure relative to the control hamsters. Visualisation of the green fluorescent protein reporter and analysis of AgRP-immunoreactivity confirmed widespread expression of the construct in the hypothalamus, which was maintained for the 21-week duration of the study. In conclusion, the over-expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus produced a profoundly obese state but did not block the seasonal catabolic response, suggesting a separation of rheostatic mechanisms in seasonality from those maintaining homeostasis of energy metabolism. [source]

    Dietary Composition and Weight Loss: Can We Individualize Dietary Prescriptions According to Insulin Sensitivity or Secretion Status?

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 10 2006
    Anastassios G. Pittas MD
    There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compositions may work better for identifiable groups of overweight/obese individuals based on their individual metabolic status. In particular, characteristics of insulin dynamics, such as insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion status, may interact with diets that vary in macronutrient composition to influence the weight loss achieved with a hypocaloric diet. [source]

    Baseline Leptin Levels Predict Change in Leptin Levels During Weight Loss in Obese Breast Cancer Survivors

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 2 2007
    Ananda Sen PhD
    Abstract:, Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in regulation of satiety, and it also appears to have a role in breast cancer risk. Leptin therefore might be a useful indicator of the potential preventive effects of weight loss in breast cancer survivors. In this study we examined whether the change in leptin levels could be predicted by weight loss in obese breast cancer survivors. The subjects in this study were participating in a randomized trial of an individualized approach towards weight loss in Detroit, MI. Breast cancer survivors (body mass index of 30,44 kg/m2) were enrolled and fasting blood samples were obtained for leptin analysis over 1 year of study. Leptin levels were available from at least two time points for 36 women, and weight change ranged from a gain of 11% to a loss of 25% of baseline weight. Using a repeated-measures regression model, both baseline leptin level and concurrent percent body fat were found to synergistically predict leptin levels. Thus, for women with the same body fat, those with higher baseline leptin levels are predicted to exhibit smaller decreases in leptin with weight loss. Similar results were obtained for body weight and body weight change, but the associations with body fat were stronger. Breast cancer survivors with initially higher leptin levels may differ with regard to regulation of change in leptin during weight loss resulting in relatively smaller changes in leptin with equivalent amounts of weight loss. [source]


    S. Bardsley
    Aim: , To identify the outcome of laparoscopic revision of gastric band surgery with respect to percentage of excess weight lost (%EWL). Methods: , Analysis of a prospective database was performed and %EWL was plotted with respect to time from initial procedure and also time from revision procedure. Results: , All revision operations were performed laparoscopically. There were no patient deaths, but two serious complications. Percentage Excess Weight Loss after replacement of the band because of prosthetic failure or dysphagia was 57% at an average follow up of 19 months. For repositioning of the band due to slippage, the %EWL was 72% at an average of 15 months follow up for those who had the existing band repositioned, and 42% at an average of 23 months follow up for those who had a new band repositioned. Conclusion: , Revision laparoscopic gastric band surgery is a safe option for patients, and results in good %EWL at an average follow up period of 19 months. [source]

    Early handling reduces vulnerability of rats to activity-based anorexia

    O. Carrera
    Abstract Resistance to restricted feeding with and without wheel access was tested in rats handled (H) for 20 days since birth. Weight loss produced by 1.5-hr restricted food access was less in H than in non-handled (NH) males when tested aged 41 days. At this age combining food restriction with access to a running wheel (a procedure commonly known as activity-based anorexia, ABA) produced very rapid weight loss and no effect of handling was detected. When 75-day females were tested in the same way, under the ABA procedure H rats took longer than NH controls to reach the removal criterion. Simply restricting food access in these females produced variable weight loss, without detection of any handling effect. No differences in food intake or running were detected between H and NH rats in either males or females. In conclusion, handling seems to have a direct effect on rats' later response to either food deprivation alone or to an ABA procedure. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 48: 520,527, 2006. [source]

    The therapeutics of lifestyle management on obesity

    P. A. Dyson
    The global incidence and prevalence of obesity continue to increase, with the fastest rate of increase in the developing world. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Weight loss can reduce the risk of developing these diseases and can be achieved by means of surgery, pharmacotherapy and lifestyle interventions. Lifestyle interventions for prevention and treatment of obesity include diet, exercise and psychological interventions. All lifestyle interventions have a modest but significant effect on weight loss, but there is little evidence to indicate that any one intervention is more effective. There is evidence of an additive effect for adjunct therapy, and the combination of diet, exercise and behavioural interventions appears to be most effective for both the prevention and treatment of obesity. [source]

    Benefits of moderate weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Ken Fujioka
    Weight loss is a primary goal of therapy in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. This review examines whether positive patient outcomes are observed even after relatively small amounts of weight loss, that is, weight loss being more easily attainable in practice. Clinical studies demonstrate that therapeutic benefit rises with increasing weight loss, but that losses as low as 0.45,4 kg (1,9 lb) have positive effects on metabolic control, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality rates. Even the intention to lose weight, without significant success, can improve outcomes in patients with diabetes, presumably because of the healthy behaviours associated with the attempt. The current data support a continued focus on weight loss, including moderate weight loss, as a key component of good care for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Effects of insulin resistance on endothelial function: possible mechanisms and clinical implications

    D Tousoulis
    Insulin resistance (IR) is defined as a reduced responsiveness of peripheral tissues to the effects of the hormone, referring to abated ability of insulin in stimulating glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and in inhibiting hepatic glucose output. Insulin has both a vasodilatory effect, which is largely endothelium dependent through the release of nitric oxide, and a vasoconstrictory effect through the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of endothelin-1. IR and endothelial dysfunction (ED) are not only linked by common pathogenetic mechanisms, involving deranged insulin signalling pathways, but also by other, indirect to the hormone's actions, mechanisms. Different treatment modalities have been proposed to affect positively both the metabolic effects of insulin and ED. Weight loss has been shown to improve sensitivity to insulin as a result of either altered diet or exercise. Exercise has favourable effects on endothelial function in normal states and in states of disease, in men and women, and throughout the age spectrum and, hence, in IR states. Metformin improves sensitivity to insulin and most likely affects positively ED. Studies have shown that inhibitors of the renin,angiotensin system alter IR favourably, while Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin receptor type II (ATII) inhibitors improve ED. Ongoing studies are expected to shed more light on the issue of whether treatment with the thiazolidinediones results in improvement of endothelial function, along with the accepted function of improving insulin sensitivity. Finally, improved endothelial function by such treatments is not in itself proof of reduced risk for atherosclerosis; this remains to be directly tested in clinical trials. [source]

    Schizophrenia and weight management: a systematic review of interventions to control weight

    G. Faulkner
    Objective: Weight gain is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic medication which has serious implications for a patient's health and well being. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of interventions designed to control weight gain in schizophrenia. Method: A systematic search strategy was conducted of major databases in addition to citation searches. Study quality was rated. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of eight pharmacological intervention studies reported small reductions in weight (<5% baseline body weight). All behavioural (including diet and/or exercise) interventions reported small reductions in, or maintenance of, weight. Conclusion: Weight loss may be difficult but it is not impossible. Given the inconsistent results, the widespread use of pharmacological interventions cannot be recommended. Both dietary and exercise counselling set within a behavioural modification programme is necessary for sustained weight control. [source]

    Obesity, bariatric surgery and type 2 diabetes,a systematic review

    Cynthia V. Ferchak
    Abstract Obesity is endemic in the United States and is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. Both obesity and diabetes are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Likewise, both conditions are resistant to treatment. Recent studies have evaluated prevention of type 2 diabetes through intensive lifestyle intervention, while others are examining the impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes. This article presents an overview of the impact of bariatric surgical and lifestyle interventions on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although studies using a variety of bariatric surgical techniques are included, the focus is on two interventions in particular: the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the laparoscopic silicone gastric banding procedure. Outcomes of these procedures are further contrasted with recent lifestyle intervention studies, in particular, the Diabetes Prevention Program study. Gastric bypass studies have been associated with a 99 to 100% prevention of diabetes in patients with IGT and an 80 to 90% clinical resolution of diagnosed early type 2 diabetes. Gastric banding procedures are associated with a lower median (50,60%) clinical remission of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention studies of obese and glucose-intolerant patients have achieved a 50% reduction in the progression of IGT to diabetes over the short term, with no reported resolution of the disease. Weight loss by any means in the obese patient appears to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes, at least in the short term. Furthermore, sustained weight loss through bariatric surgical intervention is associated both with prevention of progression of IGT and with clinical remission of early type 2 diabetes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of weight-reducing agents on glycaemic parameters and progression to Type 2 diabetes: a review

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2008
    C. Lloret-Linares
    Abstract Weight loss is associated with improvements in glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, in the diabetic population, weight management is more challenging, in part because of the weight-promoting effects of the majority of glucose-lowering therapies. This review summarizes evidence from 23 placebo-controlled randomized trials, of at least 1 year duration, on the effects of drugs promoting weight loss (orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant) on glycaemic variables, diabetes incidence and diabetes control. Fifteen studies of non-diabetic subjects were found, eight of which included a longer treatment period. Eight studies in diabetic patients were reviewed. In non-diabetic subjects, weight loss agents led to a significant improvement in fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance. In the diabetic population, glycated haemoglobin decreased by 0.28,1.1% with orlistat and 0.6% with sibutramine and rimonabant. Orlistat reduces progression to diabetes in patients with glucose intolerance treated for 4 years (risk reduction of 45%). In summary, despite leading to only modest weight loss after 12 months, agents promoting weight loss have beneficial effects on glycaemic parameters, glycaemic control and progression to diabetes. These additional benefits of weight loss agents need to be highlighted in order to increase their judicious use in clinical practice, although this may be limited by their well-known adverse side effects. The longer-term safety of these agents beyond a few years is yet to be established. [source]

    Furosemide Terminates Limbic Status Epilepticus in Freely Moving Rats

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2003
    Martin Holtkamp
    Summary:,Purpose: To evaluate the anticonvulsant properties of furosemide and to determine sedative side effects compared with pentobarbital and diuretic side effects compared with saline-treated controls in an experimental model of limbic status epilepticus. Methods: Self-sustaining status epilepticus was induced in rats by continuous electrical stimulation of the perforant path. Five minutes after the end of the stimulation, animals were given 100 mg/kg furosemide, 30 mg/kg pentobarbital, or an equal amount of saline, intraperitoneally. After administration of the substance, animals were monitored clinically and electrographically for 3 h regarding status epilepticus, level of sedation, and diuresis. Results: In seven of 10 animals, furosemide terminated status epilepticus after 68 26 min, whereas pentobarbital was successful in all animals after 5 0.8 min. In contrast to pentobarbital, sedation did not occur with furosemide. Weight loss after furosemide was 10.2 1.7% compared with 6.5 1.1% in animals given saline (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that furosemide may serve as an alternative or additional agent for refractory complex partial status epilepticus in patients in whom common anesthetics are not justifiable. [source]

    Nutritional supplements combined with dietary counselling diminish whole body protein catabolism in HIV-infected patients

    Background Weight loss and protein malnutrition are frequent complications in HIV-infected patients. The effect of an oral nutritional supplement combined with nutritional counselling on whole body protein metabolism was assessed. Materials and methods HIV-infected individuals with a body mass index < 21 kg m,2 or CD4-T cells < 500 , L,1 in stable clinical condition were randomly allocated to [ 1] receive either oral nutritional supplements (containing 2510 kJ, complete macro- and micronutrients) and dietary counselling (n = 8), or [ 2] identical monitoring but no supplements or specific nutritional advice (controls, n = 7). Whole body leucine kinetics and leucine oxidation rate were determined by [1,13C]-leucine infusions and lean and fat mass were measured before and 12 weeks after intervention. Results Leucine oxidation (protein catabolism) decreased in the group receiving nutritional intervention from 0.33 0.02 to 0.26 0.02 ,mol kg,1 min,1 after 12 weeks (P < 0.05; P < 0.05 vs. control group) but remained unchanged in the control group. Whole body leucine flux showed a tendency to decrease in the intervention group from 1.92 0.19 to 1.73 0.14 ,mol kg,1 min,1 (P = 0.07) and remained unchanged in the control group (2.21 0.16 and 2.27 0.14 ,mol kg,1 min,1, respectively). Lean body mass determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis increased in the nutritional intervention group from 84 2 to 86 2 per cent (P < 0.05) and fat mass decreased from 17 2 to 14 2 per cent (P < 0.05) of total body weight whereas neither mass changed in the control group. Nutritional intervention had no significant effect on lymphocyte CD4 counts, on plasma TNFR 55, TNFR 75 and ILR 2 concentrations and on quality of life. Conclusions The data demonstrate an anticatabolic effect of nutritional supplements combined with dietary counselling in HIV-infected subjects. They suggest that diminished whole body protein catabolism resulted in a change of body composition (increased lean mass, decreased fat mass). [source]

    In vitro characterization of Inocutis jamaicensis and experimental inoculation of Eucalyptus globulus standing trees

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    S. Lupo
    Summary Lesions of variable size, associated with the hymenomycete Inocutis jamaicensis, a white-rot fungus, have been observed on the stems of Eucalyptus globulus trees in Uruguay. The aim of this study was to evaluate some ecophysiological characteristics of I. jamaicensis and assess its ability to colonize E. globulus trees of two different seed origins (Geeveston and Jeeralang) and the clone, 334-1-AR, obtained by micropropagation (ENCE, Spain). The growth of an I. jamaicensis isolate (MVHC11379) was evaluated at 25C in a medium with a water potential of 0 (, = 0). The growth rate did not vary significantly with a growth medium pH of between 4 and 7. I. jamaicensis showed no growth at either 5 or 37C at any pH or , tested. Weight loss of heartwood and sapwood of different plant provenances inoculated with I. jamaicensis under laboratory conditions was evaluated, and significant differences observed. Lignin-modifying enzyme activity was evaluated in culture medium with or without E. globulus sawdust as substrate or inducer. Laccase activity was observed with sawdust and manganese peroxidase activity with and without sawdust. Only slight activity of aryl-alcohol oxidase and lignin peroxidase was detected without sawdust. Experimental inoculation with I. jamaicensis of 3-year-old Geeveston and Jeeralang, and of 4-year-old 334-1-AR stems, resulted in successful fungal colonization of 56% of the 334-1-AR, 50% of Geeveston and 25% of Jeeralang trees. Only the heartwood was decayed. In 334-1-AR, the rotted wood was delimited by a reaction zone. Wood characteristics and the ability of I. jamaicensis to overcome the chemical reactions in the tree could partially explain differences in susceptibility to the fungus among provenances observed under natural and laboratory conditions. [source]

    Silage quality when Moringa oleifera is ensiled in mixtures with Elephant grass, sugar cane and molasses

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    B. Mendieta-Araica
    Abstract Fourteen different silages were prepared using mixtures of Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv Taiwan) or sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). Molasses from sugar cane was used in the amounts of either 10 or 50 g kg,1 fresh matter (FM) in treatments without sugar cane. A completely randomized design with three replicates of each treatment was used. The silages were prepared in 1800 mL micro silos and opened after 120 d. The presence of Moringa and Elephant grass in the silage changed the pH by ,08 and +07, respectively (P < 0001), indicating a favourable effect of Moringa on silage pH. Overall differences were found among treatments for dry matter content, crude protein and acetic acid concentrations, weight loss, CO2 production and silage pH after spoilage (P < 0001). Weight loss was proportionately 0034 and 0014 in silages with and without sugar cane respectively (P < 0001). Overall, differences (P < 005) were also found for neutral-detergent fibre and lactic acid concentrations, lactic acid bacteria counts, clostridial counts and time to spoilage of the silages. Treatments containing Moringa had higher lactic acid concentrations (+16 g kg,1 DM; P < 001) compared to treatments without but the presence of Moringa decreased time to spoilage by 67 h (P < 005). No differences were found in propionic acid concentration or fungal growth of the silages. It is concluded that Moringa can be used as a component of high quality silages which also contain high concentrations of crude protein. [source]

    Aerobic exercise training reduces hepatic and visceral lipids in obese individuals without weight loss,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Nathan A. Johnson
    Weight loss remains the most common therapy advocated for reducing hepatic lipid in obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Yet, reduction of body weight by lifestyle intervention is often modest, and thus, therapies which effectively modulate the burden of fatty liver but are not contingent upon weight loss are of the highest practical significance. However, the effect of aerobic exercise on liver fat independent of weight loss has not been clarified. We assessed the effect of aerobic exercise training on hepatic, blood, abdominal and muscle lipids in 19 sedentary obese men and women using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Four weeks of aerobic cycling exercise, in accordance with current physical activity guidelines, significantly reduced visceral adipose tissue volume by 12% (P < 0.01) and hepatic triglyceride concentration by 21% (P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant (14%) reduction in plasma free fatty acids (P < 0.05). Exercise training did not alter body weight, vastus lateralis intramyocellular triglyceride concentration, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, 1H-MRS,measured hepatic lipid saturation, or HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; P > 0.05). Conclusion: These data provide the first direct experimental evidence demonstrating that regular aerobic exercise reduces hepatic lipids in obesity even in the absence of body weight reduction. Physical activity should be strongly promoted for the management of fatty liver, the benefits of which are not exclusively contingent upon weight loss. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies

    S. Van Weyenberg
    Summary In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T3, T4 and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T3 and leptin. In conclusion: in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity. [source]

    Evolution of blood parameters during weight loss in experimental obese Beagle dogs

    M. Diez
    Summary The effects of weight loss on hormonal and biochemical blood parameters were measured monthly [carnitine, creatinine, urea, free T4 (fT4), total T4 (TT4), plasma alkaline phosphatases (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), potassium and total proteins] or bimonthly [cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), glucose, insulin] in eight obese Beagles dogs fed either a high protein dry diet, DP (crude protein 47.5%, on dry matter basis) or a commercial high fibre diet, HF (crude protein 23.8%, crude fibre 23.3%). The dogs were allotted to two groups according to sex and body weight (BW) and they were respectively fed with the DP or the control HF diet during 12,26 weeks, until they reach their optimal BW. The plasma basal triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were decreased by the two diets but the difference was only significant for the DP diet. The plasma mean NEFA concentration increased regularly over the period with the HF diet, without significant difference between the two diets. No effect of diet or weight loss was observed on plasma carnitine, urea, creatinine, ALP, AST, ALT, potassium, TT4, FT4, IGF-I, glucose and insulin. Weight loss induced a decrease in fT4 plasma concentration (p < 0.001). The high protein diet allowed a safe weight loss. [source]

    Overweight Postmenopausal Women Lose Bone With Moderate Weight Reduction and 1 g/day Calcium Intake,

    Claudia S Riedt
    Abstract Overweight postmenopausal women may be more susceptible to bone loss with weight reduction than previously studied obese women. The influence of energy restriction and Ca intake on BMD was assessed in 66 individuals. Weight reduction resulted in bone loss at several sites in women consuming 1 g Ca/day and was mitigated with higher calcium intake at 1.7 g/day. Introduction: Bone loss is associated with weight loss in obese postmenopausal women and can be prevented with calcium (Ca) supplementation. However, because bone loss caused by weight loss may be greater in overweight than obese women, it is not clear whether Ca supplementation is also beneficial in overweight women. Materials and Methods: We assessed the influence of caloric restriction at two levels of Ca intake on BMD and BMC in 66 overweight postmenopausal women (age, 61 6 years; body mass index, 27.0 1.8 kg/m2). Subjects completed either a 6-month energy-restricted diet (WL, n = 47) and lost 9.3 3.9 % weight or maintained weight (WM; 1 g Ca/day, n = 19). Participants in the WL group were randomly assigned to either normal (1 g/day; WL NL-Ca) or high (1.7 g/day; WL Hi-Ca) Ca intake. Regional BMD and BMC were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: During normal Ca intake, trochanter BMD and BMC and total spine BMD were decreased more in WL than WM women (p < 0.05). The WL NL-Ca group lost more trochanter BMD (,4.2 4.1%) and BMC (,4.8 7.1%) than the WL Hi-Ca group (,1.4 5.6% and ,1.1 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in BMD or BMC at the femoral neck in any group. Weight loss correlated with trochanter BMD loss (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) in the WL NL-Ca group. Conclusion: Despite an intake of 1 g Ca/day, bone loss occurred at some sites because of weight loss. Calcium intake of 1.7 g/day will minimize bone loss during weight loss in postmenopausal overweight women. [source]

    Weight loss and incretin responsiveness improve glucose control independently after gastric bypass surgery

    JOURNAL OF DIABETES, Issue 1 2010
    Mousumi BOSE
    Abstract Background:, The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying Type 2 diabetes remission after gastric bypass (GBP) surgery by characterizing the short- and long-term changes in hormonal determinants of blood glucose. Methods:, Eleven morbidly obese women with diabetes were studied before and 1, 6, and 12 months after GBP; eight non-diabetic morbidly obese women were used as controls. The incretin effect was measured as the difference in insulin levels in response to oral glucose and to an isoglycemic intravenous challenge. Outcome measures were glucose, insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, amylin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels and the incretin effect on insulin secretion. Results:, The decrease in fasting glucose (r = 0.724) and insulin (r = 0.576) was associated with weight loss up to 12 months after GBP. In contrast, the blunted incretin effect (calculated at 22%) that improved at 1 month remained unchanged with further weight loss at 6 (52%) and 12 (52%) months. The blunted incretin (GLP-1 and GIP) levels, early phase insulin secretion, and other parameters of ,-cell function (amylin, proinsulin/insulin) followed the same pattern, with rapid improvement at 1 month that remained unchanged at 1 year. Conclusions:, The data suggest that weight loss and incretins may contribute independently to improved glucose levels in the first year after GBP surgery. [source]


    ABSTRACT Improvement of storage quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe using a combination precut heat treatment and a modified underwater cutting treatment was determined. Eating quality was evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, and fruit integrity was measured with respiration, cell leakage and product weight loss. Treatments included (1) control (no treatment); (2) making the first longitudinal cut underwater; (3) mild precut heat treatment in a water bath at 60C for 60 min; and (4) combination of precut heat treatment and the underwater cutting methods. Precut heating and processing underwater resulted in more intense fruity/melon flavor compared to conventional processed fresh-cut fruit. Reduced electrolyte leakage and enhanced membrane integrity were observed in all three experimental treatments, as evidenced by lower conductivity measurements. The underwater cut and combined treatments significantly reduced respiration during fresh-cut storage, reflecting less physical stress and membrane damage. Weight loss was not significantly affected by any treatment during fresh-cut storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS There is a steady increase in the consumption of fresh-cut produce. To enhance the storage quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe melon, two minimal processing techniques were examined separately and combined. The methods are mild heat treatment of the whole melon at 60C for 60 min then cooling to 4C for 24 h, cutting the cantaloupe in half and removing the seeds while submerged in a calcium chloride and water solution, and the combination of the two treatments. These methods are simple and can be utilized by small or large processors to maintain sensory quality and fruit integrity during storage. [source]


    ABSTRACT Tomato fruit at pink or light-red stages of ripening were cut into slices, rinsed with water containing 50 ,L.L,1 sodium hypochlorite and drained. They were stored in perforated polyethylene package at 1C in air or controlled atmosphere for five and ten days. Weight loss, chlorophyll and lycopene contents, seed discoloration, fungal infection, total soluble solids content, titratable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, pH, flavor and taste, firmness, ascorbic acid content, rate of respiration and ethylene production, and electrolyte leakage were evaluated after each storage period. The overall quality of controlled atmosphere-stored slices was better than that of air stored slices. Slices from light-red fruit had lower weight loss, minimum seed discoloration, lower [source]

    Retail Shelf-Life of Pork Dipped in Organic Acid before Modified Atmosphere or Vacuum Packaging

    Nai-Yun Huang
    ABSTRACT Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is increasingly popular for meat, but raw, chilled pork in vacuum or anoxic environments has a purple color. The retail shelf-life of pork chops dipped in 500 ppm ascorbic acid, 250 ppm citric acid, or no acid dip and stored at 1 C before simulated retail display in MAP with gas exchange or air-permeable packaging after vacuum pouch storage was determined. The 80% N2:20% CO2 in MAP was exchanged with 80% O2:20% CO2, and chops were removed from vacuum packages and overwrapped with permeable film (VP-PVC) on the 7th day before simulated retail display at 4 C. Shelf-life traits were determined at 1, 7, 8, 10, 12, and 14 d postpackaging. The pH values changed with time, but returned to post-dipped, prepackaged levels at the end of simulated retail storage. Weight loss of chops increased (P < 0.05) in VP-PVC compared with MAP. The a* values increased (P < 0.05) and L* and b* values decreased during simulated retail display, with higher L*, a*, and b* color values for chops in MAP than VP-PVC. Log numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were higher (P < 0.05) on VP-PVC samples than for chops in MAP on days 12 and 14. Psychrotrophic counts on ascorbic acid-treated samples were decreased compared with citric acid or no dipping on pork during simulated retail display. Pork chops in MAP with gas exchange had lighter and redder color, increased weight retention, decreased psychrotrophic counts, and increased lipid oxidation compared with conventional vacuum and overwrap packaging systems. [source]