Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Rational Reconstruction of Weighing and Balancing on the Basis of Teleological-Evaluative Considerations in the Justification of Judicial Decisions

RATIO JURIS, Issue 4 2008
In this contribution the author develops an argumentation model for the reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations. The model is intended as a heuristic and critical tool for the rational reconstruction of the justification of judicial decisions. From the perspective of a rational discussion, it makes explicit the choices underlying the weighing and balancing on the basis of goals and values so that they can be made explicit and submitted to rational critique. [source]

A simple, and potentially low-cost method for measuring the prevalence of childhood obesity

K. Routh
Abstract Background, Recent official publications have highlighted obesity as one of the biggest threats to public health and the prevalence of obesity in children is widely believed to be rising rapidly. However, there are no data on the prevalence of childhood obesity at a local level. We have developed a simple low-cost method of gaining such data by working with local schools. Method, We designed our method on the observation that numeracy and data handling skills are often taught in schools by getting children to measure their height and weight. We recruited seven schools and offered them a numeracy lesson plan suitable for year 5 (aged 9,10) children together with healthcare staff to attend the lesson. As part of the lesson, each child's height and weight was measured and recorded anonymously. Parental consent was obtained on an ,opt out' basis. The method was evaluated by questionnaire. Results, We gained data on body mass index for 252 children. In total, 20% of the children were overweight, and 7% obese. The brief questionnaire survey indicated that both teachers and school nurses were happy with the method and would repeat it. Weighing was carried out sensitively. Conclusion, Our findings were in line with national studies of the prevalence of childhood obesity. The method was simple, low-cost and acceptable to schools and school nurses. There seems no reason why this project cannot be used more widely across the Primary Care Trust (PCT) and beyond. We now propose to roll out the method across all primary schools in Birmingham. [source]

Structural and microhardness studies of pure and thiourea doped glycine phosphite single crystal

R. Ezhil Vizhi
Abstract Ferroelectric Glycine Phosphite (GPI) crystal have been grown from aqueous solution employing the slow cooling technique. As the crystal solubility in water depends on temperature, single crystals were grown. Transparent, colourless crystals with habit morphology weighing about 8g were obtained with in a month. The same procedure was used to grow single crystals of 10 wt% of Thiourea doped GPI (TUGPI). Formation of a new crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction studies as well as FTIR studies. Crystalline quality were found using rocking curve for both the crystals. Due to the presence of Thiourea in TUGPI, it improves the crystalline perfection and also enhances the growth rate. The variation of hardness on (010) faces of monoclinic GPI and TUGPI crystals, with load were studied.Vickers hardness numbers, Hv were found to decrease with the increase in load. The value of Mayer's index, ,n ' was found to be greater than 1.6 for GPI and TUGPI showing soft-material category. The results are discussed in detail. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

An Emergency Department Intervention to Increase Booster Seat Use for Lower Socioeconomic Families

Michael A. Gittelman MD
Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of booster seat education within an emergency department (ED) setting for families residing in lower socioeconomic neighborhoods. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized study of families with children aged 4 to 7 years and weighing 40 to 80 lb who presented to a pediatric ED without a booster seat and resided in lower socioeconomic communities. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received standard discharge instructions, 2) received five-minute booster seat training, and 3) received five-minute booster seat training and free booster seat with installation. Automobile restraint practices were obtained initially and by telephone at one month. Results: A total of 225 children were enrolled. Before randomization in the study, 79.6% of parents reported that their child was usually positioned in the car with a lap/shoulder belt and 13.3% with a lap belt alone. Some parents (16.4%) had never heard of a booster seat, and 44.9% believed a lap belt was sufficient restraint. A total of 147 parents (65.3%) were contacted for follow-up at one month. Only one parent (1.3%) in the control group and four parents (5.3%) in the education group purchased and used a booster seat after their ED visit, while 55 parents (98.2%) in the education and installation group reported using the booster seat; 42 (75.0%) of these parents reported using the seat 100% of the time. Conclusions: Education in a pediatric ED did not convince parents to purchase and use booster seats; however, the combination of education with installation significantly increased booster seat use in this population. [source]

,Sustainable development' as a criterion for the interpretation of Article 6 of the Habitats Directive

Herwig Unnerstall
Abstract Article 6(4) of the Habitats Directive requires a weighing up of environmental and economic interests in order to allow for deviation from valid environmental standards. This provision has to be interpreted in the light of the tasks and aims of the European treaties, especially in the light of sustainable development (SD). It is not only a political aim, but was also introduced in the European treaties in 1997 as both legally binding task and goal. This paper develops a comprehensive interpretative understanding of these provisions and their consequences for the application of European environmental law. SD is usually understood as being one aim amongst others and having three dimensions of SD (ecological, social and economic) of equal weight. This concept of equal weight contradicts the idea of a common but differentiated responsibility (CBDR), which is an essential part of SD. The CBDR requires that ,SD' has de facto different meanings in different member states according to their economic development. Therefore, Article 6 of the Habitats Directive may only be applied in those areas of the Community having a development lag. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid and oxcarbazepine on rat uterine and ovarian cells

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2010
Ali Cansu
Summary Purpose:, To determine the histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on rat uterine and ovarian cells. Methods:, Fifty-six female prepubertal Wistar rats (21,24 days old and weighing between 47.5 and 58.1 g) were divided equally into four groups, which were given drinking water (controls), 300 mg/kg/day of VPA, 100 mg/kg/day of OXC or VPA + OXC via gavage, for 90 days. Ovaries and uteri of rats on proestrous and diestrous phases of estrous cycle were extirpated and placed in a fixation solution. The tissue specimens were assessed with apoptosis (TUNEL) staining protocols, eosinophil counting, and electron microscopic techniques. Results:, In uteri, apoptosis in stroma, mitochondrial swelling, and cristolysis were observed in the VPA group, and OXC led to negative effects on epithelial cell and intracellular edema. In ovaries, both drugs increased apoptosis and intracytoplasmic edema. Organelle structure disruption was also observed in the OXC group. More conspicuous degenerative modifications were determined in the VPA + OXC group. In uteri, the number of TUNEL-positive luminal epithelial cells was 7.20 ± 1.32 in controls, and significantly increased to 29.60 ± 1.58, 34.20 ± 2.53, and 54.80 ± 2.04 in VPA, OXC, and VPA + OXC groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest number of TUNEL-positive glandular epithelium cells was observed in the VPA + OXC group; however, the number of TUNEL-positive stroma cells was highest in the VPA group. The highest number of eosinophils in stroma was in the VPA group. Conclusion:, VPA and OXC trigger apoptotic and degenerative effects on rat uterine and ovarian cells. VPA also prevents implantation of embryo to the uterus and causes abortion via endometrial eosinophil infiltration. [source]

Effect of Dipotassium Clorazepate on Ainygdaloid-Kiiidling and Comparison Between Amygdaloid- and Hippocampal-Kindled Seizures in Rats

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2000
Kouichiro Amano
Purpose: We reportcd previously that dipotassium clorazcpate (potassium 7-chloro-2, 3-dihydro-2-oxo-S-phcnyI- l H- l, 4-bcnzodiazepinc-3-carboxylate potassium hydroxide: DC), an antianxiety drug, suppressed hippocampel kindled scizures in rats i n a dose-dependent manner (Amano et al. Psychiatry Clin Neuroscienccs 1998; 52: 459,462). Its effect on kindling, howcver, has not been evaluated. Moreover, differcnces in the anticonvulsive effccts of conventional anticonvulsants bctween amygdaloid-and hippocampal-kindlcd seizures have becn reportcd (Kamci et al. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn I98 1; 249: 164,176). To clarify the anticonvulsive propcrties of DC, we examined its effects on amygdaloid kindling and compared it for 7 succcssive days against amygdaloid- and hippocampal-kindled seizures using thc rat kindling model of epilcpsy. Methods: Adult inale Wistar rata weighing 220,330 g werc used. Electrodes were implanted stereotaxically into thc left basoiatcfiil amygdala or the left dorsal hippocampus under pcntobarhital ancsthesia. Expcriment 1: Anticonvulsive effect on amygdaloid-kindled seizurcs. Rats having >5 consecutive stage-5 seimrcs were htimulated at the generalizcd seizure-triggering threshold (GST) intensity 30 minutes after i.p. administration or DC or saline. Experiment 2: Effect on amygdala kindling. In other groups of Tiits, the amygdala was stimulated once daily following 30 minutes i.p. administration or DC at 5 mg/kg or saline until the first stage-5 seizure was attained. Experimcnt 3: Comparison of anticonvulsive effect bctween amygdaloid- and hippocampal-kindled scizures. In other groups of rats having 5 consecutive stage-5 seizures, the GST was determined. Furthermorc, rats having >I0 stage-5 scizures induced at thc GST intensity were testcd once a day for 7 consecutive days. Thc stimulation was delivercd 30 minutes aftcr i.p. administration of DC or saline. Results: Expcriment I: DC suppresscd amygdaloid-kindled scizures in a dose-depcndent manner. Significant reduction of aftcr-discharge duration compared with the control group was observed at dosagcs of 2 mg/kg or more, hut complete suppression of after-discharges was observed in only I of 7 sessions at the highcst dose. Expcriment 2: Thc number of stimulations rcquired for the first stage-5 seiiurc in the 5 mg/kg dosage group was 14.1+1.4 stimulations, which was significantly greater than the 10.2+1.7 stimulations in the control group (P4.01). The contralateral cortical afterdischarge duration i n the DC treated group was signilicantly shortcr than thc afterdischarge duration in the amygdala at the first 7 stimulations, whereas it was significantly shorter only the first 3 stimulations i n the control group. Experiment 3: DC suppressed amygdaloid-kindled seizures at 2 and 5 mg/kg, whcreas I mg/kg or morc suppresscd hippocampal-kindlcd seizures. Conclusions: Thc result of the present study suggcst that thc principal anticonvulsive cffect of DC is likely to be relatcd mainly to attenuation of propagation of scizure activity rather than to an elevatcd seizure threshold, which may support our previously findings that increased stimulus intensity could not complctcly reverse thc anticonvulsive effects of DC. Thus, differences in effective dosages in both amygdaloid- and hippocampal-kindled seizures may suggcst a difference in the neuronal mechanisms that arc cvolved in this kindling. The present study dcmonstratcd that DC has a modest anticonvulsive effect without serious adverse effccts, which indicates thc clinical uscfulness of DC for treatment intractable epilepsy. [source]

Consequences for enamel development and mineralization resulting from loss of function of ameloblastin or enamelin

Charles E. Smith
Although the nonamelogenin proteins, ameloblastin and enamelin, are both low-abundance and rapidly degrading components of forming enamel, they seem to serve essential developmental functions, as suggested by findings that an enamel layer fails to appear on teeth of mice genetically engineered to produce either a truncated form of ameloblastin (exons 5 and 6 deleted) or no enamelin at all (null). The purpose of this study was to characterize, by direct micro weighing, changes in enamel mineralization occurring on maxillary and mandibular incisors of mice bred for these alterations in nonamelogenin function (Ambn+/+, +/,5,6, ,5,6/,5,6, Enam+/+, +/, ,,/,). The results indicated similar changes to enamel-mineralization patterns within the altered genotypes, including significant decreases by as much as 50% in the mineral content of maturing enamel from heterozygous mice and the formation of a thin, crusty, and disorganized mineralized layer, rather than true enamel, on the labial (occlusal) surfaces of incisors and molars along with ectopic calcifications within enamel organ cells in Ambn,5,6/,5,6 and Enam,/, homozygous mice. These findings confirm that both ameloblastin and enamelin are required by ameloblasts to create an enamel layer by appositional growth as well as to assist in achieving its unique high level of mineralization. [source]

Discards from the commercial gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus, in New South Wales, Australia: spatial variability and initial effects of change in minimum legal length of target species

C. A. Gray
Abstract A scientific observer programme was used to quantify the composition and magnitude of discards in the gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier), in three barrier estuaries in New South Wales, Australia, during the 2001 fishing season. Regulations only permit the retention of legal-sized dusky flathead and legal-sized blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus L., and mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskål); all other organisms were discarded. Sampling was stratified into two time periods; before and after 1 July 2001 which coincided with the increase in the minimum legal length (MLL) of dusky flathead from 33 to 36 cm total length (TL). Eighty one catches were sampled, yielding 38 finfish species and two portunid crab species. Legal-sized dusky flathead were the most abundant organism captured, accounting for 23,47% by number and 34,54% by weight of the mean observed catch depending on the estuary and survey period, with a mean catch of 25,59 flathead weighing 13,25 kg per fishing-night. Species composition and relative abundance of catches differed among estuaries, but not between sampling periods. Predominant bycatch species included legal and undersize blue swimmer crab, sea mullet, Mugil cephalus L., luderick, Girella tricuspidata (Quoy & Gaimard), bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther) and yellowfin leatherjacket, Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther). These five species accounted for 82% of total bycatch by number and 71% by weight, pooled across the three estuaries. More crabs were retained than discarded, with retained legal-size crabs (byproduct) accounting for 16% of total bycatch by number and 13% by weight, with an average of 5,22 crabs weighing 1,6 kg being caught per fishing-night, depending on the estuary. Overall, 7% of dusky flathead captured (number) were below the MLL of 36 cm and discarded, suggesting the nets as currently configured may be relatively selective in catching legal-size flathead. However, 41% of dusky flathead were <40 cm TL, indicating that if the MLL for this species is increased to this length as proposed, new nets must be introduced into the fishery. The findings are discussed in terms of making the flathead fishery more sustainable, including alternative management strategies for the fishery. [source]

Three Secondary Reference Materials for Lithium Isotope Measurements: Li7-N, Li6-N and LiCl-N Solutions

Jean Carignan
matériaux de référence; isotopes de Li; solutions de Li; QUAD-ICP-MS; MC-ICP-MS The CRPG (Nancy, France) has prepared secondary reference materials for Li isotope measurements by mixing 7Li or 6Li spikes and either L-SVEC or IRMM-016 certified reference materials to produce solutions having a known Li concentration and isotopic composition. The Li7-N and Li6-N solution samples (1.5 mol l,1 HNO3) have nominal ,7Li isotopic compositions of 30.1, and -9.7, respectively relative to L-SVEC and concentrations of 100 mg l,1. Repeated measurement of these samples using the QUAD-ICP-MS at the CRPG yielded ,7Li of 30.4 ± 1.1, (n = 13) and -8.9 ± 0.9, (n = 9) at the 2s level of confidence. An additional LiCl-N solution was measured and yielded a delta value of 9.5 ± 0.6, (n = 3). Identical results were obtained at the BRGM (Orléans, France) from determinations performed with a Neptune MC-ICP-MS (30.2 ± 0.3,, n = 89 for the Li7-N, -8.0 ± 0.3,, n = 38 for the Li6-N and 10.1 ± 0.2,, n = 46 for LiCl-N at the 2s level of confidence). The deviation of measured composition relative to the nominal value for the Li6-N solution might be explained by either contamination during preparation or an error during sample weighing. These secondary reference materials, previously passed through ion exchange resin or directly analysed, may be used for checking the accuracy of Li isotopic measurements over a range of almost 40, and will be available to the scientific community upon request to J. Carignan or N. Vigier, CRPG. Le CRPG (Nancy, France) a préparé des matériaux secondaires de référence pour l'analyse des isotopes du Li en mélangeant des spikes de 7Li ou 6Li avec les matériaux de référence certifiés L-SVEC ou IRMM-016, ceci afin de produire des solutions ayant des concentrations et compositions isotopiques de Li connues. Les solutions Li7-N et Li6-N (1.5 mol l,1 HNO3) ont des compositions isotopiques nominales de ,7Li, exprimées par rapport à L-SVEC, de 30.1, et de -9.7, respectivement, et des concentrations de 10 0 mg l,1. L'analyse répétée de ces solutions par QUAD-ICP-MS au CRPG donne des ,7Li de 30.4 ± 1.1, (n = 13) et -8.9 ± 0.9, (n = 9) avec une incertitude à 2s. Une solution additionnelle de LiCl-N a été analysée et a donné une valeur de delta de 9.5 ± 0.6, (n = 3). Des résultats identiques ont été obtenus au BRGM (Orléans, France) où les déterminations ont été effectuées sur le MC-ICP-MS Neptune (30.2 ± 0.3,, n = 89 pour Li7-N, -8.0 ± 0.3,, n = 38 pour Li6-N et 10.1 ± 0.2,, n = 46 pour LiCl-N, à 2s d'intervalle de confiance). Le biais entre les compositions mesurées et la valeur nominale, observé pour la solution Li6-N peut être expliqué par une contamination durant la préparation ou par une erreur durant la pesée. Ces matériaux secondaires de référence, préalablement passés sur résine échangeuse d'ions ou analysés directement, peuvent être utilisés pour vérifier la justesse des analyses isotopiques de Li sur une gamme de presque 40% et sont à la disposition de la communauté scientifique sur demande auprès de J. Carignan ou N. Vigier, CRPG. [source]


ABSTRACT As a history of the origins and development of American racism, White over Black received great acclaim upon its publication in 1968. Deeply researched and covering some 650 pages, it eschewed professional jargon and offered a deft prose style and close attention to matters of sexuality in revealing the origins and lasting influence of racist attitudes arising from Englishmen's impressions of blacks before they became, preeminently, slaves in North America. Jordan's careful weighing of evidence and causation made readers appreciate what he believed his evidence repeatedly demonstrated about white Americans' attitudes toward African-Americans: "the power of irrationality in men." Despite the initial acclaim and scholarly achievement, White over Black soon lost pace with the curve of politics and academic fashion. By the mid-1970s, the post-World War II liberal consensus on racial issues had disintegrated, and professional historians were writing principally for other professional historians. Within a decade after its publication, White over Black was relegated to the wasteland of the "suggested supplemental reading list." However, the book's grasp of the fundamental historical issues requiring explanation has received recent affirmation from influential scholarly and political quarters. A dispassionate review of the literature leading up to and following White over Black's publication indicates that Jordan's emphasis on the causal contribution of racist attitudes to the rise of African slavery in British North America was on target. Moreover, Jordan's appreciation that academic historians should write for nonprofessionals is now widely held inside the academy. The historical accuracy and cogency of expression of Jordan's perspective on race and slavery make White over Black worth reexamining. [source]

Autohemicastration in a man without schizophrenia

Akiko Murota-Kawano
Abstract A 52-year-old unmarried bag craftsman was admitted to East Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital because of a large scrotal hematoma. He had accidentally hit his right testis against the edge of a desk early the previous morning. He had resected his right testis with scissors to release from severe pain 30 min after the accident. He had sutured the scrotal incision with two stitches of string by himself. At the emergency operation 36 h after the self-mutilation, we removed a hematoma weighing 283 g and ligated the cut end of the right spermatic cord after adequate debridement. He was diagnosed by a psychiatrist as having slightly low intelligence without psychotic disorder or drug abuse. [source]

Decision-making for acutely ill nursing home residents: nurses in the middle

Ruth Palan Lopez
Abstract Title.,Decision-making for acutely ill nursing home residents: nurses in the middle. Aim., This paper is a report of a study to generate a model of nursing behaviours and social processes inherent in decision-making for acutely ill nursing home residents. Background., Most research concerning clinical decision-making in nursing homes focuses on the perspectives of doctors. Much less is known about the perspectives and actions of nurses with regard to decision-making, despite the centrality of their roles in nursing homes. Method., Grounded theory was used. Data were collected in 2004 in four nursing homes in the United States of America using in-depth, semi-structured interviews, 74 hours of non-participant observation and informal conversational interviews with key nursing staff involved in decision-making. Findings., Nurses strive to create a plan of care acceptable to family members and doctors, consistent with wishes of residents and most comfortable for residents. A unifying theme of satisfying all sides emerged as representative of the negotiation strategies used by nurses to address these competing points of view. Four phases in this negotiation occurred: weighing the significance; notifying the family; feeling it out; and playing the middleman. The outcome was either a decision for life-prolongation or for palliative care. Conclusion., Decisions for nursing home residents are complex and involve weighing and balancing the interests and preferences of many concerned participants, including residents, families and doctors. This process requires skill in clinical judgment, communication and collaboration. [source]

Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in the Yukon: starvation, stress, adaptation or artefact?

Summary 1Overwinter mass loss can reduce energetic requirements in mammals (Dehnel's phenomenon). Alternatively, mass loss can result from food limitation or high predation risk. 2We use data from fertilizer, food-supplementation and predator-exclusion experiments in the Yukon during a population cycle from 1986 to 1996 to test the causes of overwinter mass loss by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In all years, some hares on control sites gained mass overwinter. During the increase phase the majority gained mass, but in all other phases the majority lost mass. 3Snowshoe hares weighing < 1000 g in autumn always gained mass overwinter, as did the majority that weighed 1000,1400 g. Hares weighing > 1800 g in autumn usually lost mass. 4Snowshoe hares on the predator-exclosure + food site gained mass overwinter in all years. Hares on the food-supplementation sites lost mass during the decline but gained mass in all other phases. Fertilization had little effect on mass dynamics. 5Snowshoe hares were more likely to lose mass during winters with low survival rates. Snowshoe hares on the predator-exclosure treatments were more likely to gain mass than were hares on control sites. 6Overwinter mass loss was correlated with maximum snow depth. At equivalent snow depths, hares on food-supplemented areas lost 98 g (± 14·6 SE) less on average than hares on the controls and predator-exclosure treatment. 7Bone-marrow fat was related to body mass and cause of death. Small hares had the lowest marrow fat. Hares killed by humans had higher marrow fat than those killed by predators; hares that simply died had the lowest marrow fat. Hares on food-supplemented sites had the highest kidney and marrow fat. 8Overwinter-mass loss for snowshoe hares is explained interactively by winter conditions, food supply, predation risk and autumn mass. Some snowshoe hares lost mass overwinter in all years and on all treatments, suggesting that reducing body mass may facilitate survival, especially in cases where foraging costs are high energetically or increase predation risk. [source]

Influence of crop residue ration supplementation on the attainment of puberty and postpartum reproductive activities of Red Sokoto goats

B. S. Malau-Aduli
Summary The general objective of this study was to come up with an appropriate, affordable and locally available crop residue supplementation package that would enhance reproductive performance in small ruminants. Specifically, 28 Red Sokoto weaner does between 3 and 4 months of age weighing between 2 and 3 kg were used in the first experiment to determine the influence of crop residue supplementation on age and weight at puberty as determined by blood progesterone levels. In the second experiment, another 28 adult does (,2 years old) of the same breed in the same flock with lactation numbers between 1 and 3 were used to determine the length of postpartum acyclic period. In both experiments, a 3 × 2 factorial experimental design comprising three dietary supplements (A, B, C) at two feeding levels (1% and 2% of body weight) fed in addition to a basal diet of Digitaria smutsii hay and natural pasture ad libitum with an unsupplemented negative control group (D) and four goats per treatment was utilized. In ration A, a conventional concentrate supplement consisting of maize, wheat offal, cottonseed cake and bonemeal was utilized; in rations B and C, the supplement consisted of guinea-corn bran, cowpea husk and groundnut haulms; and maize offal, groundnut shells and groundnut haulms respectively. Unsupplemented (ration D) weaner does reached puberty at a later age and had lighter body weights than all the others. Weaner does on ration 2A (concentrate fed at 2% of body weight) attained puberty at the earliest age and heaviest body weight, although the age at puberty was not significantly different from those on rations 1A (concentrate fed at 1% body weight), 1C and 2C. Blood progesterone profiles before and after puberty ranged from 0.05 to 9.0 ng/ml, respectively, and was highest in does fed rations A and C and least in the unsupplemented does. The mean interval between kidding and initiation of ovarian activity was 54.28 ± 17.61 days and the mean interval between kidding and conception was 63.04 ± 25.34 days. Only 25% of the unsupplemented does conceived again during the period under study compared with 100% in rations 1A, 2A, 1C and 2C; 75% in ration 2B and 50% in ration 1B. It was concluded that implementation of supplementary feeding in the dry season improves reproductive performance in the Red Sokoto doe. Furthermore, ration C, a crop residue-based ration, was a suitable dry season supplementation alternative to the expensive conventional concentrate ration for the smallholder goat farmer in the subhumid tropics of Nigeria. [source]

Optimal Body Temperature in Transitional Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Using Heart Rate and Temperature as Indicators

Robin B. Knobel
ABSTRACT Objective: To explore body temperature in relationship to heart rate in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants during their first 12 hours to help identify the ideal set point for incubator control of body temperature. Design: Within subject, multiple-case design. Setting: A tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Participants: Ten infants born at fewer than 29 weeks gestation and weighing 400 to 1,000 g. Methods: Heart rate and abdominal body temperature were measured at 1-minute intervals for 12 hours. Heart rates were considered normal if they were between the 25th and 75th percentile for each infant. Results: Abdominal temperatures were low throughout the 12-hour study period (mean 35.17-36.68 °C). Seven of 10 infants had significant correlations between abdominal temperature and heart rate. Heart rates above the 75th percentile were associated with low and high abdominal temperatures; heart rates less than the 25th percentile were associated with very low abdominal temperatures. The extent to which abdominal temperature was abnormally low was related to the extent to which the heart rate trended away from normal in 6 of the 10 infants. Optimal temperature control point that maximized normal heart rate observations for each infant was between 36.8 °C and 37 °C. Conclusions: Hypothermia was associated with abnormal heart rates in transitional ELBW infants. We suggest nurses set incubator servo between 36.8 °C and 36.9 °C to optimally control body temperature for ELBW infants. [source]

Women's Decision Making About the Use of Hormonal and Nonhormonal Remedies for the Menopausal Transition

Rosemary Theroux
Objective: To critically review qualitative research on women's decision making about the use of hormonal and nonhormonal remedies for the menopausal transition. Data Sources: Computerized searches in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Medscape, and PsychINFO databases, using the keywords decision making, hormone therapy, herbal remedies, attitude toward hormone therapy, and qualitative research; and ancestral bibliographies. Study Selection: Articles from indexed journals from 1982 to 2001 in the English language relevant to the keywords were evaluated. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Data Extraction: Study findings were organized into several categories and compared and contrasted across publications and categories. Data Synthesis: Half of the researchers described decision making as a weighing of benefits and risks. Women's considerations, beliefs, and values, as well as interaction with the environment, were primary influences on the process. Conclusions: Major gaps in care for midlife women were identified. Women need information about the process of menopause and the range of available options for menopause management. Nurses can play a major role in providing information, counseling, and developing decision aids. Women's values and beliefs, cultures, life contexts, and desire for involvement in the decision should guide interventions. [source]

Uterine preservation in a woman with spontaneous uterine rupture secondary to placenta percreta on the posterior wall: A case report

Le-Ming Wang
Abstract Several cases in which uteruses have been preserved in women with placenta percreta have been reported. We herein report a 38-year-old woman with a history of previous cesarean section who was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding at 31 weeks of gestation. An urgent exploratory laparotomy revealed active bleeding from the uterine rupture on the posterior uterine wall. A female infant weighing 1560 g, with Apgar scores of 1, 1, and 3 at 1, 5, and 10 min, respectively, was delivered, and the placenta was removed. We performed bilateral uterine vessel occlusion, followed by wedge resection of the ruptured uterine wall with the aid of an intrauterine muscle injection of 20 IU oxytocin, a local injection of diluted vasopressin (1:60) into the myometrium around and into the rupture site, and an intramuscular injection of 0.2 mg methylergonovine, primary repair of the defect, and an additional 24-h postoperative oxytocin infusion (30 IU in 5% dextrose 500 mL) to preserve the uterus successfully. Although the overall blood loss was 3700 mL, no disseminated intravascular coagulopathy occurred after the patient had received adequate blood transfusion. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was placenta percreta with uterine rupture. The patient and her baby were discharged uneventfully. In some cases of spontaneous uterine rupture secondary to placenta percreta, we can preserve the uterus by performing bilateral uterine vessel occlusion and wedge resection of the ruptured uterine wall. [source]

Intrauterine treatment for an acardiac twin with alcohol injection into the umbilical artery

Theera Tongsong
Abstract An acardiac twin is a unique complication of monochorionic twinning, in which a normal pump twin perfuses the acardiac twin. The mortality rate of the pump twin is greater than 50%. Herein we present the successful treatment of an acardiac twin with alcoholization as follows. An acardiac twin was diagnosed at 24 weeks gestation. Circulation interruption of the acardiac twin was successfully achieved by injection of absolute alcohol (5 mL) into the intra-abdominal umbilical artery. Serial ultrasound after the procedure revealed normal growth of the pump twin, whereas the acardiac twin was shrinking. Spontaneous premature delivery at 34 weeks gestation resulted in a normal surviving female baby weighing 2410 g and an acardiac female fetus weighing 300 g. This experience suggests that this simple technique may be an alternative treatment for an acardiac twin. [source]

Stimulatory Effect of N -Methyltyramine, a Congener of Beer, on Pancreatic Secretion in Conscious Rats

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2010
Eri Tsutsumi
Background:, Alcoholic beverages stimulate gastric acid secretion and increase the appetite. Although ingested ethanol stimulates pancreatic secretion, alcoholic beverages contain several congeners. N -methyltyramine (NMT) was isolated from beer as a factor in stimulating gastric acid secretion. In this study, we examined NMT to determine whether the congener stimulated pancreatic secretion in conscious rats. Methods:, Cannulae were inserted into male Wistar rats to separately drain bile and pancreatic secretions: 2 duodenal cannulae, a gastric cannula, and an external jugular vein cannula. The rats were placed in modified Bollman-type restraint cages. After a 4-day recovery period, experiments were conducted on unanesthetized rats. Different concentrations of NMT (5, 25, and 50 ,g/kg) solutions were infused into the stomach. To examine the mechanism, the effects of the proton pump inhibitor, cholecystokinin (CCK-BR) antagonist (YM022), CCK-AR antagonist (CR1505), and atropine were administered prior to the NMT (25 ,g/kg) infusion. The effect of intravenous infusion of NMT (7.5 ,g/kg) was then determined. Moreover, dispersed acini were prepared, and the effect of different concentrations of NMT on amylase release was determined. Results:, Intragastric administration of NMT significantly increased pancreatic exocrine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Atropine eliminated the stimulatory effect of NMT, but the infusion of the proton pump inhibitor, YM022, and CR1505 did not. Intravenous infusion of NMT did not affect pancreatic secretion, and NMT did not stimulate amylase release in vitro. Conclusions:,N -methyltyramine stimulates pancreatic secretion via the cholinergic gastro-pancreatic reflex. The NMT content in beer was 2 mg/l, so that if a person weighing 60 kg consumes a 750 ml of beer, 25 ,g/kg NMT will be ingested. Therefore, the stimulatory effect of beer on pancreatic secretion was produced not only by ethanol but also by the congener, NMT. [source]

Clinical evaluation of a valveless non-absorber breathing system in spontaneously breathing canine patients

D. J. Holden
A valveless non-absorber breathing system novel to veterinary anaesthesia is described. The performance of this system was evaluated in 35 anaesthetised spontaneously breathing dogs weighing between 2,1 and 56 kg. Fresh gas flows were reduced incrementally until rebreathing (defined as an increase in end-Inspired carbon dioxide tension above 0.2 per cent) started to occur, as measured by capnography. A significant relationship (P<0.0001) between critical fresh gas flow and bodyweight was determined, and a mean critical fresh gas flow rate of 145 ±21 ml/kg/minute was derived for 15 dogs weighing 10 kg or less (mean 6.7 ±2.6 kg) and one of 98 ±16 ml/kg/minute for the remaining 20 dogs weighing 11 kg or greater (mean 30.2 ±13.9 kg). The fresh gas requirements for each group were found to differ significantly (P<0.0001), although the correlation between critical fresh gas flow and bodyweight was not Significant (P=0.054) in the dogs weighing 10 kg or less. It is suggested that the system may prove an economical and useful addition to the breathing systems currently used in canine anaesthesia. [source]

The influence of extreme body weight on clinical outcome of patients with venous thromboembolism: findings from a prospective registry (RIETE)

Summary.,Background:,Data evaluating the safety of using weight-based dosing of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in either underweight or obese patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) are limited. Thus, recommendations based on evidence from clinical trials might not be suitable for patients with extreme body weight. Patients and Methods:,Patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic acute VTE are consecutively enrolled into the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) registry. For this analysis, data from patients in the following ranges of body weight were examined: <50, 50,100, and >100 kg. Patient characteristics, underlying conditions, treatment schedules and clinical outcomes during the first 15 days of treatment were compared. Results:,As of August 2004, 8845 patients with acute VTE were enrolled from 94 participating centers. Of these, 169 (1.9%) weighed <50 kg, 8382 (95%) weighed 50,100 kg and 294 (3.3%) weighed >100 kg. Patients weighing <50 kg were more commonly females, were taking non-steriodal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and had severe underlying diseases more often than patients weighing 50,100 kg. Their incidence of overall bleeding complications was significantly higher than in patients weighing 50,100 kg (odds ratio 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2,4.0). Patients weighing >100 kg were younger, most commonly males, and had cancer less often than those weighing 50,100 kg. Incidences of recurrent VTE, fatal pulmonary embolism or major bleeding complications were similar in both groups. Conclusions:,Patients with VTE weighing <50 kg have a significantly higher rate of bleeding complications. The clinical outcome of patients weighing over 100 kg was not significantly different from that in patients weighing 50,100 kg. [source]

Increased serum phosphate levels and calcium fluxes are seen in smaller individuals after a single dose of sodium phosphate colon cleansing solution: a pharmacokinetic analysis

Summary Background, Sodium phosphate containing colonoscopy preparations may cause electrolyte disturbances and calcium-phosphate nephropathy. Decreased body weight is an unexplored risk factor for complications with sodium phosphate ingestion. Aim, To perform a pharmacokinetic analysis of a single dose of Fleet Phospho-Soda in smaller and larger individuals. Methods, Seven subjects weighing <55 kg (Group I) and six weighing >100 kg (Group II) consumed 45 mL Fleet Phospho-Soda. Serum electrolytes were measured. Hydration was closely maintained by monitoring weight, fluid intake and total body water. Results, Marked increases in serum phosphate were seen in Group I compared to Group II. For example, mean serum phosphate at 120 min was 7.8 ± 0.5 mg/dL in Group I and 5.1 ± 0.8 mg/dL in Group II (P < 0.001). Normalized area under the phosphate vs. time curve for Group I was 1120 ± 190 mg/dL*min and 685 ± 136 mg/dL*min for Group II (P < 0.001). Twelve-hour urine calcium was lower in Group I (16.4 ± 7.6 mg) than in Group II (39.2 ± 7.8 mg, P < 0.001). Conclusions, Increased serum phosphate occurs in smaller individuals after ingestion of sodium phosphate preparations, even with strict attention to fluid intake. Smaller body weight poses a potential risk for calcium-phosphate nephropathy. [source]

Medical and surgical management of severe barium aspiration in a dog

Stacy D. Meola DVM
Abstract Objective, To describe the medical and surgical management of a unique case of barium sulfate aspiration pneumonia in a dog. Case Summary, A 5-year-old spayed female black Labrador Retriever weighing 33 kg was presented for evaluation of barium aspiration pneumonia. Approximately 200 mL of barium had been instilled into the caudal lung lobes via an improperly placed orogastric tube. Right caudal, right middle, and accessory lung lobectomies were performed, and the dog was managed intensively for 19 days in the hospital. New or Unique Information Provided, This is the first report of a complete diagnostic work-up including bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, culture, thoracotomy, and pulmonary histopathology for severe barium sulfate aspiration in a dog with an excellent outcome. [source]

Xylitol intoxication associated with fulminant hepatic failure in a dog

Jeffrey M. Todd DVM
Abstract Objective: To describe a case of xylitol intoxication causing fulminant hepatic failure in a dog. Case summary: A 2.5-year-old castrated male English Springer Spaniel weighing 26 kg, was presented after ingestion of half of a loaf of bread containing the sweetener xylitol. Toxic effects of the xylitol in this dog included vomiting, mild hypoglycemia and fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical management of acute hepatic failure and subsequent coagulopathy with supportive care and fresh frozen plasma is described. The dog was discharged 3 days after admission after a full clinical recovery. New or unique information provided: This paper describes the clinical consequence and successful treatment of fulminant hepatic failure in a dog following ingestion of xylitol. [source]

The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors of Left Atrial Pressure in Dogs with Mitral Valve Regurgitation

T. Ishikawa
Background: Despite many epidemiological reports concerning the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR), the hemodynamic effects of ACE inhibitor administration have not been fully evaluated. Objectives: To document left atrial pressure (LAP) in dogs with MR administered ACE inhibitors, in order to obtain interesting information about daily LAP changes with administration of ACE inhibitors. Animals: Five healthy Beagle dogs weighing 9.8 to 14.2 kg (2 males and 3 females; aged 2 years). Methods: Experimental, crossover, and interventional study. Chordae tendineae rupture was induced, and a radiotelemetry transmitter catheter was inserted into the left atrium. LAP was recorded for 72 consecutive hours during which each of 3 ACE inhibitors,enalapril (0.5 mg/kg/d), temocapril (0.1 mg/kg/d), and alacepril (3.0 mg/kg/d),were administered in a crossover study. Results: Averaged diurnal LAP was significantly, but slightly reduced by alacepril (P= .03, 19.03 ± 3.01,18.24 ± 3.07 mmHg). The nightly drops in LAP caused by alacepril and enalapril were significantly higher than the daily drops (P= .03, ,0.98 ± 0.19 to ,0.07 ± 0.25 mmHg, and P= .03, ,0.54 ± 0.21,0.02 ± 0.17 mmHg, respectively), despite the fact that the oral administrations were given in the morning. Systolic blood pressure (122.7 ± 14.4,117.4 ± 13.1 mmHg, P= .04) and systemic vascular resistance (5800 ± 2685,5144 ± 2077 dyne × s/cm5, P= .03) were decreased by ACE inhibitors. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: ACE inhibitors decrease LAP minimally, despite reductions in left ventricular afterload. ACE inhibitors should not be used to decrease LAP. [source]

The Use of Sarmazenil in the Treatment of a Moxidectin Intoxication in a Foal

Jessika-M.V. Müller
A13-day-old Arabian Thoroughbred filly weighing 40 kg (88 1b) was presented to the University of Zurich Equine Clinic with a history of depression after deworming with moxidectin at a dose of 2 mg/kg (recommended dose 0.4 mg/kg body weight)a the day before admission. The foal was found recumbent 12 hours after drug administration and was in an unconscious state 6 hours later [source]

Weight monitoring of breastfed babies in the United Kingdom , interpreting, explaining and intervening

MA (Cantab), Magda Sachs BA
Abstract Weighing infants in their first 6 months is an important aspect of growth monitoring and a common activity of child health care services worldwide. During the same 6 months, support for establishing breastfeeding and the promotion of continued exclusive breastfeeding are important activities of health professionals. Parents and health professionals may perceive conflicts between achieving both robust growth and continuing breastfeeding. In this narrative review, the literature on weighing breastfed babies in the United Kingdom is examined. A companion paper examined issues of growth charts, scales and weighing frequency and accuracy. This paper considers issues of interpretation of the plotted weight values for individual breastfed babies, noting the complexities of growth patterns, which may lead to difficulties of accurate identification of those individuals whose growth merits further investigation. Little attention has been given to issues of explaining the interpreted growth curves to parents and this issue is explored and noted as of importance for further study. Research evidence on choosing appropriate interventions to improve the growth of breastfed babies is reviewed. The paucity of such evidence leads to suggestions for future study. This review gathers together a wide range of literature from many different perspectives, with the hope of informing weight monitoring practice so that this can both identify infants whose weight may be of concern, and who may need appropriate intervention, and support continued breastfeeding. [source]

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a biodegradable chitosan,PLA composite peripheral nerve guide conduit material

MICROSURGERY, Issue 6 2008
Feng Xie M.D., Ph.D.
Chitosan, a nature biodegradable material, has good biocompatibility but poor physical properties to serve as a nerve conduit. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was added to chitosan to form a composite material with improved intensity and elasticity, to be used as nerve conduits. The chitosan,PLA nerve conduits were fabricated with a mold casting/infrared dehydration technique. The constituent ratio of PLA and chitosan of 1:5 (v:v) was chosen to give the composite material both good mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. An in vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the chitosan,PLA material was not cytotoxic. The conduits were proved biodegradable and had many micropores to allow permeability. We evaluated chitosan,PLA nerve conduits as a guidance channel to repair 10 mm gaps in rat sciatic nerves. Nerve autograft and silicon conduits were used as the control. After 12 weeks, the regenerating nerves in three groups succeeded in passing through the nerve gap and reinnervating the muscle. Assessments, including ECG, histomorphometric evaluation, and weighing of triceps calf muscle, showed that the functional recovery of sciatic nerve was better in chitosan,PLA conduit group than in the silicon conduit group (P < 0.05), but the differences between the chitosan,PLA conduit group and the nerve autograft group were not significant (P > 0.05). Therefore, the chitosan,PLA guide proved to be a promising nerve conduit. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008. [source]

A review of the effectiveness of aspartame in helping with weight control

A. De La Hunty
Summary, Strategies to reverse the upward trend in obesity rates need to focus on both reducing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. The provision of low- or reduced-energy-dense foods is one way of helping people to reduce their energy intake and so enable weight maintenance or weight loss to occur. The use of intense sweeteners as a substitute for sucrose potentially offers one way of helping people to reduce the energy density of their diet without any loss of palatability. This report reviews the evidence for the effect of aspartame on weight loss, weight maintenance and energy intakes in adults and addresses the question of how much energy is compensated for and whether the use of aspartame-sweetened foods and drinks is an effective way to lose weight. All studies which examined the effect of substituting sugar with either aspartame alone or aspartame in combination with other intense sweeteners on energy intake or bodyweight were identified. Studies which were not randomised controlled trials in healthy adults and which did not measure energy intakes for at least 24 h (for those with energy intakes as an outcome measure) were excluded from the analysis. A minimum of 24-h energy intake data was set as the cut-off to ensure that the full extent of any compensatory effects was seen. A total of 16 studies were included in the analysis. Of these 16 studies, 15 had energy intake as an outcome measure. The studies which used soft drinks as the vehicle for aspartame used between 500 and about 2000 ml which is equivalent to about two to six cans or bottles of soft drinks every day. A significant reduction in energy intakes was seen with aspartame compared with all types of control except when aspartame was compared with non-sucrose controls such as water. The most relevant comparisons are the parallel design studies which compare the effects of aspartame with sucrose. These had an overall effect size of 0.4 standardised difference (SD). This corresponds to a mean reduction of about 10% of energy intake. At an average energy intake of 9.3 MJ/day (average of adult men and women aged 19,50 years) this is a deficit of 0.93 MJ/day (222 kcal/day or 1560 kcal/week), which would be predicted (using an energy value for obese tissue of 7500 kcal/kg) to result in a weight loss of around 0.2 kg/week with a confidence interval 50% either side of this estimate. Information on the extent of compensation was available for 12 of the 15 studies. The weighted average of these figures was 32%. Compensation is likely to vary with a number of factors such as the size of the caloric deficit, the type of food or drink manipulated, and timescale. An estimate of the amount of compensation with soft drinks was calculated from the four studies which used soft drinks only as the vehicle. A weighted average of these figures was 15.5%. A significant reduction in weight was seen. The combined effect figure of 0.2 SD is a conservative figure as it excludes comparisons where the controls gained weight because of their high-sucrose diet and the long-term follow-up data in which the aspartame groups regained less weight than the control group. An effect of 0.2 SD corresponds to about a 3% reduction in bodyweight (2.3 kg for an adult weighing 75 kg). Given the weighted average study length was 12 weeks, this gives an estimated rate of weight loss of around 0.2 kg/week for a 75-kg adult. The meta-analyses demonstrate that using foods and drinks sweetened with aspartame instead of sucrose results in a significant reduction in both energy intakes and bodyweight. Meta-analyses both of energy intake and of weight loss produced an estimated rate of weight loss of about 0.2 kg/week. This close agreement between the figure calculated from reductions in energy intake and actual measures of weight loss gives confidence that this is a true effect. The two meta-analyses used different sets of studies with widely differing designs and controls. Although this makes comparisons between them difficult, it suggests that the final figure of around 0.2 kg/week is robust and is applicable to the variety of ways aspartame-containing foods are used by consumers. This review has shown that using foods and drinks sweetened with aspartame instead of those sweetened with sucrose is an effective way to maintain and lose weight without reducing the palatability of the diet. The decrease in energy intakes and the rate of weight loss that can reasonably be achieved is low but meaningful and, on a population basis, more than sufficient to counteract the current average rate of weight gain of around 0.007 kg/week. On an individual basis, it provides a useful adjunct to other weight loss regimes. Some compensation for the substituted energy does occur but this is only about one-third of the energy replaced and is probably less when using soft drinks sweetened with aspartame. Nevertheless, these compensation values are derived from short-term studies. More data are needed over the longer term to determine whether a tolerance to the effects is acquired. To achieve the average rate of weight loss seen in these studies of 0.2 kg/week will require around a 220-kcal (0.93 MJ) deficit per day based on an energy value for obese tissue of 7500 kcal/kg. Assuming the higher rate of compensation (32%), this would require the substitution of around 330 kcal/day (1.4 MJ/day) from sucrose with aspartame (which is equivalent to around 88 g of sucrose). Using the lower estimated rate of compensation for soft drinks alone (15.5%) would require the substitution of about 260 kcal/day (1.1 MJ/day) from sucrose with aspartame. This is equivalent to 70 g of sucrose or about two cans of soft drinks every day. [source]