Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Wedge

  • accretionary wedge
  • mantle wedge
  • orogenic wedge

  • Terms modified by Wedge

  • wedge biopsy
  • wedge pressure
  • wedge resection

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Thin End of the Wedge: Foreign Women Professors as Double Strangers in Academia

    Barbara Czarniawska
    The impetus for this study was an observation that many of the first women to obtain chairs at European universities were foreigners. Our initial attempt to provide a statistical picture of this proved impossible, because there were numerous problems deciding the contents of such concepts as ,first', ,university professor' and ,foreigner'. We have therefore focused on four life stories. It turns out that being a ,double stranger', a woman in a masculine profession and a foreigner , is not, as one might think, a cumulative disadvantage. Rather, it seems that these two types of strangeness might cancel out one another, permitting these women a greater degree of success than was allowed their native sisters. This situation however, provides little psychological comfort, hence the metaphor of the wedge: opening the doors but suffering from double pressure. [source]

    Inhibition of Browning on Fresh-cut Pear Wedges by Natural Compounds

    Gemma Oms-Oliu
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical operations such as peeling and cutting during minimal processing involve enzymatic browning of fruit tissue. The objective of this work was to evaluate the individual and combined effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and 4-hexylresorcinol to control pear browning. Browning of fresh-cut pears was prevented by a minimum concentration of 0.75% N-acetyl-L-cysteine up to 28 d at 4°C. Reduced glutathione treatments were also effective along the storage time although browning was observed after 21 d of storage with a dip of 0.75% reduced glutathione. However, ascorbic acid or 4-hexylresorcinol treatments did not seem to completely prevent browning of pear wedges throughout the storage period. An enhanced antibrowning effect was observed when combining both N-acetyl-L-cysteine and reduced glutathione, considering hue angle as color change index. Thus, hue angle reached maximum levels at 1.5% N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or 1.5% glutathione (GSH) and 1% NAC with 1% GSH for 28 d. Besides, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, reduced glutathione and 4-hexylresorcinol completely inhibited polyphenol oxidase activity as well as browning inhibitors slightly reduced firmness of fresh-cut pears. [source]

    Mechanisms of Preventive Effect of Nicorandil on Ischaemia-Induced Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia in Isolated Arterially Perfused Canine Left Ventricular Wedges

    Masamichi Hirose
    We examined effects of nicorandil on the induction of VT during acute myocardial ischaemia. Optical action potentials were recorded from the entire transmural wall of arterially perfused canine left ventricular wedges. Ischaemia was produced by arterial occlusion for 20 min. During endocardial pacing, nicorandil shortened mean action potential duration (APD) in the transmural wall before ischaemia and further shortened it during ischaemia without increasing dispersion of APD. HMR1098, a selective blocker of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K+ channels, inhibited the shortening of APD by nicorandil before and during ischaemia. Ischaemia decreased transmural conduction velocity (CV). Nicorandil partially restored CV to a similar extent in the absence and presence of HMR1098. In contrast, HMR1098 did not suppress the ischaemic conduction slowing in the absence of nicorandil. Nicorandil suppressed the increased dispersion of local CV during ischaemia. Isochrone maps on the initiation of VT showed that reentry in the transmural surface resulted from the excitation of the epicardial region of transmural surface. Nicorandil significantly increased the size of non-excited area in the epicardial region of the transmural wall, thereby significantly reducing the incidence of VT induced during ischaemia. HMR1098 inhibited this effect of nicorandil. These results suggest that nicorandil prevents VT during acute global ischaemia primarily by augmenting the inactivation of epicardial muscle through the activation of sarcolemmal KATP channels. [source]

    What Do Shareholders' Coalitions Really Want?

    Evidence from Italian voting trusts
    This paper studies the effects of having multiple large shareholders who share the control of firms, by analysing a unique dataset of Italian shareholders' agreements (voting trusts). We investigate the separation between ownership and control granted by such agreements, showing that, on average, a voting trust owning 52 per cent of the total company's cash-flow rights is able to exercise up to 87 per cent of the total board rights; the wedge is particularly beneficial to the largest shareholder within the voting trust who is able to get the majority of board rights despite owning only a minority fraction of the company's cash-flow rights. Then, an event-study analysis of a sample of voting trusts' announcements is performed. The results support the "entrenchment effects" hypothesis (Stulz, 1988) linking the ownership structure and the firm value, and are consistent with the view that, in Italy, voting trust agreements are mainly aimed at both protecting controlling shareholders from hostile takeovers and entrenching incumbent management. [source]

    Modified Burow's Wedge Flap for Upper Lateral Lip Defects

    Minh Dang MD
    Background. There are fundamental concepts we use in managing surgical defects. Whether planning a primary closure or a local flap, we frequently modify the basic design to maximize aesthetic outcomes, taking into consideration a number of factors including the location of the defect and tissue availability. Objective. We describe a modified Burow's wedge flap for upper lateral lip defects. Method. Report of an illustrated case. Result. A patient with an upper lip defect was successfully reconstructed using the modified Burow's wedge flap, where the Burrow's wedge is placed on the mucocutaneous lip. Conclusion. Certain modifications of commonly used reconstructive techniques can be utilized in specific situations to enhance cosmesis. For the Burow's wedge flap, the dermatologic surgeon has several options in placing the Burow's triangle. This is an example of how alternatives in a closure can be used depending on the laxity of the skin and the size of the defect. Advantages and disadvantages of this alternative placement of the Burow's triangle are discussed. [source]

    Response of a double-wedge base-isolation device

    J. Enrique Luco
    Abstract A novel base-isolation device is described and its performance is compared with that of a friction pendulum bearing. In its simplest form, the device consists of two wedges sliding on a horizontal plane in opposite directions and constrained from retreating by ratchets or bilinear dampers. The superstructure rests at the intersection of the two wedges. For a sufficiently large horizontal acceleration of the base, the structure starts to move up the inclined plane of one of the wedges, which remains fixed while the second wedge is slaved to follow the structure. As the direction of the base acceleration reverses, the process is reversed and the structure starts to climb on the second inclined plane while the first wedge follows. The overall result is that the horizontal acceleration of the structure is reduced with respect to that of the base and that kinetic energy associated with horizontal velocities is systematically transformed into potential energy. In the case of motion in a vertical plane, the device has the following advantages over a friction pendulum: (i) the sliding surface is linear instead of curved, (ii) kinetic energy is systematically transformed into potential energy during the strong ground motion, and (iii) the device is slowly self-centering. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Kinematic response functions and dynamic stiffnesses of bridge embankments

    Jian Zhang
    Abstract Recognizing that soil,structure interaction affects appreciably the earthquake response of highway overcrossings, this paper compares approximate analytical solutions and finite element results to conclude on a simple procedure that allows for the estimation of the kinematic response functions and dynamic stiffnesses of approach embankments. It is shown that the shear-wedge model yields realistic estimates for the amplification functions of typical embankments and reveals the appropriate levels of dynamic strains which are subsequently used to estimate the stiffness and damping coefficients of embankments. The shear-wedge model is extended to a two-dimensional model in order to calculate the transverse static stiffness of an approach embankment loaded at one end. The formulation leads to a sound closed-form expression for the critical length, Lc, that is the ratio of the transverse static stiffness of an approach embankment and the transverse static stiffness of a unit-width wedge. It is shown through two case studies that the transverse dynamic stiffness (,spring' and ,dashpot') of the approach embankment can be estimated with confidence by multiplying the dynamic stiffness of the unit-width wedge with the critical length, Lc. The paper concludes that the values obtained for the transverse kinematic response function and dynamic stiffness can also be used with confidence to represent the longitudinal kinematic response function and dynamic stiffness, respectively. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2003
    Terry Arthur
    All taxes drive a wedge between the prices consumers pay and prices producers receive, thus promoting inefficient ,do-it-yourself'(DIY) work - not just at home but also in the workplace. [source]

    Why Do Policy Makers Give (Permanent) Power to Policy Advisers?

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2001
    Otto H. Swank
    Using a simple game-theoretical model, this paper analyzes the role of policy advisers in the policy-making process. We show that policy makers are inclined to appoint advisers whose preferences coincide with their own preferences. Furthermore, we show that policy makers are biased towards erecting permanent advisory units. This result stems from the policy makers' desire to affect the actions of their successors. A permanent advisory unit induces future policy makers to act in accordance with the preferences of current policy makers. The policy-makers' bias towards erecting permanent advisory units may drive a wedge between actual policy outcomes and socially desired policy outcomes. [source]

    Effects of 6° elevation of the heels on 3D kinematics of the distal portion of the forelimb in the walking horse

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Understanding of the biomechanical effects of heel elevation remains incomplete because in vivo studies performed with skin markers do not measure the actual movements of the 3 digital joints. Objective: To quantify the effects of 6° heel wedge on the 3-dimensional movements of the 4 distal segments of the forelimb in the walking horse. Methods: Four healthy horses were used. Kinematics of the distal segments was measured invasively with a system based on ultrasonic triangulation. Three-dimensional rotations of the digital joints were calculated by use of a ,joint coordinate system' (JCS). Data obtained with heel wedges were compared to those obtained with standard shoes during the stance phase of the stride. Results: Heel wedges significantly increased maximal flexion of the proximal (PIPJ) and distal (DIPJ) interphalangeal joints and maximal extension (mean ± s.d. +0.8 ± 0.3°) of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ). Extension of the PIPJ and DIPJ was decreased at heel-off. Few effects were observed in extrasagittal planes of movement. Conclusions: Heel wedges affect the sagittal plane kinematics of the 3 digital joints. Potential relevance: Controversial effects previously observed on the MPJ may be explained by the substantial involvement of the PIPJ, which was wrongly neglected in previous studies performed on the moving horse. [source]

    Wedge-shaped conformation of the dorsolateral aspect of the third tarsal bone in the Thoroughbred racehorse is associated with development of slab fractures in this site

    D. H. BAIRD
    Summary Anecdotal evidence suggested that many cases of third tarsal bone (T3) fracture encountered clinically were associated with an abnormal shape to this bone. The radiographs of 10 normal horses and 10 horses affected with slab fracture of T3 were therefore examined to ascertain if any pre-existent radiological abnormality was present in cases of fracture. Measurement of the maximum and minimum width between the proximal and distal articular surfaces of the dorsolateral aspect of this bone was carried out on a standardised dorso-50° medial-palmarolateral radiographic projection of the tarsus of each horse. To avoid artefacts produced by possible image magnification, ratios of these values were used for comparison between horses. The results showed that wedge shaped conformation of T3, in which the articular surfaces of the bone converge and then diverge again on the dorsolateral aspect, was over-represented in the population of horses sustaining T3 fracture when compared to controls. This information may be important in making judgements on the suitability of horses during prepurchase examination for racing. [source]

    Clenbuterol administration does not attenuate the exercise-induced pulmonary arterial, capillary or venous hypertension in strenuously exercising Thoroughbred horses

    Summary The present study was carried out to ascertain whether ,2 -adrenergic receptor stimulation with clenbuterol would attenuate the pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous hypertension in horses performing high-intensity exercise and, in turn, modify the occurrence of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Experiments were carried out on 6 healthy, sound, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses. All horses were studied in the control (no medications) and the clenbuterol (0.8 ,g/kg bwt, i.v.) treatments. The sequence of these treatments was randomised for every horse, and 7 days were allowed between them. Using catheter-tip-transducers whose in-vivo signals were referenced at the point of the left shoulder, right heart/pulmonary vascular pressures were determined at rest, sub-maximal exercise and during galloping at 14.2 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade - a workload that elicited maximal heart rate and induced EIPH in all horses. In the control experiments, incremental exercise resulted in progressive significant increments in right atrial as well as pulmonary arterial, capillary and venous (wedge) pressures and all horses experienced EIPH. Clenbuterol administration to standing horses caused tachycardia, but significant changes in mean right atrial or pulmonary vascular pressures were not observed. During exercise performed after clenbuterol administration, heart rate as well as right atrial and pulmonary arterial, capillary and wedge pressures also increased progressively with increasing work intensity. However, these values were not found to be statistically significantly different from corresponding data in the control study and the incidence of EIPH remained unaffected. Since clenbuterol administration also does not affect the transpulmonary pressure during exercise, it is unlikely that the transmural force exerted onto the blood-gas barrier of exercising horses is altered following i.v. clenbuterol administration at the recommended dosage. [source]

    Crystal structure of the parasite inhibitor chagasin in complex with papain allows identification of structural requirements for broad reactivity and specificity determinants for target proteases

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Izabela Redzynia
    A complex of chagasin, a protein inhibitor from Trypanosoma cruzi, and papain, a classic family C1 cysteine protease, has been crystallized. Kinetic studies revealed that inactivation of papain by chagasin is very fast (kon = 1.5 × 106 m,1·s,1), and results in the formation of a very tight, reversible complex (Ki = 36 pm), with similar or better rate and equilibrium constants than those for cathepsins L and B. The high-resolution crystal structure shows an inhibitory wedge comprising three loops, which forms a number of contacts responsible for the high-affinity binding. Comparison with the structure of papain in complex with human cystatin B reveals that, despite entirely different folding, the two inhibitors utilize very similar atomic interactions, leading to essentially identical affinities for the enzyme. Comparisons of the chagasin,papain complex with high-resolution structures of chagasin in complexes with cathepsin L, cathepsin B and falcipain allowed the creation of a consensus map of the structural features that are important for efficient inhibition of papain-like enzymes. The comparisons also revealed a number of unique interactions that can be used to design enzyme-specific inhibitors. As papain exhibits high structural similarity to the catalytic domain of the T. cruzi enzyme cruzipain, the present chagasin,papain complex provides a reliable model of chagasin,cruzipain interactions. Such information, coupled with our identification of specificity-conferring interactions, should be important for the development of drugs for treatment of the devastating Chagas disease caused by this parasite. [source]

    Amorphous Calcium Carbonate is Stabilized in Confinement

    Christopher J. Stephens
    Abstract Biominerals typically form within localized volumes, affording organisms great control over the mineralization process. The influence of such confinement on crystallization is studied here by precipitating CaCO3 within the confines of an annular wedge, formed around the contact point of two crossed half-cylinders. The cylinders are functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of mercaptohexadecanoic acid on gold. This configuration enables a systematic study of the effects of confinement since the surface separation increases continuously from zero at the contact point to macroscopic (mm) separations. While oriented rhombohedral calcite crystals form at large (>10,µm) separations, particles with irregular morphologies and partial crystallinity are observed as the surface separation approaches the dimensions of the unconfined crystals (5,10,µm). Further increase in the confinement has a significant effect on the crystallization process with flattened amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) particles being formed at micrometer separations. These ACC particles show remarkable stability when maintained within the wedge but rapidly crystallize on separation of the cylinders. A comparison of bulk and surface free-energy terms shows that ACC cannot be thermodynamically stable at these large separations, and the stability is attributed to kinetic factors. This study therefore shows that the environment in which minerals form can have a significant effect on their stability and demonstrates that ACC can be stabilized with respect to the crystalline polymorphs of CaCO3 by confinement alone. That ACC was stabilized at such large (micrometer) separations is striking, and demonstrates the versatility of this strategy, and its potential value in biological systems. [source]

    Funding a PAYG pension system: the case of Italy

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 4 2001
    Lorenzo Forni
    Abstract Italy is characterised by a mature pay-as-you-go social security system and by particularly adverse population projections. Given these trends, the social security contribution rate is expected to increase above its current high level. This hinders the development of employer-provided pension funds and introduces a significant wedge between labour cost and earnings that discourages both labour demand and labour supply. Any proposal to reduce payroll taxes and to reform the system in the direction of partial funding has to cope with the state of Italian public finances. Italy has to comply with the Stability and Growth Pact that imposes constraints on budget deficit and debt trends. Using micro data from the Bank of Italy's Survey of Household Income and Wealth and official population projections, we estimate future employment trends under different demographic and macroeconomic scenarios and compute the cost of the transition. We show that it would be substantially reduced if positive effects on employment were induced by the payroll tax reduction. [source]

    The Thin End of the Wedge: Foreign Women Professors as Double Strangers in Academia

    Barbara Czarniawska
    The impetus for this study was an observation that many of the first women to obtain chairs at European universities were foreigners. Our initial attempt to provide a statistical picture of this proved impossible, because there were numerous problems deciding the contents of such concepts as ,first', ,university professor' and ,foreigner'. We have therefore focused on four life stories. It turns out that being a ,double stranger', a woman in a masculine profession and a foreigner , is not, as one might think, a cumulative disadvantage. Rather, it seems that these two types of strangeness might cancel out one another, permitting these women a greater degree of success than was allowed their native sisters. This situation however, provides little psychological comfort, hence the metaphor of the wedge: opening the doors but suffering from double pressure. [source]

    Aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1-2 2010
    Abstract The general major component composition of aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature conditions can be represented by H2O, different non-polar gases like CO2 and different dissolved metal halides like NaCl or CaCl2. At high pressure, the mutual solubility of H2O and silicate melts increases and also silicates may form essential components of aqueous fluids. Given the huge range of P,T,x regimes in crust and mantle, aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature are highly variable in composition and exhibit specific physicochemical properties. This paper reviews principal phase relations in one- and two-component fluid systems, phase relations and properties of binary and ternary fluid systems, properties of pure H2O at elevated P,T conditions, and aqueous fluids in H2O,silicate systems at high pressure and temperature. At metamorphic conditions, even the physicochemical properties of pure water substantially differ from those at ambient conditions. Under typical mid- to lower-crustal metamorphic conditions, the density of pure H2O is , the ion product Kw = 10,7.5 to approximately 10,12.5, the dielectric constant , = 8,25, and the viscosity , = 0.0001,0.0002 Pa sec compared to , Kw = 10,14, , = 78 and , = 0.001 Pa sec at ambient conditions. Adding dissolved metal halides and non-polar gases to H2O significantly enlarges the pressure,temperature range, where different aqueous fluids may co-exist and leads to potential two-phase fluid conditions under must mid- to lower-crustal P,T conditions. As a result of the increased mutual solubility between aqueous fluids and silicate melts at high pressure, the differences between fluid and melt vanishes and the distinction between fluid and melt becomes obsolete. Both are completely miscible at pressures above the respective critical curve giving rise to so-called supercritical fluids. These supercritical fluids combine comparably low viscosity with high solute contents and are very effective metasomatising agents within the mantle wedge above subduction zones. [source]

    Ophiolite-bearing mélanges in southern Italy

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Luigi Tortorici
    Abstract In southern Italy two ophiolite-bearing belts, respectively involved in the Adria-verging southern Apennines and in the Europe-verging thrust belt of the northern Calabrian Arc, represent the southward extension of the northern Apennines and of ,Alpine Corsica' ophiolitic units, respectively. They form two distinct suture zones, which are characterized by different age of emplacement and opposite sense of tectonic transport. The ophiolite-bearing units of the southern Apennines are represented by broken formation and tectonic mélange associated with remnants of a well-developed accretionary wedge emplaced on top of the Adria continental margin, with an overall NE direction of tectonic transport. These units consist of a Cretaceous-Oligocene matrix, which includes blocks of continental-type rocks and ophiolites with remnants of their original Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic cover. The innermost portion of the accretionary wedge is represented by a polymetamorphosed and polydeformed tectonic units that underwent a Late Oligocene high pressure/low temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism. The northern Calabria ophiolitic-belt is indeed composed of west-verging tectonic slices of oceanic rocks which, embedded between platform carbonate units of a western continental margin at the bottom and the basement crystalline nappes of the Calabrian Arc at the top, are affected by a Late Eocene-Early Oligocene HP/LT metamorphism. The main tectonic features of these two suture zones suggest that they can be interpreted as the result of the closure of two branches of the western Neotethys separated by a continental block that includes the crystalline basement rocks of the Calabrian Arc. We thus suggest that the north-east verging southern Apennine suture constituted by a well-developed accretionary wedge is the result of the closure of a large Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous oceanic domain (the Ligurian Ocean) located between the African (the Adria Block) and European continental margins. The northern Calabria suture derives indeed from the deformation of a very narrow oceanic-floored basin developed during the Mesozoic rifting stages within the European margin separating a small continental ribbon (Calabrian Block) from the main continent. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    P - and S -velocity images of the lithosphere,asthenosphere system in the Central Andes from local-source tomographic inversion

    Ivan Koulakov
    SUMMARY About 50 000 P and S arrival times and 25 000 values of t* recorded at seismic arrays operated in the Central Andes between 20°S and 25°S in the time period from 1994 to 1997 have been used for locating more than 1500 deep and crustal earthquakes and creating 3-D P, S velocity and Qp models. The study volume in the reference model is subdivided into three domains: slab, continental crust and mantle wedge. A starting velocity distribution in each domain is set from a priori information: in the crust it is based on the controlled sources seismic studies; in slab and mantle wedge it is defined using relations between P and S velocities, temperature and composition given by mineral physics. Each iteration of tomographic inversion consists of the following steps: (1) absolute location of sources in 3-D velocity model using P and S arrival times; (2) double-difference relocation of the sources and (3) simultaneous determination of P and S velocity anomalies, P and S station corrections and source parameters by inverting one matrix. Velocity parameters are computed in a mesh with the density of nodes proportional to the ray density with double-sided nodes at the domain boundaries. The next iteration is repeated with the updated velocity model and source parameters obtained at the previous step. Different tests aimed at checking the reliability of the obtained velocity models are presented. In addition, we present the results of inversion for Vp and Vp/Vs parameters, which appear to be practically equivalent to Vp and Vs inversion. A separate inversion for Qp has been performed using the ray paths and source locations in the final velocity model. The resulting Vp, Vs and Qp distributions show complicated, essentially 3-D structure in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. P and S velocities appear to be well correlated, suggesting the important role of variations of composition, temperature, water content and degree of partial melting. [source]

    Contemporary kinematics of the southern Aegean and the Mediterranean Ridge

    Corné Kreemer
    SUMMARY This study focuses on the kinematics of the southern Aegean and the Mediterranean Ridge (MR). A quantification of the deformation of the MR is essential for both evaluating physical models of accretionary wedges in general and for obtaining a self-consistent model of the surface deformation over the entire Nubia,Eurasia (NU,EU) plate boundary zone in the eastern Mediterranean. Previous kinematic studies have not properly considered the deformation field south of the Hellenic arc. Although this study focuses on the deformation field of the MR, we also discuss the kinematics of the southern Aegean, because the geometry and movement of the Hellenic arc determine to a large extent the kinematic boundary conditions for kinematic studies of the MR. We calculate a continuous velocity and strain rate field by interpolating model velocities that are fitted in a least-squares sense to published Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities. In the interpolation, we use information from a detailed data set of onshore and offshore active faulting to place constraints on the expected style and direction of the model strain rate field. In addition, we use the orientations of tracks left by seamounts travelling into the wedge to further constrain the offshore deformation pattern. Our model results highlight the presence of active shear partitioning within the Mediterranean ridge. High compressional strain rates between the ridge crest and the deformation front accommodate approximately 60,70 per cent of the total motion over the wedge, and the outward growth rate of the frontal thrust is , 4 mm yr,1. Strain partitioning within the wedge leads to 19,23 mm yr,1 of dextral motion at the wedge,backstop contact of the western MR, whereas the Pliny and Strabo trenches in the eastern MR accommodate 21,23 mm yr,1 of sinistral motion. The backstop of the western MR is kinematically part of the southern Aegean, which moves as a single block [the Aegean block (AE)] at 33,34 mm yr,1 in the direction of S24°W ± 1° towards stable Nubia (NU). Our model confirms that there is a clear divergence between the western and eastern Hellenic arc and we argue for a causal relation between the outward motion of the arc and the gradient in the regional geoid anomaly. Our results suggest that a significant driving source of the surface velocity field lies south of the Hellenic arc and only for the southeastern Aegean could there be some effect as a result of gravitational collapse associated with density differences within the overriding plate. [source]

    Three-dimensional VP and VP,/VS models of the upper crust in the Friuli area (northeastern Italy)

    G. F. Gentile
    3-D images of P velocity and P - to S -velocity ratio have been produced for the upper crust of the Friuli area (northeastern Italy) using local earthquake tomography. The data consist of 2565 P and 930 S arrival times of high quality. The best-fitting VP and VP,/VS 1-D models were computed before the 3-D inversion. VP was measured on two rock samples representative of the investigated upper layers of the Friuli crust. The tomographic VP model was used for modelling the gravity anomalies, by converting the velocity values into densities along three vertical cross-sections. The computed gravity anomalies were optimized with respect to the observed gravity anomalies. The crust investigated is characterized by sharp lateral and deep VP and VP,/VS anomalies that are associated with the complex geological structure. High VP,/VS values are associated with highly fractured zones related to the main faulting pattern. The relocated seismicity is generally associated with sharp variations in the VP,/VS anomalies. The VP images show a high-velocity body below 6 km depth in the central part of the Friuli area, marked also by strong VP,/VS heterogeneities, and this is interpreted as a tectonic wedge. Comparison with the distribution of earthquakes supports the hypothesis that the tectonic wedge controls most of the seismicity and can be considered to be the main seismogenic zone in the Friuli area. [source]

    Mixed (composite) glandular-endocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder

    HPB, Issue 1 2001
    N Yannakou
    Background A mixed pattern of glandular and neuroendocrine elements is rare in tumours at any site within the gastrointestinal tract but particularly so in the gallbladder. Case outline A 72-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and jaundice and was found to have a large mass in the fundus of the gallbladder. The mass was radically excised to include a wedge of liver and the hepatoduodenal lymph nodes. Histopathological examination of the resected gallbladder showed an invasive tumour composed of both adenocarcinoma and endocrine cell carcinoma, with apparent transitions between them. The patient received no further treatment and died two months later. Discussion There are 14 previous case reports of mixed adeno/endocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder. Histochemical similarities between the two neoplastic components of the present tumour would support their origin from a common precursor cell, but the alternative hypothesis of coincidental neoplastic change in two different cell types cannot be excluded. [source]

    Tectonic control of erosion and sedimentation in the Amazon Basin of Bolivia

    Patrice Baby
    Abstract The western Amazon drainage basin, which extends from southern Colombia to northern Bolivia, comprises the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes and its adjacent foreland basin system. In northern Bolivia, the orogenic wedge of the eastern Andes is very large, and its forward propagation controls the morphology of the Madeira drainage basin. We consider here the erosion and sedimentation mass balance in this part of the Amazon Basin, estimated on the basis of recent sediment yield data, within the current tectonic and geomorphic framework. The total suspended sediment (TSS) flux exported from the present orogenic wedge of northern Bolivia has been estimated at 500,600 million t year,1. More than 50% of the total sediment load crossing the Madeira foreland basin system is deposited. The rest of the sediments (less than 46%) reaches the eastern Amazon Basin, bypassing the Brazilian craton to the north. The average mass of sediment that has been deposited from the late Miocene to the present in the Madeira foreland basin sedimentation system is less than that intercepted today, by a factor of about 2·4. These results can be interpreted as an increase in Bolivian foreland basin flexural subsidence over time, associated with crust thickening and orogenic loading, and accentuated by the growing mass of retained sediments. They are consistent with the uplift rates of the Cordillera Oriental, obtained from fission-track dating, which began increasing significantly around 10,15 Ma. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Numerical modeling of seismic triggering, evolution, and deposition of rapid landslides: Application to Higashi,Takezawa (2004)

    Nikos Gerolymos
    Abstract A mathematical model is developed for the dynamic analysis of earthquake-triggered rapid landslides, considering two mechanically coupled systems: (a) the accelerating deformable body of the slide and (b) the rapidly deforming shear band at the base of the slide. The main body of the slide is considered as a one-phase mixture of Newtonian incompressible fluids and Coulomb solids sliding on a plane of variable inclination. The evolution of the landslide is modeled via a depth-integrated model of the Savage,Hutter type coupled with: (a) a cyclic hysteretic constitutive model of the Bouc,Wen type and (b) Voellmy's rheology for the deformation of the material within the shear band. The original shallow-water equations that govern the landslide motion are appropriately reformulated to account for inertial forces due to seismic loading, and to allow for a smooth transition between the active and the passive state. The capability of the developed model is tested against the Higashi,Takezawa landslide. Triggered by the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu earthquake, the slide produced about 100m displacement of a large wedge from an originally rather mild slope. The mechanism of material softening inside the shear band responsible for the surprisingly large run-out of the landslide is described by a set of equations for grain crushing-induced pore-water pressures. The back-analysis reveals interesting patterns on the flow dynamics, and the numerical results compare well with field observations. It is shown that the mechanism of material softening is a crucial factor for the initiation and evolution of the landslide, while viscoplastic frictional resistance is a key requirement for successfully reproducing the field data. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of the steady-state flow of a compressible viscoplastic medium over a wedge

    Oana Cazacu
    Abstract A new model for calculating the resistance to penetration into geological or geologically derived materials is proposed. We assume steady-state flow of the target material over the penetrator. The target medium is described by a rate dependent constitutive equation that accounts for combined effects of strain rate and compaction on yielding. The wedge-shaped penetrator is considered to be rigid. The influence of the characteristics of the penetrator/target interface, impact velocity, target mechanical properties and nose geometry on the resistance to penetration is investigated. It is found that for low to intermediate impact velocities, accounting for friction results in a blunter optimal wedge geometry for optimal penetration performance. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Numerical evaluation of eigenvalues in notch problems using a region searching method

    Y. Z. Chen
    Abstract This paper presents a method for finding the eigenvalues of some equations, or the zeros of analytic functions. There are two steps in the method. In the first step, integration along the edges of rectangle for an analytic function is performed. From the result of integration, one can know whether the zero exists in the rectangle or not. If the zero of an analytic function exists in the rectangle, we can perform the second step. In the second step, the zero is obtained by iteration. Therefore, the method is called a region searching method. Particular advantage of the suggested method is that the process for finding zero can be visualized. For example, one can clearly indicate the rectangles, which contain the zeros of an analytic function. Three numerical examples are presented. The obtained results are satisfactory even for a complicated case, for example, for finding eigenvalues of a composed wedge of dissimilar materials. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quadratic programming algorithm for wall slip and free boundary pressure condition

    C. W. Wu
    Abstract Wall slip is often observed in a highly sheared fluid film in a solid gap. This makes a difficulty in mathematical analysis for the hydrodynamic effect because fluid velocity at the liquid,solid interfaces is not known a priori. If the gap has a convergent,divergent wedge, a free boundary pressure condition, i.e. Reynolds pressure boundary condition, is usually used in the outlet zone in numerical solution. This paper, based on finite element method and parametric quadratic programming technique, gives a numerical solution technique for a coupled boundary non-linearity of wall slip and free boundary pressure condition. It is found that the numerical error decreases with the number of elements in a negative power law having an index larger than 2. Our method does not need an iterative process and can simultaneously gives rise to fluid film pressure distribution, wall slip velocity and surface shear stress. Wall slip always decreases the hydrodynamic pressure. Large wall slip even causes a null hydrodynamic pressure in a pure sliding solid gap. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A simplified quasi-two-dimensional model for gain optimization in carbon dioxide gasdynamic lasers (GDL)

    A. R. Bahrampour
    Abstract In this paper a simplified quasi-two-dimensional model for small signal gain optimization in gasdynamic laser is introduced. In order to obtain a homogeneous medium with maximum optical gain in the active medium, by nozzle shape formation, the shock occurrence position is controlled and is postponed to some point behind the laser active medium. Then the method of calculus of variation is used to find the supersonic part of the nozzle of a gasdynamic laser with maximum gain in the active medium. The interesting result is that the supersonic part of such a nozzle consists of a wedge as the accelerating part of the nozzle, a smooth surface for the uniformization, and finally a channel for the relaxation of the medium. (The middle section is characterized as the geometrical locus of points whose characteristic curves are concurrent at a certain point.) It is also shown that, overlooking a minor difference in the gain, the nozzle can be chosen to be a shock free one with the ultimate optical uniformity. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dissecting large earthquakes in Japan: Role of arc magma and fluids

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2010
    Dapeng Zhao
    Abstract We synthesized information from recent high-resolution tomographic studies of large crustal earthquakes which occurred in the Japanese Islands during 1995,2008. Prominent anomalies of low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio are revealed in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the mainshock hypocenters, which may reflect arc magma and fluids that are produced by a combination of subducting slab dehydration and corner flow in the mantle wedge. Distribution of 164 crustal earthquakes (M 5.7,8.0) that occurred in Japan during 1885,2008 also shows a correlation with the distribution of low-velocity zones in the crust and uppermost mantle. A qualitative model is proposed to explain the geophysical observations recorded so far in Japan. We consider that the nucleation of a large earthquake is not entirely a mechanical process, but is closely related to the subduction dynamics and physical and chemical properties of materials in the crust and upper mantle; in particular, the arc magma and fluids. [source]

    Geophysical implications of Izu,Bonin mantle wedge hydration from chemical geodynamic modeling

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2010
    Laura B. Hebert
    Abstract Using two-dimensional dynamic models of the Northern Izu,Bonin (NIB) subduction zone, we show that a particular localized low-viscosity (,LV = 3.3 × 1019 , 4.0 × 1020 Pa s), low-density (,, , ,10 kg/m3 relative to ambient mantle) geometry within the wedge is required to match surface observations of topography, gravity, and geoid anomalies. The hydration structure resulting in this low-viscosity, low-density geometry develops due to fluid release into the wedge within a depth interval from 150 to 350 km and is consistent with results from coupled geochemical and geodynamic modeling of the NIB subduction system and from previous uncoupled models of the wedge beneath the Japan arcs. The source of the fluids can be either subducting lithospheric serpentinite or stable hydrous phases in the wedge such as serpentine or chlorite. On the basis of this modeling, predictions can be made as to the specific low-viscosity geometries associated with geophysical surface observables for other subduction zones based on regional subduction parameters such as subducting slab age. [source]